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seen that Education, in some one of altogether inadequate to the object its forms, is not only accessible to all, proposed. And hence our Universities but almost unavoidable by any. That are crowded with pigmy philosophers, it commences at a very early period, who, although they think themselves originating not in any direct legisla- much beyond submitting to any more tive enactment, or state contrivance, humble species of study, are in truth but emanating from a peculiar and quite incapable of reaping any solid felicitous arrangement of society-and advantages from the prelections and that it extends its influence not only metaphysical disquisitions of a Profesto the great and the powerful, but sor. The foundation being thus superstill more effectually and extensively ficially, because hastily and premaover the middle and lower orders— turely laid, the superstructure bethat it opens a door of ambition with comes insecure, and betrays more of in the view of the most unaspiring— the frost-work of hasty and ostentaand excites to excellence the more tious acquirement, than of the solidispirited and generous.

ty and security, which well arranged But the facilities which such ar. and carefully digested knowledge disrangements present, have likewise covers. been discovered to be very capable When praise has been in our power, of abuse. Boys, from the easy access we have given it, we admit, with which they have to early education, something like a feeling of patriotic are pushed on at an early period of pride but where censure has been life into advanced studies-our parish necessary, we have endeavoured to schools are, in many instances, con bestow it in dispassionateness and chaducted with so little classical spirit, or rity; and our suggestions of improveadvantageous arrangement, that many ments have been made with an unasparents are glad to hurry their half- sumed deference to that public opinieducated sons up to College, that they on, under the enlightened judgment, may repair, under a Professor, their and to the unbiassed awards of which, school deficiencies; and in all cases, we now willingly leave the whole sub the period allotted to school acquire- ject. ments appears to be too limited, and

FRENCH BIOGRAPHY.

As a great number of persons are

The individuals, of whom we now mentioned in the narrative of French give sketches, are, events for this year, of whose previous lives our English readers can 1. Duc de Fitz-James. have had no opportunity of gaining 2. Vicomte de Chateaubriand. any very accurate knowledge-per 3. M. Pasquier. sons, indeed, of whom the greater, or 4. Duc de Richelieu, at least a very considerable number, 5. Count Vaublanc. had rarely been mentioned in any 6. M. Lainé. histories of our times, tilt after the 7. Baron Louis. restoration of King Louis we have 8. Duc de La Rochefoucauld. thought that we might be rendering 9. Etienne Duc de Damas-Cruz. an agreeable service, by collecting 10. Count Charles de Damas. from various French works which 11. Count Roger de Damas. have fallen into our hands, the most 12. Baron Maxence de Damas. authentic notices of them. Our ob- 13. Count Philip de Montesquiou. ligations have chiefly been to the ex Fezenzal. cellent book lately published, under 14. The Abbé de Montesquiou-Fc. the name of " Biographie des Hom zenzal. mes Vivants,” the writers of which 15. Count de Choiseul-Gouffier. deserve infinite credit for the exer 16. Duc de Choiseul-Stainville. tions they have made to collect ma 17. Duc de Choiseul. Praslin. terials, with regard to the eminent 18. The Baron de Vitrolles. individuals of this and of many other 19. Mademoiselle d'Orleans. countries, as well as of their own.

DUC DE FITZ-JAMES.

This nobleman was born in the Bishop of Soissons. After having reyear 1776. He is descended from ceived an admirable education, he the royal house of Stuart, being the chose to leave France, where the Regreat-grandson of the famous Mar-volution had commenced, and retire shal Berwick, grandson of Marshal to Italy. In that classical country he Fitz-James, and grand-nephew of the did not idle away his time, but ac

