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THE first intimation that I had of the existence of the CODEX ZACYNTHIUS was through а letter which I received from Dr. PAUL DE LAGARDE of’ Berlin, on the 11th of August, 1858, informing me that a Palimpsest MS., hitherto unused, containing a considerable portion of St. Luke’s Gospel, with a Catena, was in the Library of the British and Foreign Bible Society. This fact had previously been intimated by Dr. de Lagarde in his book, “ De Novo Testamento ad Versionum Orientalium fidem edendo Commentatio.” Leipsic, 1857. Не says, “ Eis codicibus quos omnes norunt addendi sunt libri rescripti duo Londinienses. Horum alterum adservatum inveni in bibliotheca sodaliì tatis ut breviter (Ноет Biblicae: quo quum evangelium выбит contineri perspexissem neque possem impetrare ut mihi concederctur, idoneo homini quid rei esset nunciavi, sed operam me perdidisse video. annus enim nunc quartus agitur, postquam illi hunc Шутит е tenebris protrahendum commendavi. in schedis longe plurimis Lucae evangelium scriptum est, addita in margine Cyrilli explicatione si modo marginem appellare licet qui ipsa pagina. latior est. Sed bene memini admista me videre cyrilleis etiam origeneana non nulla neque Titi nomen deesse, bostreni illius ni fallor qui quae contra Manichaeos disputavit quatuor libris comprehensa. penes me habeo. earum tamen schedarum quibus Lucas scriptus est nulla Origenis vel Titi in fronte nomen gerebat* Ac videbatur Scriptura antiquior satis commode legi posse etiam eis potionibus non adhibitis qui-bus legi et perireT simul codices rescripti Solent. plura de hoc e'ppat'q) addere nequeo: hoe mihi sumo ut hunc Lucae codicem a novi testamenti editoribus inspiciendum esse dicam. nam ut cum Cyrille Alexandrino rem habere huius saeculi homines ab omni iracundia fraude rabie alienissimos puduerit: Lucae evangelium tanti videri debebit ut omnes testes audiantur qui ad eius formam antiquissimam reperiendum accommodari possint.” (pp. 1, 2.) The other MS. to which Dr. de Lagarde refers is the A,Codex Nitriensis R of St. Luke’s Gospel in the British Museum, concerning which he had learned from Dr. CURETON (to whom Biblical scholars are indebted for its (Извечен): who mentions it in his Preface to the Festal Epistles of Athanasius.
After some correspondence with Dr. de Lagarde, and with the ofïicers of the Institution, I went to London, and inspected the MS., which is noted in the Catalogue, and on
"‘ I do not know what this can mean; the names of Origen and Titus do appear as authors of the extracts given in the Catena, in the same pages of E.' as the Sacred text.
1' It should be stated that it is not necessary to injure an ancient MS. in the slightest degree in effecting the chemical restoration of the erased writing, if the proper re-agent be rightly applied. Some MSS., such as the Codex Ephraemi (С), at Paris, and the Gothic Fragments at Milan, are irretrievably spoiled.
1 This will be thankfully owned by Biblical scholars, and especially so when it is remembered how Dr. CUBEToN’s labours have been used without acknowledgement, and appropriated by others ; for instance, in the wholesale adoption of Dr. CUBEroN’s Notes by Cardinal MA1 in his edition of the Гена! Letters of Athanasíus. Saum ступе. ’F See page xxiv. for some further notice of General MACAULAY.
the back, “ 24, Greek Evangelísteríum. Parchment,” (regard being had in this to the later writing only.) I was infomed by Mr. KNOLLEKE, one of the Foreign Secretaries of the Society, that he had brought this MS. to the notice of Dr. de Lagarde: I also learn that it was seen by the late Prof. SCHOLZ, of Bonn, in 1845, but that he was discouraged from even the attempt at collating the buried writing. Even on a cursory examination, the value of the MS. appeared to be great; but as in many parts it was illegible, except in a very good light, and as it would take a considerable time to decipher the Biblical portion, I made application to the Committee, through the Rev. J они MEE, one of the Secretaries, for permission ‘со use the MS. at my own abode. This was kindly granted me (September 6, 1858), and thus I was able to prepare the portion containing the text of St. Luke for publication.
