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filling up such vacancy, or of appointing to such new Professorship, lapses to the Chancellor. No person, being at the time a member of the Council, shall be nominated by the Council to any Professorship.

Except so far as is otherwise provided by Act of Parliament, or by direction of private founders, any proposed new rules or regulations respecting studies, lectures, and examinations (other than those connected with the School of Divinity, with which the Council has no authority to interfere), and also any proposed new rules or regulations respecting the qualifications, duties, and tenure of office of any Professor in any Professorship now existing, or hereafter to be constituted, except the Professors and Professorships connected with the said School of Divinity, and any proposed alterations in any existing rules or regulations respecting such studies, lectures, and examinations, qualifications, duties, and tenure of office, save as aforesaid, require the approval both of the Board, and of the Council.

All such new rules and regulations and alterations in any rules or regulations may be originated either by the Board, or by the Council.

No new Professorship can be created or founded by the Board without the consent of the Council.

§ III. TEACHING.-The Examining Staff consists of the Provost, Fellows, and Professors.

The Lecturing Staff consists of the Junior Fellows and Professors.

The greater part of the teaching in the obligatory Courses in Arts is performed by the Junior Fellows. To Professors selected from among them is entrusted for the most part the instruction which is given in the highest departments of these Courses. Special Lecturers are selected to lecture Candidates for Honors.

From the early Statutes it would seem to have been originally intended that the Fellows should carry on the special instruction required by Students desirous of qualifying themselves for particular Professions. But the growing requirements of the Professional Schools, especially the Medical, prevented this design from being carried out, and the special instruction required for the four Professional Schools of Divinity, Law, Medicine, and Engineering, is now, for the most part, delivered by Professors elected to teach special subjects.

Outside the regular Courses in Arts, and the branches of study required in the Professional Schools, there are various departments of learning for the cultivation of which Professorships have been from time to time founded.

§ IV. DEGREES are publicly conferred by the Chancellor or ViceChancellor, in the Senate or Congregation of the University. The Grace of the House for a Degree in any Faculty having

first been granted by the Board, must pass the Caput before it can be proposed to the rest of the Senate, and each member of the Caput has a negative voice. If no member of the Caput objects, the Proctor, in a prescribed form of words, supplicates the Congregation for their public Grace; and, having collected their suffrages, declares the assent or dissent of the House accordingly; if the placets be the majority, the Candidates for Degrees are presented to the Senate by the Regius Professor of the Faculty in which the Degree is to be taken; or, if it be a Degree in Arts, by one of the Proctors: they then advance in order before the Chancellor, who confers the Degree according to a formula fixed by the University Statutes, and after which the Candidates then subscribe their names in the Register.

Public Commencements for the conferring of Degrees are held four times in each year on days published in the Almanac. A Diploma is sometimes given to those who are fully qualified for a Degree, but whose circumstances may render it inconvenient for them to wait for the public Comitia; but such persons can exercise none of the rights and privileges connected with their Degree until they have appeared at Commencements, and have had the Degree publicly conferred on them by the Chancellor or Vice-Chancellor. An exception to this rule has been made in favour of members of the University who are resident in the Colonies or Foreign Countries. (See page 14.)

A meeting of the Senate for the consideration of names proposed for Honorary Degrees is held at the end of Hilary Term, to which attention is called a week before by notice on the College gate.

The following Regulations with regard to the order to be observed in conferring Degrees at the Public Commencements have been sanctioned by the Vice-Chancellor :—

I. The Chancellor announces the opening of the Comitia. At the Winter Commencements the Senior Master non-regent is elected, on the proposition of the Chancellor and the Provost; and the two Proctors and the Registrar make the statutory affirmation.

II. The Senior Proctor supplicates for the Licenses in Medicine, in Surgery, and in Engineering. The Junior Proctor supplicates for the Degrees of Bachelors in Arts. The Senior Proctor supplicates for the other ordinary Degrees.

III. The Senior Lecturer introduces the Moderators to the Chancellor, who presents them with their Medals. The Senior Lecturer introduces the Respondents to the Chancellor, who presents them with their Certificates.

See the forms of presentation and supplication, and also the forms of suspension and absolution, in the University Statutes.-Stat. Univ. after cap. xi. The forms for conferring Degrees are given in cap. v.

IV. Licenses in Medicine, in Surgery, and in Engineering are conferred.

V. Candidates for Honorary Degrees are presented to the Senate and admitted by the Chancellor.

VI. Candidates for Ordinary Degrees are presented and admitted. Candidates in Arts are presented by the Proctors: other Candidates by the Professors of their respective faculties. In presenting the Candidates the following order is observed :

1. Bachelors in Music who are not Graduates in Arts.

2. Doctors in Music who are not
Graduates in Arts.

3. Bachelors in Arts.
4. Bachelors in Science.

5. Bachelors in Dental Science.
6. Bachelors in Music who are
Graduates in Arts.

7. Bachelors in Engineering.
8. Bachelors in Obstetric Science.
9. Bachelors in Surgery.
10. Bachelors in Medicine.

11. Bachelors in Law.

12. Masters in Dental Science.
13. Masters in Engineering.
14. Masters in Obstetric Science.
15. Masters in Surgery.
16. Masters in Arts.
17. Bachelors in Divinity.
18. Doctors in Music who are
Graduates in Arts.

