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Paul gives a history of
God's dealings with their fathers
A. D. cir, 45.
18 And * about the time of forty in the land of Canaan, "he divided A. M.cr. 4049. An. Olymp. years ”suffered he their manners in their land to them by lot. eir. CCVI.i. the wilderness.
20 And after that he gave unto cir. CCVI. 1. 19 And when he had destroyed seven nations them judges about the space of four hundred
Exalted the people] Even when they were strangers and therefore proposes that the first words of this verse, in the land, and greatly oppressed, God exalted them ; K2. HETK TAUTA O's ETETT TETFOXOO0915 x@ πεντηκοντα, made them a terror to their enemies, and multiplied them should be referred to the words going before, ver. 17. that greatly.
is, to the time when the God of the children of Israel chose With a high arm] A literal translation of the Hebrew their suthers. phrase ng 1973 bezeroa rumah, with a lifted up arm, to “ Now this tóme wherein God may properly be said to protect them and destroy their enemies. The meaning of the have chosen their fathers, about 450 years before he gave phrase is, a manifest display of the divine power:
them judges, is to be computed from the birth of Isaac, in Verse 18. About the time of forty years] The space of whom God may properly be said to have chosen their fathers; time between their coming out of Egypt, and going into the for God, who had chosen Abraham out of all the people of promised land.
the earth, chose Isaac at this time out of the children of Suffered he their manners] E-50 TO $6.6475 EV AUTO'S; he dealt Abraham, in whose family the covenant was to rest. To indulgently with them : howsoever they behaved towards make this computation evident, let us observe, that from the him, he mercifully bore with, and kindly treated them. birth of Isaac to the birth of Jacob are 60 years ; from But instead of spot 600-7,08%, ACE. some others, with the thence to their going into Egypt, 130; from thence to the Syriac, Arabic, Coptic, Æthiopic, and some of the Fathers, Exodus, 210; from thence to their entrance into Canaan, 10; read
ετρoφοφορησεν, which signifies, he nourished and fed from that to the division of the land, (about which time it is them, or bore them about in his arms, as a tender nurse does probable they began to settle their government by judges,) 7 her child. This reading confirms the margiral conjecture, years : which sums make 447, viz. 60+130-210+40+7= and agrees excellently with the scope of the place; and is a 417. And should this be reckoned from the year before the reading at least of equal value with that in the commonly birth of Isaac, when God established his covenant between received text. Griesbach has admitted it, and excluded the himself and Abraham, and all his seed after him, Gen. xvii. other. Both, when rightly understood, speak nearly the ver. 19. at which time God properly chose their fathers, then same sense; but the latter is the most expressive, and agrees there will be 448 years, which brings it to within two years best with Paul's discourse, and the history to which he of the 450, which is sufficiently exact to bring it within the alludes. See the same form of expression, Num. xi. 12. apostle's us about, or nearly. Exod. xix. 4. Isai. xlvi. 3, 4. and Ixiii. 9.
Some have made the period 452 years; which, though two Verse 19. Destroyed seven nations] The Canaanites, years more than the apostle's round number, is still suffiHittites, Girgasites, Amorites, Ilirites, Peresites and Jebusites. ciently reconcileable with his qualifying particle ws, about. The Rabbins frequently call them 01298 7yaw Shebaah Omoth, And it may be added, that the most correct writers often exthe Seven Nations.
press a sum totally, but not exactly: so, with Demosthenes Verse 20. And after that he gave unto hem judges, about and Plautus, we find that called a talent, where some drachms the space of four hundred and fifty years) This is a most were either wanting or abounding." difficult passage,
and has been termed by Scaliger, Crux The sacred writers often express themselves in the same Chronologorum. The apostle seems here to contradict the way, e. g. He made a molten seu, ten cubits from the one account in 1 Kings vi. 1. And it came to pass in the four hun. brim to the other ; and a line of thirty cubits did compass it 'dred and eightieth year after the children of Israel were come about. Now we know that the circumference of
circle out of the land of Egypt, in the fourth year of Solomon's il is only in round numbers to its diameter 'as three to one ; reign, he began to build the house of the Lord.
but correctly, is considerably more, nearly as 22 to 7. But Sir Norton Knatchbull, in his Annotations upon difficult even the Spirit of God does not see it necessary to enter into texts, has considered the various solutions proposed by such niceties, which would only puzzle, and not instruct the learned men of the difficulty before us; and concludes, that common reader. the words of the apostle should not be understood as mean- Calmet has paraphrased these passages nearly to the same ing how long God gave them judges, but when he gave them; sense : the text may be thus connected, ver. 19. And having
in Egypt, in the wilderness,
under Saul, and under David.