The MS., after a few months, was returned to the Library of the British and Foreign Bible Society.
The book in its present form is of a quarto or small folio size (the leaves measure 11 by 7 inches), and consistsof 176 folios (to which I have afiixed Arabic numbers, as there was previously no pagination), folded in twenty-two quires, each of which is marked in Greek numerals, on the upper corner of the Вт page. The later Writing is a Greek Lectionary from the Four Gospels, and belongs, I suppose, to the thirteenth century. The vellum is generally coarse, and a few of the leaves are torn.
In the beginning there is a piece of paper stuck inside the cover, with this writing, Мин/‚601111011 а'еВйа/штое 'roû Г тёоч l’Arran/¿'25 Kóarrroe. 1820. (sie.) Then, below in pencil, “П Príncipe Comuto, Zante.” Then in ink, “Presented by General Macaulay, November 6, 1821.” This MS. seems, therefore, tb have been given in 1820 to the late General COLIN MACAULAY (brother of the late ZACHARY MACAULAY, uncle therefore of the late Lord MACAULAY),“ who at that time visited Zante and other of the Greek islands, and to have been transferred by him in the following year to its present possessore. There is, I suppose, no trace of its history prior to its having been then in Zante.
The older writing must have been part of a volume of large folio size (14 by 11 inches); for the leaves are now folded across, the later writing running the other way: it consists of eighty-six leaves, and three half leaves, two of which are sewn together to make part of one of the modern quires; and one folio of the later writing (173) is supplied by paper. These leaves are of course now intermixed; but for convenience sake, if ever the book is bound with reference to the ancient writing, I have marked the folios with Roman numerals from i. to lxxxix. Folio i. begins with (apparently) part of a prologue to the Catena accompanying the text, Xprföe'ròv ëv'rúyxavovra'rñöe . . . ending in line 21, ‘rayon/Lara. The verso of that leaf, and folio ii., contain the кефймш of St. Luke’s Gospel. The TEXT of large portions of St. Luke, from the beginning of the Gospel to chap. xi. 33, is accompanied by large Patristic extracts, occupying often the greater part, and at times, the whole of the page. The Text is in round full well-formed Uncial letters, such as I should have had no diíiiculty in ascribing to the sixth century, were it not that the Catena of the same age has the round letters (ееос) so cramped as to appear to belong to the eighth century. There are but few occurrences of accents or breathings; and the fact of their omission must be weighed against that of the form of the letters in the Catena; for in the eighth century their occurrence might have been expected.
There are several notations of sections in the book; the ordinary Imprima or тётка‘, (with the heading either at the top of the page or directly above the text), also numbers which appear to refer to sections in the Catena: these run up to 100 (ß), and then begin againf* These sections are often also noted in the text above the line: where in some cases they are now probably quite hid by the later writing. One of the most remarkable points as to this MS. is the fact that it contains the same chapters as the Vatican MS. similarly numbered. This notation is sometimes in the margin in large Greek letters, and sometimes close to the text, and occasionally in both places. To this Vatican notation there is commonly prefixed the letter Ч", large and formed like a cross. Т he only other document in which I have ever seen this Capitulatio Vaticana is the Vatican Codex itself; nor do I know of its being found elsewhere. It is at least a peculiar feature in this palimpsest. Occasionally the same portion of Scripture occurs more than once when accompanied by a different Patristic extract.
The notation E has been adopted as the reference to this MS., that being the first convenient letter hitherto unappropriated.