19. Doctors in Literature.
20. Doctors in Science.
21. Doctors in Medicine.
22. Doctors in Laws.

23. Doctors in Divinity.

No Grace for a Degree will be presented to the Senate unless the Candidate shall have communicated with the Proctor at latest the day before the Commencements.

Terms and Exercises required for the several


TERMS in this University are kept during the Undergraduate Course, either by Lectures or by Examinations. But Terms in Divinity, Law, Medicine, Engineering, Agriculture, and the Army School, must be kept by attendance on the Lectures of the Professors, and therefore require residence either in the College or its vicinity.

To take the Degree of Bachelor of Arts, the Student must keep the Terms required by the Rules of the College. He must pass two stated Examinations-or s-one at the end of his second year, the other at the termination of the University Curriculum.

A Master of Arts must be a B.A. of three years' standing. When the time at which a higher Degree can be taken is said to be reckoned from the taking of the Degree of Bachelor of Arts, or of any Faculty, the time may be reckoned from the date at which, according to the laws and statutes of the University, the Degree of Bachelor might have been taken. Thus a man is of proper standing to take the Degree of M.A. three years after he

has passed the Examination for the B.A. Degree. With this condition, the inferior and superior Degree may be taken on the same day.

The qualifications for the Degree of Bachelor in Science (Sc. B.) shall be research and advanced study in any important branch of Mathematical, Experimental, Natural, or Applied Science.

A Graduate of the University of Dublin, having obtained Moderatorship in Mathematics, Experimental Science, or Natural Science, may present himself for the Degree of Sc. B. one full year after graduation, provided he shall during that year have devoted himself to any important branch of Mathematics, Physics, Natural or Applied Science, both by advanced study and by research. The latter, when of an experimental or observational nature, to be carried on, as far as practicable, in the Laboratories of the College; or in Laboratories recognized by the Board and Council".

A Graduate of any other approved University who possesses a Degree the equivalent of Moderatorship, having spent a full year in residence in the University of Dublin, and having during that time pursued one of the branches of Mathematics, Experimental, or Natural Science by advanced study and research, as defined above, shall be eligible to present himself for the Degree of Sc. B.

A Graduate of the University of Dublin who has not obtained a Moderatorship, or a Graduate of any other approved University, may qualify himself for entry upon the course of study and research by presenting himself at the Moderatorship Examination which embraces the subject of his intended studies, and obtaining such marks thereat as would qualify for Moderatorship.

The Candidate will be required to submit, in writing, to the Registrar of the Board a statement of the course of study and research which he desires to pursue; which statement must meet with the approval of the Board.

The proficiency of the Candidate in the branch of Science which he has selected shall, at the close of his year of study, be tested by Examination. The Examiners shall be selected by the Board, and may include one or more who are not members of the College staff.

The Candidate shall submit to the Registrar of the Board, not less than one fortnight before the date of the Examination, a Thesis (type written or in print) giving an account of his research, and the Board shall submit this Thesis to Referees. The Referees and Examiners shall present a joint report to the Board upon the merits of the Candidate, not less than one week before the date of Conferring of Degrees.

The Laboratories of the Royal College of Science, Dublin, are recognized under this scheme.

The following Scale of Fees for Extern Students preparing for the Sc. B. Degree was agreed to by the Board on April 26,


A. If the candidate proposes to present himself at the Moderatorship Examination in order to get the necessary qualification, he shall pay (a) £3 10s. for each Term prior to qualifying at that Examination during which he attends our Laboratories, being the usual fee for Extern Students in the Physical Laboratory; (b) £9 3s. prior to presenting himself at the Moderatorship Examination; (c) £2 2s. for each Term subsequent to his qualifying at the Moderatorship Examination during which he attends our Laboratories.

B. If the Candidate does not present himself at the Moderatorship Examination, he shall pay £3 10s. for each Term during which he attends our Laboratories, being the usual fee for an Extern Student in the Physical Laboratory.

A Doctor in Science must be a Bachelor of Arts of at least three years' standing. The primary test for the Doctorate shall be original published work in Science submitted by the Candidate. The Examiners appointed to report on the merit of the work submitted by a Candidate shall have power, if they shall consider it necessary, to question the author personally on it or on cognate subjects.

Any graduate applying to the Registrar to have the Private Grace of the Provost and Senior Fellows for the Degree of Doctor of Science or Doctor of Literature must as a preliminary step lodge with the Bursar the sum of Ten Pounds, to be paid to the Examiners who are to inquire into the scientific or literary claims of the applicant: in the event of the Degree being granted, this sum will be allowed in part payment to the Senior Proctor of the fee of twenty-five pounds for the Degree.

A Doctor in Literature must be a Bachelor of Arts of at least three years' standing. The primary test for the doctorate is a work or works submitted by the Candidate, and forming an original contribution to the study of (a) Literature, Ancient or Modern; or (b) Philosophy; or (c) Esthetics; or (d) History; or (e) Archæology. (Works dealing with other departments of study, such as Theology or Law, which possess a special doctorate, should not be submitted for the Litt.D.) The Candidate's work must show evidence of independent inquiry, and must either contain some addition to real knowledge, or present a fresh interpretation of materials already known. It must be of substantial importance, and should, as a rule, be concerned with a single subject. If separate papers or essays are submitted, they should exhibit some unity of aim.

Every Candidate must supply full information authorities and materials which he has used.

as to the

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