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framed by Dofitheus, at your request and by gour advice, as your Excellency

* • have attested under your own hand.

• I make no great doubt but that Joacim, the above, named Patriarch of Alexandria, when he was in distres would have comply'd with Sir Dan.

Harvey, in any thing of this pature, provided that he could have been • restored by him. And I am apt to think the

And I am apt to think the very fame thing of another • Patriarch from that corner, who in his troubles for want of Money pawu'd • all his Jewels, and the holy Vessels, and rich Robes, and Uriolils of his • Church to our Mr. Hunt Merchant at Aleppo; but the true Patrods and Sons of our English Church are not, pro cauponanda Fide, for any such bargain. ing or trucking to maintain our Faith. Indeed as matters now stand in the East, it would have been but in vain, for since the Turk, and other Infidel • Princes there, pur all promotions, and differences about matters of Faith, in : the Christian Church, to Auction; the Latins can and assuredly will, be the bighest Bidders.

Now as to this second Poiot, how these Subscriptions were procured, • give me leave briefly to fumm up the foregoing particulars. The great Au

thority of the most Christian King in all the Ealt; the profound refpe&t there • for your Excellency his most Magnificent and Glorious Ambassador; all the • Jesuitical means and methods of your most dexterous and most vigilant E. • miffaries, who by their perswalive Arts, and various applications, could over• come or qualh all those many Reasons, which you your self with Triumph have told me, were pretended by many many considerable Greeks and others * p. 19. against their Subscribing; the foul Calumpies and mortal Hatred every where raised by them against the Western Hereticks; the private Interest in many leading Prelates amongst them; the Stupidity and love of ease and quietness in the richer Priests; the deplorable Ignorance of all. From these and many other such Considerations, I most humbly confefs, that I must absolutely con: clude, that these Subscriptions were not so fairly and duely procured as they ought to have been.

• Now in the third place I cappot conceive what weight or authority these • Subscriptions (procured under these circumstances) can have with any judi• cious and impartial Searcher after Truth. Where Reverence and Fcar; pri• vate loterest; compliance and eafiness of Tempers ; plain Ignorance of the • whole matter, Stupidity, or Inadvertency, or want of Judgment; strong and • earnest Importuoiry pressing upon all these Advantages; I lay, where all these • Motives thall manifestly enter and influence any Action, I cannot but suspect • the Sincerity, Uprightness and Validity of it. And though Sir Day. Harvey and I; Myn Heer Colher the Dutch Resident, and his Minister Mr. Dankers; Our and the Dutch Consuls, and their Chaplains at Smyrna and Aleppo, • faw most of these Subscriptions and Attestations, and all could and would, on • just occasion own, that there were indeed such collected and publickly thew'd

up and down; yet not one of us honestly could, or ever did, declare or be• lieve that the Matters contain'd in them were the real Faith or Sentiments • of the whole Eastern Church, or the positive, firm and clear belief of every

particular Subscriber. We have had many many Instances in things of this Na• ture in England; I shall name but that one of Richard Cromwell, che then

pretended Protector of the Nation; flaming Addresses were made to him, fubfcrib. ed by the Freeholders of all the Counties in the Land, cunningly contrived, * and as artfully procured by the Heads and chief Abertors of the Usurpation; • If some Men of Nore once Subscribed, enough of the vulgar, ignorant, hot• headed unstable Mob, would bliadly and eagerly follow; which is your very

Case, ger but some Patriarchs, Metropolites, or great Men-to favour your de• sign, and their very Names will be warrant enough for the meaner fort to take * all or any thing upon Trust. After Richard was laid afide, it happen'd foine: cime that some of his Friends dined with him, and a Discourse arose about the vain Formality and empty Compliment of Addresses. The poor ejected Gen

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• tleman with a deep sigh said, that their Observation thereon was very jun
and true; for, said he, I have in an old Trunk above all the Lives and
Fortunes (the common Phrase and Flight of their flattery) of all the Com-
mons of England; there they will do no harm as they did me no Good.
• He and all the Nation knew very well how luch Subscriptions were procured,
• and they all have fufficiently seen how little they signified. For my own part
• I am fully assured of as little Fruit, but I cannot say, of as little harm,
• that will accrue to your Cause from these which you have collected. Most

Excellent Sir, I most humbly beg that you would be pleased but to consider
• what the Jerusalem Synod it felf (which I have seen as attested under

your own hand ) hath declared concerning this Point, and I cannot but think that then you must be of my mind. Every Article, or matter of Faith, or of any other Ecclefiaftical important Subject proposed in writing by a Patriarch, ought to be Synodical; that is, written, (or drawn) with the

deliberation of a Synod, and Synodically examin’d and (then) fubfcribed. Cap. 2.