The character of the readings of Е, will be seen at once from those differing from the common text ofthe beginning of St’. Luke's gospel. I add in each case a reference to a few of the more important MSS. with which E accords in the readings cited. Luke i. 5, от. таи before Вдаль. [BRL] om. й before 'yum [BCD] fyvv. av-rzp [ВСБЬ]. 7. qu 1'; EMO'. [(B)DL]. (lacuna ver. 10-18 jin.) 20. 'nlmcrůno-owaa 21. eu 'rcp van) av'rov [BL] (lacuna ver. 24-27 пудре). 28. от. ô теме [BL]. (lacuna ver. 28 @meV-_Mn ver. 30. & ver. 33 init.-35 jin). 36. аиуедщфеи [BL].-fy1]pet [АВСВЬ]. 37. 'rou @cov [ВВЬ], 41. 'rov amr. ‘те Map. ‘б EMO'. [BC"DL} 42. крат ‚иву. [BL] 44. ev щади)». то Вреф. (as rec. with BC“DL). 50. as 'yew-:at` ,cat fyeveas [ВС'Ь]. 56. ¿is ‚(тик [ВЪ]. 59. ту ña. 'rg иуд. [ВСВЪ]. 61. ern-au [DL]. 61. en 'me ощутил;- [АВС’Ь]. 62. оп аи беков. 63. om. 'ro before avana [В'Ь]. 66. 'rats карате [DL] (lacuna ver. 66 ical. кар—77 init). chap. ii. l, om. Se [Al-»Tou a1rofypa¢. 2. Карт/аи ut vid. 3. êav'rov томи [ВВЬ]. 4. Naçape'r [ВЬ].
These examples will sutîice to show those who have any acquaintance with Biblical Criticism what is the kind of text found in Е, and how great the aflinity which it bears to the very best codices. lt sustains the same character throughout, as will be seen when its readings are examined.‘|'
The MS. is often very diiiicult to read, but I believe that by examining it in different lights, and using every clear day for about four months, I succeeded in reading and noting every letter in the text of St. Luke: no chemical means were taken for restoring the ancient writing: if this step be needful, the parts requiring it most are those nearly buried in the binding: perhaps the smaller Ран-18:10 writing will not be all read without such restoration.
The following nine Ecclesiastical writers are cited by name at the head of the pages, as the authors of the extracts in the Catena :-“ The Holy John [CHRYSOSTOM] Bishop of'
*F Matthaei in speaking of the Moscow Fragments (see Appendix to this Volume), says, “ Numeri a. ß. г. С. etc., spectant scholia propter quae contextus sacer divisus est in sectiones minores, ut singulae centuriae ab a. ad p. separatim numerarentur.”
‘t The readings from chap. ii. 4, are inserted in my Greek Testament (with a few oversights here corrected), and also in that of Dean ALroBn, vol. i. (ed. 4).
Constantinople,” _four times. ORIGEN, eight times (and once with Basil). EUSEBIUS, once. “ISIDORE, Presbyter, of Pelusium,” once. “ VICTOR, Presbyter,” twice. “ The Holy BASIL,” three times. “The Holy CYRIL,” thirty-eight times. “ The Holy TITUS,” nineteen times. “ The Holy SEVERUS, Abp. of Antioch,” jive times. The mode in which the scribe has дафнией these writers may indicate his Ecclesiastical connections. A later hand (от the original scribe, perhaps from motives of caution) seems to have deleted with some care the name of Severus. l have noticed extracts from CYRIL of Alexandria in E identical (though with better readings) with some of those published by Cardinal MAI, in his Bibliotheca lVova Patrum, vol. ii., and with the Syriac version of the Homilies of Cyril, edited in 1858 from the Nitrian MSS., by the Rev. ROBERT PAYNE SMITH of the Bodleian Library. Some of the pages of E are marked ef ávevrl/ypagboû; others have no indication of the author of the citation; in such cases there appears to be simply a continuation of the previous quotation: of three folios only the lower half is contained in Е.
I do not know of any MS. of equal antiquity accompanied by a Catena; in many respects this most valuable palimpsest is worthy of special attention: it is remarkable that it had remained in this country for nearly forty years unread and unused.
