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vainly invented, and grounded upon no warranty of Scripture, but rather repugnant to the word of God.” The mildness of this language will be seen presently. Their own writers testify to the modern nature of indulgences, and that they arose out of the novel superstition of purgatory. Thus Cardinal Fisher, Assertion, Luther. Confut. Antwerp, 1523, p. 111. “Multos fortasse movit indulgentiis istis non usque adeo fidere quod earum usus in Ecclesia videatur fuisse recentior, et admodum sero repertus apud Christianos. Quibus ego respondeo, non certo constare a quo primum tradi cæperint. Fuit tamen nonnullus earum usus, (ut aiunt) apud Romanos vetustissimos, quod ex stationibus in urbe frequentatissimis intelligi datur. .. .. Nemo certe . . . . jam dubitat orthodoxus an purgatorium sit, de quo tamen apud priscos illos nulla, vel quam rarissime, fiebat mentio. Sed et Græcis ad hunc usque diem non est creditum purgatorium esse. .... Quamdiu nulla fuerat de purgatorio cura, nemo quæsivit indulgentias; nam ex illo pendet omnis indulgentiarum existimatio : si tollas purgatorium, quorsum indulgentiis opus erit? .... Ceperunt igitur indulgentiæ, postquam ad purgatorii cruciatus aliquamdiu trepidatum est.”

I said that the language of the English Articles is extremely mild in respect to indulgences; few will hesitate to assent to this, when they shall have read the following bulls, which are but specimens indicative of the system which obtained before the Reformation.

Julius IJ. Privilegia Commiss. Fabric. S. Petri. Bullarium,

Rom. 1740. iii. 3. p. 315. “ Universis Christi fidelibus-qui-pias eleemosynas effectualiter posuerint, plenissimam omnium peccatorum suorum remissionem consequantur.”

Leo X. Const. 16. Hospital. B. M. V. Ibid. ibid. p. 420.

$ 17. Omnibus et singulis .... Christi fidelibus qui Archihospitale . . . . in S. Jac. et Concept. B. M. festivitatibus .... visitaverint et pro dictorum .... subsidio . . . . prout sua cuique conscientia dictitaverit, manus porrexerint adjutrices, quotiens id fecerint, totiens plenariam omnium peccatorum suorum, de quibus corde contriti, atque ore confessi fuerint, indulgentiam et remissionem elargimur.

LEO X. Const. 46. Indul. Confrat. Rosarii B. M. V. Ibid. ibid.

p. 495. 8 3. Omnibus et singulis .... dictæ confraternitatis confratribus in singulis quinque B. M. V. præcipuis festivitatibus centum, et quoties per se, vel per alium dictum Rosarium legerent vel legi facerent, seu sabbatis et festivis diebus decantationi Salve Regina interessent 40 dies indulgentiarum.

$ 5. Universis et singulis Christi fidelibus modo prædicto orare volentibus ... pro qualibet vice. . . . pro qualibet quinquagena præfati Psalteriis, quinque annos et totidem quadragenas de injunctis pænitentiis, in Domino relaxavit.

$ 6. Omnibus .... de dicta fraternitate et per hebdomadam dicerent Psalterium B. M. V. plenariam omnium peccatorum suorum remissionem semel in vita, et semel mortis articulo concessit.

$ 7. Eisdem confratribus pro quolibet Rosario centum dies indulgentiarum et .... indulgentiam 40 dierum. ....

§ 10. Singulis ac universis .... dictæ confraternitatis confratribus .... vere pænitent. et Confess. seu Confit. propos. habent. qui ter in hebdomada dictum Rosarium devote oraverint, quod qualibet vice alios decem annos et totidem quadragenas de injunctis pænitentiis relaxamus.

This Psalter consisted of saying “Ave Maria" 150 times, and repeating the Lord's Prayer after every tenth salutation.-Bullarium, iii. p. 3. 172.

Page 340.-(On the Index of Books, the Catechism, Breviary,

and Missal.) Here is the authority for the Index Librorum prohibitorum, the

Catechismus ad Parochos, the Breviarium, and Missale Romanum. But as the Council has not enjoined the reception of all these under anathema, the members of the Church of Rome are not strictly bound to receive more of them than they think fit.

PAGE 341.—(On the Reception and Observation of the Decrees of

the Council.) This is the end of human infallibility! This is her last dying speech, in which she owns it to be possible, and provides accordingly, that she may need a fallible exposition of her infallible decrees, in order to present them infallibly to the fallible judgment of the members of the Church. This burlesque is an appropriate termination to proceedings which are chiefly characterized by daring and impious mockery of religion, and profanation of the name of the Holy Spirit, by whom the handful of mistaken bishops who composed the Council professed to be guided. The result of the reference to his holiness to provide means for the right understanding of the decrees of the Council, has been the appointment of a congregation of Cardinals for that purpose, which still continues. Now, either this congregation is infallible, or it is not. If it be, then infallibility resides somewhere else than in the Pope and a General Council ; but this, I believe, the Romans on this side of the Alps, nor indeed on either side, will not admit. If the congregation be not infallible, then, in any disputed point, the faithful, after all, have nothing but the poor husks of fallible human exposition to feed upon. But even supposing the Council to be infallible, are their expositions less likely to need explanations, or less capable of misinterpretation than the decrees of the infallible council itself? This can hardly be maintained ; but if not, then who is to interpret, infallibly, the disputed expositions of the congregation of Cardinals ? Is it every bishop or every priest? Then either every bishop and presbyter is endowed with infallibility, or the faithful have still to feed upon the poor husks of fallible human exposition. But we may go a step further. Suppose every bishop and presbyter to be infallible, will their expositions be more free from misinterpretation than those of the Cardinals? If not, the faithful are no better off than before, and must have, after all, a fallible understanding of these infallible expositions, unless we admit that every one of the faithful is himself endued with infallibility. And to this, let them shift it how they will, it must come, namely, that either the whole pretence of infallibility is a chimæra, or that every member of the faithful is endowed with it ; for otherwise he cannot, possibly, infallibly understand the teaching of another, however infallible that other may be.

With this I conclude; and, in lieu of general remarks, content myself with referring my readers to the subjoined Appendix, in which they will see at one glance some of the Fathers who are anathematized by the reputed General Councils subsequent to the seventh century.








They, “ being dead, yet speak.”—HEB. xi. 4.

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