The Death of Argument: Fallacies in Agent Based Reasoning
Springer Science & Business Media, 3 lis 2004 - 378
The present work is a fair record of work I've done on the fallacies and related matters in the fifteen years since 1986. The book may be seen as a sequel to Fallacies: Selected papers 1972-1982, which I wrote with Douglas Walton, and which appeared in 1989 with Foris. This time I am on my own. Douglas Walton has, long since, found his own voice, as the saying has it; and so have I. Both of us greatly value the time we spent performing duets, but we also recognize the attractions of solo work. If I had to characterize the difference that has manifested itself in our later work, I would venture that Walton has strayed more, and I less, from what has come to be called the Woods-Walton Approach to the study of fallacies. Perhaps, on reflection "stray" is not the word for it, inasmuch as Walton's deviation from and my fidelity to the WWA are serious matters of methodological principle. The WWA was always conceived of as a way of handling the analysis of various kinds of fallacious argument or reasoning. It was a response to a particular challenge [Hamblin, 1970]. The challenge was that since logicians had allowed the investigation of fallacious reasoning to fall into disgraceful disarray, it was up to them to put things right. Accordingly, the WWA sought these repairs amidst the rich pluralisms of logic in the 1970s and beyond.
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WHO CARES ABOUT THE FALLACIES?
THE NECESSITY OF FORMALISM
THE INFORMAL CORE OF FORMAL LOGIC
THREATS AND INTIMIDATION
AD BACULUM AND PASCALS WAGER
APPEAL TO FORCE
STANDOFFS IN PUBLIC POLICY
STANDOFFS AND DEMORALIZATION
HOW TO INTERPRET ARGUMENTS
CHARITY CAN WE FIND IT A HOME?
BY PARITY OF REASONING
VERDI IS THE PUCCINI OF MUSIC
AND SO INDEED ARE PERFECT CHEAT
BUTTERCUPS GNPS AND QUARKS
UNIFYING THE FALLACIES?
THE PROBLEM OF ABDUCTION
THE WAY AHEAD?
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abduction abductive reasoning abusive ad hominem analogical argument analogy answer argumentation theory Aristotle Aristotle's baculum arguments believe bias chapter Charity claim cognitive commits common knowledge concept conclusion condition confirmation deductive Definition deontic dialectical discussion Douglas Walton Eemeren and Grootendorst epistemic epistemic communities example fact fallacy theory false Fogelin force five formal gang of eighteen grue Hamblin hasty hominem human idea implication inconsistency induction inference informal logic interesting invalid ISBN justified Laura Bush logical form logicians matter means missing premiss notion option Pascal's Wager practical syllogism pragma-dialectical pragmatically predicate present principle problem Problem of Induction proof proposition prudential argument qualification question Quine rational ravens reasoning relevance requires rule secundum quid semantic sense sentences skeptic Sophistical Refutations Standard Treatment standoff of force strategy structure theoretical theorist thesis things tion traditional fallacies true truth truth functional valid violation Walton Woods wrong