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Introduction and Appendir,
EXPLAINING ITS RELATION TO HIS EXACT PHILOSOPHY,
BY JOHN GILLIES, LL.D.
F.R.S. & S.A. LOND. F.R.S. EDINB.
SOC. INSTIT. PARIS, ET acad. regIÆ GOTTING. corresp.; AND
Magna animi contentio adhibenda est in explicando Aristotele.
CICERO Fragment. Philosoph.
PRINTED FOR T. CADELL, IN THE STRAND;
Motives to this Work.-Growing degeneracy of Literature.
State of public Criticism.. - Aristotle's Rhetoric.-
Its importance as a work of taste, criticism, and history.
Analysis thereof. Its connection with his other
writings. General diffusion of these writings.-History
of their reception in Asia and in Europe. Fanciful
appendages joined to them. - Corrupted by the Popish
Scholastics. Mistaken and vilified by the first Reform-
ers. Subsequent objections made to them. These
objections answered. The difficulties of the Greek
text obviated. Aristotle's consistency and accuracy
Character of Mr. Stewart's Writings. The Paris and
Edinburgh Encyclopedias. - Speculative Philosophy.-
Its nature and use. That of Aristotle, on what grounded.
His Doctrine of Causes mistaken, and misapplied, by
the Schoolmen. His doctrine of the Association of
Ideas, or Custom, mistaken, and misapplied, by modern
Metaphysicians. Their History.-Des Cartes, Hobbes,
combated by Drs. Reid, and Beattie, Lord Kames, and
Mr. Stewart. Bacon, his supposed Reformation in
Philosophy. His real Merits.-His Physical induction
not applicable in Metaphysics.-Locke's Method, wherein.
many original principles. Story of Sir William John-
stone and the Indians. The acknowledged necessity of
returning, in some points, from the school of Locke to
that of Aristotle. - The Materialism of Diderot, Hel-
vetius, Priestley, and Darwin, anticipated and refuted by
the latter. - Transition to his Practical Philosophy. —
Ethics, Politics, and Rhetoric. - The Moral Consti-
tution of Man more correctly explained by him, than
by Clarke, Shaftesbury, Hutchinson, Hume, Smith, or
Paley. — Abstract and Estimate of his Philosophy. -
Rhetoric, natural, how improved into Art. Its connection
Its artificial proofs. - Examples and Enthymemes.—
Likelihoods, Signs, and Tests. Topics general and
special. Three kinds of Oratory. Principal Subjects
of National Deliberation. Analysis of National Pro-
sperity. -Utility differently modified by different Forms
of Government. Demonstrative Oratory. Moral
Beauty. Sources of Eulogy. Judicial Oratory. -
Human Action, seven causes thereof.
Laws Written and Unwritten. - Justice and Equity..
Witnesses Ancient and Contemporary. Contracts.
Oaths with the Propositions or Enthymemes, relative to
Deliberative and Judicial Eloquence; on what their respect-
ive success depends. The three requisites to Persuasion,
independently of Argument. Transition to the Doctrine
of the Passions. Anger; Its Definition Causes
Its natural Subjects and Objects. Love and Hatred.-
Fear. Shame. Pity. - Indignation. — Envy. - Emu-
lation. Passions and Characters, as modified by Age-
Birth Riches Power; and their contraries.
Sources of Argument respectively appropriate to the
three kinds of Oratory. The Topics common to all the
three kinds :—1. The Topic derived from the nature
of contraries; -2. From that of conjugate terms;
3. From relatives; - 4. A fortiori;-5. Parity of reason;
6. From consistency in will and conduct; 7. Ad
hominem ; 8. From definition;-9. From diversity of
signification. - 10. From division. 11. From accumu-
lation of instances; 12. From precedent; 13. From
resolution of the genus into its several species;
14. From consequences ; 15. From the consequents of
contraries. 16. From variance in the opinions of men,
expressed and secret; — 17. From analogy; - 18. From
identifying things with their consequences; - 19. From
inconsistency with previous resolutions ; - 20. From sub-
stituting a probable motive for the real cause; - 21. From
the general causes impelling all human action;
22. From improbability itself; -23. From incongruity;
24. From explaining false appearances; - 25. From
the improbability of the cause to that of the effect;-
26. From the contrast of designs; -27. From incon-
sistency with former actions;-28. From names. Ar-
guments less convincing than Replies; and why. The
most impressive are those that are natural, but not obvious.
jections; their nature and number.