quired new knowledge and accom. ment to be lost. The column was in plishments. After a stay of two years, motion to obey, although eight days however, he joined the army of the before the most solemn promise had princes in Germany, and served with been given that it should never be much honour as aide-de-camp to required of the National Guard to Marshal de Castries. The next coun- pass the barriers. Here M. de Fitztry which he visited was England, to James interposed. Leaving the ranks which he received permission to re and standing on a small eminence, he tire. During his stay in the British harangued the company, and repredominions, he devoted himself to sented in a few words, but with great study-visited the most remarkable force, what conduct they ought in places of the three united kingdoms, their present circumstances to purand found, from the reception which sue. He told them expressly, “ That he received in the Highlands of Scot- it was their duty to disobey—that land, that the name of Stuart is stillve- the safety of the inhabitants of Paris nerated there. M. de Fitz-James mar- would be compromised if they should ried in England Mademoiselle de la advance a single step-that nothing Touche, who has brought him three could be more extravagant than to children. At last, when the revolu- expect that a few thousand citizens, tionary tempest began to calm, he ill-equipped, were able to oppose returned to France; but the proper- those troops, before which the bravest ty which he had left there was passed army in the world had been obliged into other hands, and he lived in an to retire- that if Paris should be enhonourable obscurity. He might, had tered by force, nothing could save he chosen, have done otherwise, for the women and children from the he received the highest offers from fury of a soldiery irritated by the opthe Imperial Government, but per- position they had encountered-in sisted in refusing them. At the close short, that the only end which such of the year 1813, he entered as cor an order as this was calculated to poral into the first legion of the Na- serve, was to sacrifice the capital, and tional Guard of Paris, judging that give a shock to the whole country.” in that situation occasions might oc The speech of the duke had cur in which he could be useful to the desired effect. In vain did some the royal cause. It happened, that of the officers rush forward, preon the 30th of March, 1814, when senting the points of their swords to the battle of Paris took place, he was his breast. Some debating ensued, on service at the barrier of Mous, but the opinion of Fitz-James was seaux. The intention was, that a generally approved of; for, with the desperate attack, commencing with exception of a few of the privates, the National Guard, should be made who were speedy enough in coming against the allied troops, a scheme back, all the battalion remained withwhich appeared likely to involve the in the barrier. Next day, Fitz-James ruin of Paris ; and when he saw some joined the royalists, who shewed to of the guard beginning to skirmish the Emperor Alexander, by their with the Cossacks in the plain, his cries of "Vive le Roi!” and their white anxiety was extreme. At this junc- cockades, that the Bourbops were not ture, the commander of the legion forgotten by the French. The lively appeared with an order, signed Jo- emotions, however, which he felt on seph Buonaparte, to move towards that glorious day, with the agitation the enemy. There was not a mo- which he had suffered before, had

nearly cost him his life ; for he re “ It had been better for him to have turned to his house oppressed by a kept silence; for his letter does not burning fever. The indisposition, disprove the authenticity of that of however, soon left him, and only his son, nor the lies to which I had deprived him of the happiness of as- replied and these were the only sisting at the entrance of Monsieur points of the least importance. into Paris. That prince, who was “Being unable to deny what I affirm, well informed of the proofs which he he has resorted to falsehood, in order had exhibited of his attachment to to injure my character; but the time the royal cause, immediately appoint. is now passed for calumny to remain ed him one of his aides-de-camp. In unrefuted. I am indebted to General this capacity, he had the honour of Bertrand neither for my liberty nor attending the brother of the king in for my life, and I am not a little his journey to the south of France; astonished to hear him called my beand, on returning to Paris, was named nefactor. If I lost my fortune while first gentleman of the bed-chamber to performing my duty, I never was in Monsieur.

circumstances which rendered it neOn the 4th of June, he was created cessary for me to have recourse to a peer of France. When Buonaparte the generosity of any man. landed, he attended Monsieur to “ The general is my brother-in-law, Lyons, and returned with his royal having married my sister-in-law-not higbness to Paris. He then went my unfortunate sister. I never asked with him to Ghent, and was one of his a favour from him, and I lie under suite when he again entered France. no obligation to him whatever. He