It ought to have the Sentence (or Approbation) and ihe Subscriptions of · all the most holy Patriarchs, and the most common (or univerlal ) confent of all the Clergy, and of all others who are conspicuous for their Holiness and Wisdom, so that scarce any one might contradict it. Now you • will find all your Attestations moft Miserably defective in all these most necef

sary Circumstances. There cannot be the least pretence of any Synodical Au* p. 20. thority for them. Did the most igoorant Subscribers, Armenians, Cophtes,

Mengrelians and the rest, Deliberate, Examine, and Debate the Articles con

tain'd in them? Or were they in the least capable of doing it? The Subscri-
• bers had indeed learned to make some formal, affected Scrol, or Cypher, but
I question much whether there were many able to write their very own names
truly and legibly.
These and many more such were the usual Notions and Subjects of the

many
and several Discourses which his Excellency was pleased most Graciously to
admit me to, both before Sir Dan. Harvey and privately with himself. He
was a Person of a most candid Disposition, and he gave me a fair and generous
Liberty of Speech, which b always used with fo much Humility and Defc-
rence to him as there never happend the least Warmth or Passion between us.
He was a great lover of Antiquities, and had made a Glorious Collection of
Marbles with antient Inscriptions, and of innumerable Drawings and Descrip-
tions of whatsoever was Remarkable in his Voyage and Progress all over the
Archipelago and elsewhere. I having some Knowledge in these things found my
company very acceptable to him; and I had the Liberty of introducing all curious
Travellers (who were pleased to Visit me at Conftantinople) into his Presence ;
who, with a most obliging Frankness and Courtesy, gave us leave to view and
note whatever we found and counted observable amongst all his numerous Rari-
ties. He was much delighted with our Reflections and Reasonings upon them,

which I perceived was not so well liked by some Latin Emissaries who haunted Mart. 19. him; for he one day visiting Sir Dan. Harvey told us, that Padre Carnizaris 16740 5. (the Commissario of the Latins at Jerusalem) was mad; for he had had the

confidence to write to him, and tell him, that he was more intent about,
Bagatelle e Coglionariè, Trifles and Fooleries, then about the good of the
Church. This made me more cautious whenever I conversed with P. Carni.
zaris, or any other, de cette Fourmilliere, of those forts of Myrmidons,
who swarm'd every where in Turky.

In the Marquis's private Discourses with me about his Rarities, it was impor-
sible but fometimes Notions about religious Matters would be intermixt; and
if he told his Creatures of the freedom of Speech which he allow'd me, it
might well raise fome Jealousies in them that I might some ways fhake him
or cool him a little in his Zeal; But I folemnly declare that I never per-
ceived any design in him upon me, and I could not be so Seoseless and Foolishi
as to aim at any such Effect upon him, only by my simply and calmly

acquaint

acquainting him with the Substance and Reasons of my own Belief; as I * p. 20. have Discoursed with many others, Turks, Jews, and the like, only for Information without disputing any thing.

His Excellency very often mention'd, ro modulgúray toy, that general and most celebrated Assertion of the Latips, that all their Doctrines and Practices were handed down to them by an infallible and uninterrupted Tradition from Christ himself and his Apostles. That all their feven Sacraments, and their very manner of Celebrating them, were all prescribed and delivered by words of their Mouth, and not in writing, to all their Proselites, and so defcended to all. fucceeding Generations. I wonder then whence came that grcar and strange variety of these things amongst them. Not to mention the time of keeping their Easter, the use of Images and Pictures, (which, as I have elsewhere noted, the first converts by their Law abominated as being Jews,) che, 'Age To Love Feafts, Deaconefles, and many other Primitive Usages afterwards abolilhed; How came, ó Agtis, the Loaf at the Eucharist (be it one or more, Fermented or not Fermented, ) to be curo'd into a Wafer by the St. James's LiLatins, or ipto eleven little Bits by the Greeks? Were either of these, or a Edit Morel. huodred more fuch Practices ufed by Christ, or known to his Apostles? I find a full apd an Ingenuous Confession (how all chefe Matters came to pass) dropt either by Ioadvertency, or by the force of plain Truth, in a Learned but very Partial Abetror of the Roman Doctrines. It was, faith he, a most cunning chierat.p