A.M. cir.4019. and fifty years,
A. D. cir. 45.
cir. CCVI. 1.
until Samuel the|| 23 6 Of this man's seed hath God, A.M.cir. 4049. An. Olymp. prophet.
according to his promise, raised An. Olymp. eir. CCV1.1. 21" And afterward they desired a 'unto Israel 'a Saviour, Jesus: king; and God gave unto them Saul the son of 24 "When John had first preached, before his Cis, a man of the tribe of Benjamin, by the coming, the baptism of repentance to all the space of forty years.
people of Israel. 22 And when he had removed him, he 25 And as John fulfilled his course, he said, raised up unto them David to be their king ; to Whom think ye that I am ? I am not he. But whom also he gave testimony, and said, I have behold, there cometh one after me, whose shoes found David the son of Jesse, ' a man after mine of his feet I am not worthy to loose. own heart, which shall fulfil all
26 Men and brethren, children of the stock of
2 1 Sam.3.20. + 1 Sam 8. 5. & 10.1.-e1 Sam. 15. 23, 26, 28. & 16.1. Hos. 13. 11. d1 Sam. 16. 13. 2 Sam. 2. 4. & 5. 3. Ps. 89. 20.1 Sam. 13. 14. ch. 7. 46.- -5 Isai. 11. 1. Luke 1. 32, 69. ch. 2. 30.
Rom. 1. 3.- 2 Sam. 7. 12. Ps. 132. 11. Matt. 1, 21. Rom. 11. 26.
vk Matt. 3. 1. Luke 3. 3. Matt. 3. 11. Mark 1.7. Luke 3. 16. John 1. 20, 27.
destroyed seven nations in the land of Canaan, he divided being a man after God's own heart, will easily appear by their land to them by lot, about 150 years after. And after- comparing 1 Sam. xv. 28. xxviii. 17, 18. i Chron. X. 13, 14. wards he gave them judges, to the time of Samuel the pro- Psal. Ixxviii. 70, &c. Ixxxix. 20, &c.” phet. The paraphrase of Calmet is the following: “ The God Verse 23. Of this man's seed hath God-raised--a Saviour] of this people of Israel chose our fathers in the person of That Jesus Christ came in a direct and indisputable line from Abraham ; he promised him the land of Canaan, and 450 David, according to both promise and prophecy, may be seen Fears after this promise, and the birth of Isaac, who was the in the notes on Matt. i. 1, &c. and particularly in the notes son and heir of the promise, he put them in possession of that at the end of Luke iii. And that the Messiah was promised land, which he had promised so long before.” As this view to come from the family of David, see Isai. xi. 1, 2. and of the subject removes all the principal difficulties, I shall not Jerem. xxiii. 5, 6. trouble my reader with other modes of interpretation.
Verse 21. John--preached the baptism of repentance] On Verse 21. Saul the son of Cis] In all proper names quoted the nature and effects of John's preaching, see the notes on from the Old Testament, we should undoubtedly follow, as Matt. iii. 1, &c. and Luke iii. 10–15. Dearly as possible, the same orthography : w Kish, was the Verse 25. 18 John fulfilled his course] As John was sulname of this king's father, and so we spell it in the Old filling his race, he said, &c. It has been supposed that the Testament ; and yet have transformed it into Cis in the New, / word &populoy course, or race, is used here to point out the where the orthography is almost entirely lost.
short duration of the Baptist's ministry, and the fervent zeal The space of forty years.] Reckoning from the time of his with which he performed it. It signifies properly his minisanointing by Samuel to the time of his death from A. M. 2909 try, or life. A man's work, employment, function, &c. is to 2919.