In the year 1814, he had received made several attempts to bring me the charge of transacting a delicate over to his master, and from the manpiece of business with the king for ner in which he listened to and apGeneral Bertrand, with whom he was preciated my refusals, I was led to connected by means of bis duchess, think him a man of honour. I was the half-sister of Madame Bertrand. his relation, and frequently met with Towards the end of August, 1815, him, but was never his intimate friend. M. Bertrand de Chateauroux, the ge- I esteemed him for the step which he neral's father, denied the authentici- took, on departing for Elba. He proty of a letter, in which his son en- fessed that he was loyal, and I entrusted the Duc de Fitz-James with tertained no doubts of his sincerity. the business of presenting to his Ma. Thinking that he was incapable of jesty, Louis XVIII. the assurances of breaking his word, I transmitted his his loyalty and devotion, charged the letter to the king, and pledged myduke with ingratitude, and, in sup- self for his fidelity. But the month port of that charge, made many un of March proved how much I had warrantable assertions. The follow- been mistaken with regard to him. ing was the answer of the duke. The man who is guilty of taking false It was dated 7th September, 1815, oaths, and who, fron the dictates of and appeared in the public journals. a criminal ambition, becomes the “ It was impossible for M. Bertrand abetter of odious projects, which end to make any reply, except by insult in the misery of his country, must or declamation, to that which had cease to have any share of my rebeen proved before a notary to be gard; and, however intimate I may true-Declamation is ridiculous-in- have been with him, I can no longer sult will not be able to hurt me. consider him among the number of

my friends. It is a matter of small rished with the most enthusiastical importance to me, in what light my affection in the south, and who is the principles are considered and spoken pride and the glory of all France.” of by the family of M. Bertrand. These In the month of December followprinciples are known to my friends, ing, he was made colonel of the Naand are held in estimation by those tional Horse-Guards, and on that ocwhom I esteem; and certainly there casion addressed a speech to those is no chance of my parting with them, men whom he was appointed to comand of my adopting those principles mand, and who, at the restoration, which have ruined General Bertrand, had been so highly distinguished for and which distinguish those persons their loyalty. “ If,” said he, in con. who perceive in him a model of ho- clusion, “circumstances should render nour and a hero of fidelity.”

it necessary, if the factious should On the 21st of October, he pro once more dare to raise their heads, posed to the Chamber of Peers, that and if an usurper should again shew some testimony should be given to himself amongst us, I would advance the Duke of Angouleme, of the high to the foremost post of danger, and I approbation with which they viewed know that you would all follow me his conduct in the trying juncture of thither.” Here he was interrupted the preceding Mareh.

by the shouts of Vive le Roi, and by “On that occasion,” said he,“when the protestations of the guards, that so many great actions were performed, they would follow him to whatever when so many brilliant instances of place of danger he would conduct energy and of patriotism were to be them. witnessed, such as render us proud of In concluding the account of this the name which we bear, I must place excellent nobleman, we may mention, at the head of those who deserved that the motto which was given to well of their king and of their country, the regiment of Berwick, has been one whose name you are ready to ut. often, and with great justice, quoted ter, and the remembrance of whose as containing the description of his services will never be effaced from character, Semper ubique fidelis.". your hearts--that prince who is che

VICOMTE DE CHATEAUBRIAND.

Francis-Augustus de Chateaubri- the president of that name, and grandand was born in 1769, at Combourg, daughter of the illustrious Malesin the neighbourhood of Frugeres, herbes. and is descended of an ancient family At the commencement of the Reof Bretagne. He embraced the mi- volution, when the army began to Jitary profession by entering the re- mutiny, he left his native country, giment of Navarre (infantry) in 1786, and went to North America. This and next year he was presented to was in the year 1790. Being an enhis Majesty Louis XVI. His eldest thusiastical admirer of the beauties of brother, the Count de Chateaubriand, nature, he buried himself with dewas married about that period to Ma- light in the forests of the new world. demoiselle de Rosambo, daughter of We may easily conceive the powerful

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