The discovery of this MS., or at least the knowledge of its Text, is a fact of some importance in sacred letters; it is worthy of some notice, even though it may seem to be of small moment when compared with the discovery by Professor TISCIIENDOBF of the New Testament portion of the Codex Sinaiticus; I speak of it as his discovery, for so, as to any availing use of that most important Codex, it is; for its having been seen and described by the Russian Archimandrite Porphyrius in 1846, and also by Major Macdonald, led to no
’results : also it was Tischendorf who, in 1844, himself procured that portion of the LXX.
from this Codex Sinaiticus, which has from that time adorned the University Library at Leipsic, and which was there published under the name of Codex Friderico-Augustanus. The kind of Text found in E leads to some points of important inquiry: was there, or was there not, a kind of text preserved in MSS. containing Смешав, of a peculiarly ancient character? lt has been said, “ The second instance begins an induction,” and here we are prepared thus to proceed. We have in this MS., Е, of the eighth century at least, a higher antiquity than in any such Codex previously known; next there are the Moscow Fragments, 15 of Matthaei (for the text of which and the description, see Appendix to this Volume); these are assigned to the ninth century; and X of the tenth, which contains far the larger part of the Four Gospels. In these three oldest documents of the kind, is found that class of text which Comparative Criticism proves to be the oldest; and in Е and the Moscow Fragments its purity is such that it may be compared to the extant Codices of the fourth century, B and N (Tischendorf's Codex Sinaiticus). Thus, as far as facts and Codices are now known, we may form what might be termed a provisional conclusion, that the oldest MSS. with Catenœ or Scholia (and those of three successive centuries) are monuments of the older text? The fact of the Capitulatio Vaticana being found in Е is here of significance ; for those sections are thus shown to have been once of more extended distribution than if they had been a peculiarity of that oneCodex, B; and as found in Е a
‘f’ It was remarked by МАттнАш that MSS. with Scholia have usually such readings as he (with his peculiar theories) regarded as the worse ; it was his strange notion that these readings crept in from the passages in ORIGEN, placed by. the side. The antiquity of these readings may be now considered to be sufficiently vindicated: the discovery of E carries the argument relative to MSS. with Scholia considerably farther. (Vid. Matthaei Praef. in S. Marc.)
connection is shown even in minute circumstances between the Codices of the fourth century and the most ancient of those with Смешав.ш
F olio i. recto ofthe MS. contains apparently part of a Prologue, now very obscure. Folio i. verso кефймш of St. Luke's Gospel, with references to the Folio ii. recto and verso } parallel sections in the other Gospels.
The following are the contents of the Catena as indicated at the top of each page, so far as any author of the passages is alleged z-those devoid of such indication, are often the continuation of a. previous extract.
О iii. 1"rovwytovtwavvouevrwfc/lcwo'raI/‘rt- xvi. vov'n'okewç v. еЕш/етгиурафои V. ‘rouav'rou «L
iv. сорвут/сие xvii. v. œpvyevoue v. v. eEax/evruypadaov xviii. v. mpvyevoue v. vi. еЕауетгиурафои xix. v. v vii. . xx. lower half of a foho v. v. егауе'п'иурафои viii. wpvysvovc xxi. Ттоиа/уюи/Заа'ьмюи орошешрь v. ditto v. [густое ix. xxii. Tova/ywvßaa'tkewv v. v. ditto X- xxiii. wplfyevovç v. eva'eßwv v. xi. xxiv. v. v. 'roua/ywwcupûtkou r 7L xii. wtöwpou'lrpeaßu'rmìßo'tm'röevrmo xXv. v. [Tíŕ: v. xiii. еЕаует—урафои xxvi. v. ditto v. топиться/карими xiv. v. efaue'rwypmpou v. xv. ßucropomrpea'ßu'repou xxviii. шрщеиощ‘ v. g v.
* MSS. whose age has been reasonably investigated, seem generally from the sixth century and onward to have been written with both accents and breathings.