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horses in the

him are Avener

| De Auenario. 3

of the Avener. be Aueyner schalle ordeyn prouandet good won, He shall give the For po lordys horsis euerychon;

stable pay schyn haue two cast5 of hay,

two armsful of

hay and a peck of 608 A pek of prouande on a day ;

oats, daily.
Euery horse schalle so muche haue,
At racke and manger þat standes with stane.
A maystur of horsys a squyer þer is,

A Squire is

Master of the 612 Aueyner and ferour yndur hym I-wys;

Horse ; under bose zomen þat olde sadels schyn haue,

and Farrier, þat schyn be last for knyzt and knaue, For yche a hors þat ferroure ? schalle scho, (the Farrier has

a halfpenny a day 616 An halpeny on day he takes hym to;

for every horse he

shoes,) Rents, in kind or money; AS. feorme, food, goods. 2 Or loned.

• The Avener of Edw. IV. is mentioned in H. Ord. p. 69. See the Charge of Henry VIII.'s Stable, A.D. 1526, ib. p. 206-7.

Prouender or menglid corne-fovrraige. . provende. Palsgrave.

5 See “two cast of brede,' 1. 631. One caste of brede' for the Steward's yeoman, H. Ord. p. 56, &c.

6 Mayster of the horses-escvier de escvirie. Palsg.

. See Rogers’s Agriculture and Prices in England, v. 1, p. 280-1. The latest prices he gives for shoeing are in 1400; “ Alton Barnes, Shoeing 5 horses, a year, 6s. 8d. Takley, Shoeing 2 cart horses [a year] 1s. 8d.”

A.D. 1466, 'fore shoyinge ij.d.' Manners and Household Expenses (ed. Dawson Turner), 1841, p. 380. (Sir Jn. Howard, Knt., 1462.9.) The Percy allowance in 1512 was “ij s.


and grooms and pages hired

at 2d. a day, or 3 farthings,

[Fol. 23.) and footmen who run by ladies' bridles.

Vndur ben gromes and pages mony one,
bat ben at wage euerychone;

Som at two pons on a day,
620 And som at üj ob., I zou say ;

Mony of hem fote-men per ben,
pat rennen by þe brydels of ladys shene.

of the Baker.

Out of a London bushel he shall bake 20 loaves, fine and coarse.

De pistore.
of po baker now speke y wylle,
624 And wat longes his office vntylle ;

Of a lunden buschelle he shalle bake
xx louys, I vndur-take ;

Manchet and chet to make brom? bred hard, 628 For chaundeler and grehoundes and huntes


De venatore et suis canibus.

of the Huntsman and his Hounds. He gets a halfpenny a day for every hound.

The Feuterer 2 lots of bread if he has 2 leash of Greyhounds, and a bone for each,

besides perquisites of skins, &c,

A halpeny po hunte takes on þe day
For euery hounde, po sothe to say:

bo vewter, two cast of brede he tase,
632 Two lesshe of grehoundes yf þat he hase;

To yche a bone, þat is to telle,
If I to 30u þe sothe shalle spelle ;

By-syde hys vantage pat may be-falle,
636 Of skynnes and oper thynges with-alle,

bat hunteres con telle better pan I,

her-fore I leue hit wytt[ur]ly. viiij d. every Hors Shoynge for the hole Yere by estimacion, Viz. a Hors to be shodd oons in iij moneths withowt they jornay." p. 24. A horse's daily allowance was 'a Peck of Oats, or 4d. in Breade after iiij Loiffes, 4d. for Provaunder, from 29th Septr. 8 Hen. VIII. to 3rd May following,' p. 266.

1 See Edw. IV.'s Office of Bakehouse, H. Ord. p. 68-70. “The sergeaunt of thys office to make continually of every busshell, halfe chiete halfe rounde, besydes the flowre for the Kinges mouthe, xxvii loves, every one weying, after one daye olde, xxiii ounces of troye weyghtes.' p. 69.

2 Read broun, brown.

of the Euerer or

De aquario.
And speke I wylle of oper mystere
640 bat falles to court, as ze mun here ;

An euwere in halle pere nedys to be,
And chandelew schalle haue and alle napere ;

He schalle gef water to gentilmen, 644 And als in alle zomen.

He has all the
candles and cloths,

and gives water to
every one.

shall kneel down.

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| Qui debent manus lauare et in quorum domibus. Who may wash

his hands, and

where. [ In kynges court and dukes also,

ber zomen schynne wasshe and no mo ;

In duke Ionys house a zoman þer was, 648 For his rewarde prayde suche a grace ;

be duke gete graunt per-of in londe,
Of þe kyng his fader, I vndudurstonde.-(80)
Wosoeuer gefes water in lordys chaunber, The bringer of

Water 652 In presens of lorde or leuedé dere,

He schalle knele downe opon his kne,
Ellys he forzetes his curtasé;
bis euwer schalle hele his lordes borde,

The Ewerer shall

cover the lord's 656 With dowbulle napere at on bare worde :

table with a The seluage to po lordes syde with-inne,

double cloth, the

lower with the And dous sehalle heng þat oper may wynne ;

selvage to the

lord's side; the bo ouer nape schalle dowbulle be layde,

upper cloth shall

be laid double, 660 To po vttur syde pe seluage brade; bo ouer selvage he schalle replye, 2

the upper selvage

turned back as ir As towelle hit were fayrest in hye;

for a towel. Browers3 he schalle cast þer-opon, 664 þat þe lorde schulle clense his fyngers (on),

He shall put on

cleaners for He leuedy and whosener syttes with-inne,

every one. Alle browers schynne haue bothe more and myn. ? In Edward the Fourth's Court, “Knyghts of Household, XII, bachelers sufficiant, and most valient men of that ordre of every countrey' had to serve the King of his bason.' H. Ord. p. 33.