race, course, or way of life. John had a miniștry from Verse 22. Davida man after mine own heart]. That is, God; and he discharged the duties of it with zeal and dili. a man who would rule the kingdom according to God's will. gence ; bore the fatigues of it with patience and resignation ; Dr. Benson’s observation on this point is very judicious : and was gloriously succossful in it, because the hand of the 6 When it is said that David was d man after God's own Lord was with him. heart, it should be understood not of his private, but of his Verse 26. Men and brethren] This should have been trans. public character. He was a man after God's own heart, be-lated brethren simply. See the note on chap. vii. 2. cause he ruled the people according to the divine will. He Children of the stock of Abraham All ye that are did not allow of idolatry; he did not set up for absolute Jews. power. He was guided in the government of the nation by And whosoever among you feareth God] That is, all ye the taw of Moses, as the standing rule of government, and who were Gentiles, and are now proselytes to the Jewish by the prophet, or the divine oracle, whereby God gave di- religion. rections upon particular emergencies. Whatever Saul's pri- The word of this salvation] The doctrine that contains the Fate character was, he was not a good king in Israel. He promise of deliverance from sin, and the means by which it did not follow the law, the oracle, and the prophet; but is brought about ; all which is founded on Jesus, of the attempted to be absolute, and thereby to subvert the consti- | stock of David, dying and rising again for the salvation of tution of the kingdom. That this was the meaning of David's || Jews and Gentilos.
Paul proclaims salvation through
the death and resurrection of Christ.
A. D. cir. 45.
An. Olymp. cir. CCVI. I.
A. M. cir. 4049. Abraham, and whosoever among you the tree, and laid him in a sepul- A.M. cir: 1949. An. Olymp. feareth God, 'to you is the word of chre. this salvation sent.
30 But God raised him from the dead: 27 For they that dwell at Jerusalem, and their 31 And "he was seen many days of them which rulers, because they knew him not, nor yet came up with him 'from Galilee to Jerusalem, the voices of the prophets · which are read who are his witnesses unto the people. every sabbath day, “they have fulfilled them in 32 And we declare unto you glad tidings, how condemning him.
that the promise which was made unto the 28 ° And though they found no cause of death | fathers, in him, yet desired they Pilate that he should 33 God hath fulfilled the same unto us their be slain.
children, in that he hath raised up Jesus again; 29 5 And when they had fulfilled all that was as it is also written in the second Psalm, Thou written of him, they took him down from | art my Son, this day have I begotten thee.
a Matt. 10. 6. Luke 24. 47. ver.46. ch.3. 26.- _ Luke 23. 31. ch.3. 17. 1 Matt. 28. 6. ch. 2. 24. & 3. 13, 15, 26. & 5. 30. _Matt. 28. 16. 1 Cor. 2. 8. Le ver. 14, 15. ch. 15. 21.- J Luke 24. 20, 44. ch. 26. 92. ch. 1. 3. 1 Cor. 15. 5, 6, 7.- ch. 1.11.-" ch. 1. 8. & 2. 32. & 9. 15. & 28. 23. Lo Matt. 27. 22. Mark 15. 13, 14. Luke 23. 21, 22. John 19.
& 5. 32. Gen. 3. 15. & 19. 3. & 22. 18. ch. 26. 6. Rom. 4. 13. Gal. 3. fch. 3. 13, 14. Luke 18. 31. & 24.44. John 19. 28, 30, 36, 37. || 16.- - Ps. 2.7. Hebr. 1.5. & 5. 5. h Matt. 27. 59. Mark 15. 46. Luke 23. 53. John 19. 38.
Verse 27. Because they knew him not] A gentle excuse but not, in my opinion, on sufficient evidence. The reason for the persecuting high-priests, &c. They did not know that of these various readings is sufficiently evident to those who Jesus was the Christ, because they did not know the pro- are acquainted with llebrew MSS. In many of these, two phets : and why did they not know the prophets, which were Psalms are often written as one ; and the first and second read every sabbath-day? Because they did not desire to know | Psalms are written as one in seven of Kennicotts and De his will ; and therefore they knew not the doctrine of God: Rossi's MSS. Those who possessed such MSS. would say, nor did they know that in condemning Christ, they fulfilled as it is written in the first Psalm : those who referred to those very Scriptures which were read every sabbath-day in | MSS. where the two Psalms were separate, would say, in the their synagogues.
