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fields ; shall I then go into mine house, to eat and to drink?..
Now take the example of the Apostles. St. Peter was fasting,
Weigh well the following text, which, I am persuaded, many men would deny to be St. Paul's writing, had not a gracious Providence preserved to us the epistle containing it. “ I keep under my body, and bring it into subjection ; lest that by any means, when I have preached to others, I myself should be a cast-away." 1 Cor. ix. 27.
Lastly, Consider the practice of the Primitive Christians.
The following account of the early Christian Fasts, is from Bingham, Antiq. lib. xxi.
THE QUADRAGESIMAL OR LENT FAST.-" The Qhadragesimal Fast be. fore Easter,” says Sozomen, “ some observe six weeks, as the Illyrian and Western Churches, and all Libya, Egypt, and Palestine; others make it seven weeks, as the Constantinopolitans and neighbouring nations as far as Phænicia ; others fast three only of those six or seven weeks, by intervals; others the three weeks next immediately before Easter.”
The manner of observing Lent among those that were piously disposed to observe it, was to abstain from all food ull evening. For anciently a change of diet was not reckoned a fast; but it consisted in perfect abstinence from all sustenance for the whole day till evening:
The Fasts Of The Four SEASONS.—The next Anniversary fasting days were those which were called Jejunia quatuor temporum, the Fasts of the Four Seasons of the Year..... These were at first designed .
..... to beg a blessing of God upon the several seasons of the year, or to return thanks for the benefits received in each of them, or to exercise and purify both body and soul in a more particular manner, at the return of these certain terms of stricter discipline and more extraordinary devotion. [These afterwards became the Ember Fasts.]
Monthly Fasts.-In some places they had also Monthly Fasts throughout the year; except in the two months of July and August ..... because of the sickness of the season.
WEEKLY Fasts.-Besides these they had their Weekly Fasts on Wednesday and Friday, called the Stationary Days, and Half-Fasts, or Fasts of the Fourth and Sixth Days of the Week ..... These Fasts, being of continual use every week throughout the year, except in the Fifty Days between Easter and Pentecost, were not kept with that rigour and strictness which was observed in the time of Lent. .. [but] ordinarily held no longer than 9 o'clock, i.e. 3 in the afternoon."
J. H. N. The Feast of the Circumcision.
be had at TURRILL'S, No. 250, Regent Street, at 3d. per sheet, 11 d. the half sheet, and 1d. per quarter sheet.
W. KING, PRINTER, ST. CLEMENT'S, OXFORD.
Athanasius's Creed ..... ought thoroughly to be received and believed ; for [it] may be proved by most certain warrants of holy Scripture.” - Article vin.
I look back with much pleasure to the visit I had from my friend Mr. Woodnot, the Bristol Merchant I before spoke of.
He staid with me some days, and we had many agreeable rambles and discussions together, which were to me peculiarly interesting, from the wide experience he had had of men and things, and of places too, as he had been often abroad, in Switzerland, in Turkey, and on different parts of the American Continent, where he had spent some years.
Two or three days after our meeting with Richard Nelson, as stated before, we took our walk, (it being a pleasant evening towards the end of August,) along the side of a little stream, which we traced for a mile or two down the valley, returning by a kind of natural terrace, which terminated in my favourite beech-walk. The sun was low when we got here; and we stood still, (it was not far from Nelson's garden hedge,) to admire its rich glow on the opposite side of the valley. I was pointing out to my friend a bold and almost mountainous outline of hills rising in the distance, far to the west in Lancashire, Pendle-hill, as I fancied, and other lofty tracts in the neighbourhood of Clitheroe ; and we were speculating on the distance they might be from us. " Sir," said a voice, which startled
my not observing that
any one was near ; “ Pendle-hill must be full fifty miles off ; what you see is most likely some of the high ground beyond Halifax.”
Why, Richard,” said I, “ What are you doing down there ?" for I could scarcely see more than his head—“ You seem to be making a strong entrenchment round your castle.”
“ I dare say, Sir,” he answered, “ you may wonder what I am about; but at this time of year, when the springs are low, I generally spend an hour, when I have leisure in an evening, in repairing the garden-mound, that it may be fit to stand against the assaults of what I call my two winter enemies.”
“ What can they be?” I asked ; “ I did not know that you had
any enemies." “Yes, Sir, I have,” he replied ; " at least my garden has two, land-floods, and Scotch ponies. Almost every winter, once, if not twice, there is a violent land-flood from the high ground behind the house; and if this ditch were not kept clear, to take the water off immediately, the garden would not recover the damage all the next year. To be
sure, this kind of food does not commonly last many hours; but that is long enough, you know, Sir, to spoil the labour of weeks and months.”