2 Replier, To redouble, to bow, fould, or plait into many doublings. Cotgrave. 3 Napkins? 0. Fr. brueroi is bruyère, heath.

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of the Panter.

He carries 3 loaves cut square for trenchers,

and the covered Saltcellar,

[Fol. 24.)

De panetario.
benne comes Þe pantere with loues thre,
668 bat square are coruyn of trenchour fre,

To sett with-inne and oon with-oute,
And saller y-coueryd and sett in route;

With po ouemast lofe hit shalle be sett,
672 With-oute forthe square, with-outen lett;

Two keruyng knyfes with-oute one,
he thrydde to po lorde, and als a spone.

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De Cultellis domini.
Of bo two po haftes schynne outwarde be,
676 Of be thrydd þe hafte inwarde lays he,

be spony stele per by schalle be layde ;
Moo loues of trenchirres at a brayde

He settes, and seruys euyr in fere
680 To duches his wyne þat is so dere.

Two loues of trenchors and salt þo,
He settes be-fore his son also ;

A lofe of trenchours and salt on last,
684 At bordes ende he settes in hast.

pen brede he brynges, in towelle wrythyn,
Thre lofys of þo wyte schalle be geuyn ;

A chet lofe to po elmys dyshe,
688 Weber he seruyd be with flesshe or fysche;

At aber ende he castes a cope,
Layde down on borde, þe endys plyed vp.
That he

knelande on kne,
692 po keruer hym parys a schyuer so fre;

And touches po louys yn quere a-boute,
po pantere hit etys with-oute dowte;

po euwere thurgh towelle syles 'clene,
696 His water into po bassynges shene ;

bo ouer bassyn þer-on schalle close,

A towelle per-on, as I suppose, 1 ? Du. zijgen (door een zifte ofte Stramijn), to runne (through a Sift or a Strainer.). een Suyle a Pale or a Water-pale. Hexham.

To assay bread, the Panter kneels, the Carver cuts him a slice,

and he eats it.

The Ewerer
strains water into
his basins,
on the upper one
of which is a towel

folded dodgily.

Then the water
is assayed in a
cup of white wood.

The Carver takes up the basins; a knight takes down the towel, and wipes the cup, into which the Carver pours water; the

knight hands it to him; he assays it, and empties the сир

bat folden schalle be with fulle grete lore, 700 Two quarters on lenkethe and sumdele more ;

A qwyte cuppe of tre per-by shalle be,
ber-with bo water assay schalle he;

Quelmes' hit agayn by-fore alle men ; 704 bo keruer pe bassynges tase vp þenne ;

Annaunciande squier, or ellis a knyzt,
po towelle down tase by fulle good ryzt;

bo cuppe he tase in honde also,
708 bo keruer powres wat[er] þe cuppe into;

The knyzt to po keruer haldes anon,
He says hit ar he more schalle doñ;

bo cuppe pen voyde is in po flette, 712 De euwer hit takes with-outen lette.

The towelle two knyzhtis schyn halde in fere,
Be-fore pe lordes sleues, þat ben so dere ;

The ouer bassyn þay halde neuer þe queder, 716 Quylle po keruer powre water in-to be nedur.

For a pype þer is insyde so clene,
hat water deuoydes, of seluer schene;

ben settes he pe nethyr, I vnd[u]rstonde, 720 In þe ouer, and voydes with bothe is honde;

And brynges to be euwer þer he come fro;
To po lordys bordes azayn con go;

And layes iiij trenchours po lordde be-fore, 724 be fyft aboue by good lore;

By hym self thre schalle he dresse,
To cut opon pe lordes messe ;

Smale towelle a-boute his necke shalle bene, 728 To clens his knyfys þat ben so kene,

De Elemosinario.3
The aumenere by bis hathe sayde grace,
And þo almes dysshe hase sett in place;

Ovyr quelmyd or ouer hyllyde. Obvolutus.' P.

Two knights hold the towel before the lord's sleeves, and hold the upper basi, while the Carver pours water into the lower;

then he puts the lower into the upper,and empties both, takes them to the Ewerer, returns to the lord's table, lays 4 trenchers for him, with 1 above. The Carver takes 3 to cut the lord's messes on,

[Fol. 25.) and has a cloth round his neck to wipe his knives on.

of the Almoner.

He says grace, sets down the Alms-uish, and


2 A.S. flett, room, hall. 3 See The Almonry of Henry VIII. A.D. 1526, H. Ord. p. 154, and p. 144; A.D. 1539, H. Ord. p. 239.


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