SECOND Psalm ; as they would find the quotation in quesVerse 28. They found no cause of dealh in him] No reason tion in the first verse of the second Psalm. There is, there. why he should be condemned. Though they accused him of fore, neither contradiction nor difficulty here; and it is no several things, yet they could not substantiate the most tri- matter which reading we prefer, as it depends on the simple fling charge against him ; and yet, in opposition to all justice circumstance, whether we consider these two Psalms as parts and equity, desired Pilate to put him to death! This paints of one and the same; or whether we consider them as two their perfidy in the strongest light.
distinct Psalms. Verse 29. They took him down from the tree] The apostle Thou art my Son, this day have I begotten thee.] It has passes rapidly over several circumstances of his death, that he || been disputed, whether this text should be understood of the might establish the fact of his resurrection.
incarnation, or of the resurrection of our Lord. If under. Verse 30. But God raised him from the dead] And thus stood of his incarnation, it can mean no more than this, that gave the fullest proof of his innocence. God alone can raise the human nature of our blessed Lord was begotten by the the dead; and he would not work a miracle so very extra- energy of the Holy Spirit in the womb of the blessed Virgin; ordinary, but on some extraordinary occasion.
for as to his divine nature, which is allowed to be God, it Verse 31. He was seen many days, &c.] The thing was could neither be crcated nor begotten. See some reasons ofdone but a very short time since; and many of the witnesses | fered for this on Luke i. 35. and if those be deemed insufare still alive, and ready to attest the fact of this resurrection ficient, a thousand more may be added. But in the above in the most unequivocal manner.
reasons it is demonstrated, that the doctrine of the eternal Verse 32. We declare unto you glad tidings] We proclaim | Sonship of Christ is absolutely irreconcileable to reason, and that gospel to you, which is the fulfilment of the promise | contradictory to itself. Eternity is that which has had no made unto the Fathers.
beginning, nor stands in any reference to time : Son supVerse 33. Written in the second Psalm] Instead of tw baruw | poses time, generation, and father; and time also antecedent TW PEUTEPW, the second Psalm ; TpWtw paruw, the first Psalm | to such generation : therefore the conjunction of these tw is the reading of D. and its Itala Version, and several of the terms, Son and eternity, is absolutely impossible, as they primitive Fathers. Griesbach has received it into the text; llimply essentially different and opposite ideas.
The prophecies concerning Christ's death, CHAP. XIII.
and resurrection from the dead.
A.M. cir. 1049,
A. D. cir. 45. An. Olymp. cir. CCVI.1.
cir. CCVI. 1.
34 And as concerning that he raised and was laid unto his fathers, and saw A.M.cir. 4019. An. Olymp. him up from the dead, now no more corruption :
to return to corruption, he said on 37 But he, whom God raised again, this wise, 'I will give you the sure mercies of saw no corruption. David.
38 Be it known unto you therefore, men and 35 Wherefore he saith also in another psalm, brethren, that 'through this man is preached * Thou shalt not suffer thine Holy One to see unto you the forgiveness of sins : corruption.
39 And 5 by him, all that believe, are justified 36 For David, ' after he had served his own from all things, from which ye could not be jusgeneration by the will of God, o fell on sleep, tified by the law of Moses.
a Isai. 55. 3.- ch Gr. rà orice holy, or, just things: which word the he had in his own age served the will of God. ver. 22. Ps. 78. 72.LXX. both in the place of Isai. 55. 3. and in many others, use for that • 1 Kings 2. 10. ch. 2. 29.- Jer. 31. 34. Dan. 9. 24. Luke 24. 47. which is in the Hebrew, mercies.- Ps. 16. 10. ch. 2. 31. Or, after 1 John 2. 12.-- -5 Isai, 53. 11. Roin. 3. 28. & 8. 3. Hebr. 7. 19,
If the passage in question be understood of the resurrection are the sure and sacred things, of which Isaiah, lv. 3. speaks; of Christ, it points out that the human nature, which was and Luke in this place. And Paul understood them as reproduced by the power of God in the womb of the Virgin, lating to the kingdom of Jesus, (the Son of David,) which and which was the Son of God, could see no corruption; and was to be an everlasting kingdom; and if an everlasting one, therefore, though it died for sin, must be raised from the then it was necessary that Jesus should have been (as he was) dead before it saw corruption. Thus God owned that human raised from the dead: and to support this argument, Paul, in nature to be peculiarly his own; and therefore Jesus Christ the next verse, strengthens it with another, drawn from Psalm was declared to be the Son of God with power, by the resur- xvi. ver. 10.” See also the note among the marginal readings. rection from the dead, Rom. i. 4.