“ That I can understand," I answered; “but how you can be in any alarm about Highland ponies, I cannot imagine.”
Why,” said he, “ you know, Sir, that there is a fair at the town every year, early in the Spring, where a great many of these ponies are bought and sold; and for many years past, Mr. Saveall, the owner of this field, has let it for one day and night to the horsedealer, (a well-known man out of Lincolnshire,) to turn those ponies into, as well as other horses he may have purchased at the fair. The first
I was here, I was not aware of this custom, and had taken no precaution against it; so these little mountaineers got in at a weak place in the hedge during the night, and trod the garden, as one may say, to a mummy. So, to protect myself for the future against such mischievous visitors, I put this fence along, which I was now repairing. And if you will please to look at it, I think you, Sir, will allow that it was not badly contrived, though I say it, who should not say it."
All along the whole length of the garden, (which might be perhaps nearly one hundred yards,) on that side which was next the fuot-path, he had fixed very neatly, about half way up the slope of the ditch on the opposite side, a double indented line of
sharp strong stakes, pointing upwards, presenting a sort of chevaux de frise ; an impenetrable barrier, which no pony, highland or lowland, could possibly get through or over.
We said something in commendation of his skill and precaution : on which he observed ; “ I am glad, Sir, you approve of what I have done; for it has cost me a good deal of labour. And my neighbour, Farmer Yawn, who has been standing by me for the last three quarters of an hour, and went away just as you came up, he says, I am taking a deal of trouble, and very likely for nothing; how can I be sure there will be a land-flood, or that the man will turn in the ponies ? and besides, (says he,) neither landflood nor ponies would stay twelve hours. But I know better, Sir, than to take Mr. Yawn's advice; for if my bit of garden should be ruined for a twelvemonth, it would be no comfort afterwards to think, that perhaps it might not have happened, or that the mischief was quickly done, or that with timely caution it might have been prevented."
After a few more words we wished him a good evening, and walked on for some little way in silence, which my companion put an end to by saying, “ It must be confessed that our friend Nelson is a sensible man ; and not the less so, (added he, with a smile, because I am sure he will agree with me in opinion."
For in the course of our walk we had been discussing rather earnestly the subject of the Athanasian Creed; the question between us not being as to the doctrines contained in it, but as to the expediency of retaining it in the Liturgy, supposing any changes should take place in that also, as in every thing else. Not that there was any real difference of opinion between us on that point either ; but wishing to know his views on the subject, I had been urging the various objections, such of them at least as are most plausible, and had been gratified with observing how little weight he attached to them; and my satisfaction was the greater, because, from his education and profession, as a layman and a merchant, he could not be accused of what have been scornfully designated as “ academical and clerical prejudices.”
In the course of our conversation he had expressed himself most earnestly in favour of the Athanasian Creed; alleging, for this his opinion, various reasons, and among others the following ; “ that he regarded this Creed in the light of a fence or bulwark set up to protect the Truth against all innovations and encroachments ; and that to take it away, particularly in times when popular opinion, or rather feeling, was against it, would be almost high treason against God: (that was his word :) would be, so far as in us lies, wilfully to expose the Truth to be trodden down by its enemies."
“ Now,” said he,“ whilst you were talking to our friend Nelson, it struck me that his care about his garden very aptly expresses our duty in respect of this very subject. For why is this Creed so obnoxious ? simply because it is so strongly and sharply worded ; because it leaves no opening for a semi-socinian or a five-quarter latitudinarian to creep in at; because it presents an insurmountable obstacle to every intruder who would trample under foot the LORD's vineyard.
“ And even if the aspect of things were more favourable, even if there were no sign of danger at hand, I should much rather advise that, like Nelson, we should look forward to probable or possible inroads, than venture to neglect, much less to remove, our fences.
· But,” he continued, “ in the present condition of what is by cuurtesy, (or one might almost say, facetiously,) called the Christian world, it were in my judgment little less than madness to yield so strong a position,--one too, which if once lost can never be recovered.”
And then he referred to what he had before been insisting on, the great mistake made by the American Church in rejecting the Athanasian Creed from her Liturgy; and how, from personal observation during his residence first at New York, and afterwards at Charleston, he was sure the time would come when its loss would be felt and acknowledged by the true sons of that Church. “ And I wish,” added he, as we concluded our walk and our discussion together, “ you would endeavour to ascertain what are the sentiments of our friend Nelson on this subject, for I have no doubt he has turned it over in his mind; and his opinion must certainly be of value, because happily for himself he has not been, I suppose, in the way of hearing the profane absurdities that are daily written and spoken against this inestimable Creed.”
“ Yes," said I, “ whatever his opinions are, I doubt not they