Verse 36. David-fell on sleep-and saw corruption.] Verse 34. No more to return to corruption] To the grave, David died, was buried, and never rose again ; therefore, to death, the place and state of corruption ; for so we should David cannot be the person spoken of here : the words are understand the word &ra plocar in the text,
true of some other person; and they can be applied to Jesus The sure mercies of David.] Ta dola A2668 TO 1154. Christ only; and in him they are most exactly fulfilled. See These words are quoted literatim from the Septuagint Version the notes on chap. ii. 29, 30, &c. of Isai. Ir. 3. where the Hebrew is d'JOX37 719 70n chasdey Verse 38. Be it known unto you, therefore] This is the David ha-neemanim, of which the Greek is a faithful trans- legitimate conclusion : Seeing the word of God is true, and lation; and which sure mercies of David, St. Paul considers he has promised an endless succession to the seed of. David ; as being fulfilled in the resurrection of Christ. From this seeing David and all his family have failed in reference to the application of the words, it is evident that the apostle con- political kingdom; a spiritual kingdom and a spiritual sucsidered the word David as signifying the Messiuh ; and then cession must be intended, that the sure covenant and all its the sure or faithful mercies, being such as relate to the new blessings may be continued. Again : seeing the person by covenant, and the various blessings promised in it, are evi-, whom this is to be done, is to see no corruption; seeing dently those which are sealed and confirmed to mankind by David has died, and has seen (fallen under the power of) the resurrection of Christ: and i is in this way that the corruption ; seeing Jesus the Christ has wrought all the miapostle applies them. Had there not been the fullest proof; racles which the prophets said he should work; seeing he of the resurrection of Christ, not one of the promises of the has suffered all the indignities which your prophets said he new covenant could have been considered as sure or faithful. must suffer; seeing after his death he has most incontestably If he did not rise from the dead, then, as said the apostle, risen again from the dead, and has not fallen under the your faith and our preaching are vain, 1 Cor. xv. 14. power of corruption—Then he must be the very person in
The following observations of Bp. Pearce are judicious: whom all the predictions are fulfilled; and the person through " For the sense of these words, we must have recourse to whom all the blessings of the covenant must come. what God said to David in 2 Sam. vii. 11, 12, &c. explained Through this man is preached unto you the forgiveness of by what is said in Psal. Ixxxix. 3, 4, 28, 29, 36. where fre- | sins] See the notes on chap. v. 30, 31. Remission of sins, quent mention is made of a covenant established by God, the removal of the power, guilt, and pollution of sin, comes with David, and sworn to by God, that David's seed should alone through this man whom ye crucified, and who is risen endure for ever, and his throne as the days of heaven, and from the dead. as the sun, to all generations. This covenant and this oath Verse 39. And by him] On his account, and through him,
The danger of despising and
rejecting the gospel of Christ.
A. D. cir. 45.
cir. CCVI. 1.
40 Beware, therefore, lest that come 'rish : "for I work a work in your days, A.M.cir.4019. An. Olymp. upon you, which is spoken of in the a work which ye shall in no wise be- An. Olymp. prophets ;
lieve, though a man declare it unto cir. ccvi. I. 41 Behold, ye despisers, and wonder, and pe- you.
a Isai. 29. 14. Hab. 1. 5.
b Isai. 28. 14. Gen, 27.12.
ראו בגוים והביטו והתמהו תמהו כי פעל פעל בימיכם לא תאמינו כי יספר
all that believe in his divine mission, and the end for which carried or sold the rest into captivity. How exactly was the he has been manifested, namely, to put away sin by the sa- prophecy in both cases fulfilled ! crifice of himself; are justified from all things, from the Verse 41. Behold, ye despisers] There is a remarkable guilt of all transgressions committed against God ; from difference here between the Hebrew text in Habakkuk, and which ye could not be justified by the law of Moses; because that in the Septuagint, which is a little abridged here by St. it is impossible that the blood of bulls and goats, and the || Paul. I shall exhibit the three texts : Heb. : ashes of a heifer sprinkling the unclean, or any other rite or service of this kind, could take away sin from the soul, || Reü bagoyim vehabitu vehitammehu ; temahu ki póal póel bi. cancel its guilt in the conscience, or make an atonement to meycem, lo teaminu ki yesupur. Behold ye among the heathen, the divine justice : but this is the sacrifice which God has (nations) and regard, and be astonished; be astonished, for required; this is every way suited to the end for which it I am working a work in your days which, when it shall be has been instituted; and this is the sacrifice alone, which told, ye will not credit. See Houbigant. God can accept. Your law says, 'Do this, and ye shall live;' Sept. Ιδετε οι καταφρονηται, και επιβλεψατε, και θαυμασατε and, “Cursed is every one that continueth not in all things θαυμασια, και αφανισθητες διοτι εργον εγω εργαζομαι εν ταις that are written in the book of the law to do them. Ye ημεραις υμων, ό ου μη πιςευσητε, εαν τις εκδιηγηται υμιν. have not done these things required ; ye have not continued See, ye despisers, and look attentively, and be astonished, in any good thing ; ye have not only, not done all things (or hide yourselves), for I work a work in your days which, commanded, but ye have done none, none as they ought to if any one will tell to you, ye will not believe. be done; and therefore, ye are under the curse. The Gos- St. Luke. Ιδετε οι καταφρονηται [και επιβλεψατε] και θαυpel says, Believe on the Lord Jesus ; credit his divine mis- μασατε [θαυμασια] και αφανισθητε οτι εργον εγω εργαζομαι εν sion ; consider his death an atonement for sin ; believe in his ταις ημέραις υμων, εργον ω ου μη πιςευσητε, εαν τις εκδιηγηται resurrection, as a proof that the atonement is made; believe opere. Behold, ye despisers, and wonder, and be astonished, that he suffered, died, and rose again for your justification ; (or hide yourselves,) for I work a work in your days which, and that for his sake God, though he be infinitely just, can if any one will tell unto you, ye will not believe. be the justifier of all who believe in him. By the law of I have taken Luke's quotation from the best MSS. and I Moses, there is neither justification nor salvation : in Jesus have quoted the Septuagint according to the Codex AlexanChrist there are both, and all the sure mercies of David. | drinus : and the quotations are exactly the same, not only in Therefore, believe on the Lord Jesus Christ, and ye shall be words, but almost in letters, with the exception of etibrejustified from all things, from which ye could not be justifica Vate and baunacia, which the evangelist omits; and which by the law of Moses.
I have included in crotchets in the text of St. Luke, merely Verse 40. Beware—lest that come upon you, &c.] If you that the place of the omission may be the better seen. It reject these benefits, now freely offered to you in this preach- | may now be necessary to enquire, how St. Luke and the ing of Christ crucified; you may expect such judgments from Septuagint should substitute ye despisers, for ye among the the hand of God as your forefathers experienced, when, for heathen, in the Hebrew text? their rebellion and their contempt of his benefits, their city Without troubling myself or my readers with laborious was taken, their temple destroyed, and themselves either slain criticisms on these words, with which many learned men by the sword, or carried into captivity. It is evident that St. have loaded the text; I will simply state my opinion, that Paul refers to Habak. i. 5—10. and in those verses the deso- the prophet, instead of D'ua bagoyim, among the heathen, lation by the Chaldeans is foretold. Never was there a pro- wrote d'ua bogulim, despisers, or transgressors : a word phecy more correctly and pointedly applied. These Jews which differs only in a single letter, 7 daleth, for 1 vau ; the did continue to slight the benefits offered to them by the latter of which might easily be mistaken by a transcriber for Lord; and they persevered in their rebellions: what was the the other, especially if the horizontal stroke of the 7 daleth consequence? The Romans came, took their ciiy, burnt happened to be a little faint towards the left; as, in that case, their temple, slew upwards of a million of them, and either it would wear the appearance of a 1 vau; and this is not un