. 320. I hought of some of the, not Ignoble, Schoolmen, who, when many Problems * p. 21. of curious Enquiry, about the Doctrine of the Sacrament, crouded in upon them, which they were not able to solve or reconcile with the Vulgar and commonly received Opinion, had this subterfuge, or shift, that they should affert, that most Rites, which were of a very obscure Original and Institu. tion were delivered (by word of Mouth) by Christ our Lord to his Disci. ples, in their meeting at their last Supper. This, faith he, ought not to be disallow'd; or counted beyond Opinion and Faith; yet they have produced scarce any one of the holy Fathers who clearly said it. The very fame Tradition only is pleaded allo for what is Instituted, and Published about their Ur (upr.p.3213 Ordinations. The fame is likewise pretended for the Rites of Elections and322. Confecrations of all the Clergy, and are declared to bave been thus exactly obferved in the Greek Church from Phillip the Emperor, Anno Christi 246. p. 444. and Constantine the Great, Anno 306. to the taking of Constantinople by the Turks, where he freely gives us this very true account of the ways and Me. thods practised there to this very day. Since the Grand Seignor is Head of the Greck Church, they Elect; faith he, and Ordain only him Patriarch of Con- p. 4892 ftantinople, quem, Xguoos & Xgıços; defignarer, whom Gold, not God, or Christ designs. Les that stand as an indelible Mark of the very little or rather no Authority, which the pretended Councils or Conventicles of such Mercenary Pa. triarchs will deserve, or can find amongst all understanding and sincere Judges of these matters. For it is very plain to me that at least all these various Rites and Forms and Observances, and these quite different ways of Celebrating these preteeded Sacraments and the like, were invented and taken up by the chief Heads and Governors of the grand Churches in several places; fome setting up their own peculiar Constitutions; many Imitacing or variously or imperfectly Copy. ing after others; moft ipserting Capricious fancies of their own; so that' in geveral we must justly count them to be of meer human Authority, and not of Christ's own expreiš loftitution. For it is Impossible that this variety of Traditions should come all from one Mouth; which then of these divers and therefore uncertain Traditions can be. Authentick enough to make a true Sacrament, which: (as all confess) must-have only Christ himself for its Author and Commander ?

In the Greek Church ( according to Germanus, Cabafilas, Simeon Thesalonic. and other Interpreters and Expositors of their prescribed Practices) all their Rites have a Mysterious meaning in them; but what are the common Peos

ple

vet.

* p. 2too ple the better for it? Most of the wiselt Priests can give no ready account at

all of these marters. I am very confident that the very best of them do not bear the hundreth part of thele Notices in their Memory; ask the meaning of абу

of the most common Rites amongst them, and they fhall be utterly to leek, f: 121.c.1.Ed. or give answers quite different from one another. This is the Declaration of Gentian. Her Cabasılas, Universa Mysterii celebratio eft veluti una quædam Imago unius

corporis reipublicæ fervatoris, omnes ejus partes ab initio ad finem, per ordinem & inter se convenientiam, sub aspectum deducens. The (unçãywna) whole Celebration of the Mysery (or whole Synaxis) is as it were one certain Image, ενός σώματα της τα σωτης Gν πολιτείας, of the one Body of the Polity of our Saviour, that is, of the whole Oeconomy or Practice of Christ, bringing under our sight, or view, all its parts from the beginning to the

end by order and agreement amongst themselves, and we have the same more P. 151. C. 16. fully, what things, faith he, are done before the Sacrifice, are those which

were before his Death; to wit, bis coming, åráderiv, his being shewed or declared, his perfect Manifestation. But what things are done after the sacrifice (signify) the Father's promise, as he himself hath said, the Descent of the Spirit to the Apostles, the Conversion of the Gentiles by them to God and their Communion. And all the whole Celebration of the Mystery (or Synaxis) is as one certain body of (bis) History from the Beginning to the End, being entire and agreeing with it self; so that every one of thofe

things which are done or said, conduceth separately something to the per* p. 22. fection of the whole. Therefore that part of the whole Synaxis or Admini

stration which concerns the Eucharist is only to express Christ's Passion. And the Invocation seems to me to have been first designed only then to follow it, to represent the Descent of the Holy Ghost in its proper place, after the Suffering and Afcenfion of Christ, according to his own Promise made before his Death. For to compleat the whole Oeconomy or Symbolical History of Christ, and by this in the last place, the fullfilling of his Promise; we have, in this my following Treatise in the Sypaxis, a Short Summary of the chief parts of it; the Cross, the Sepulcher, the Resurrection, Ascension; and then remain'd only the Descent of the Holy Spirit, which there they then immediately pray

for upon Themselves and upon the Gifts, that such a Change may be made p. 24. F. to all those who receive them, as is specified afterwards, and (as I have

noted in my Treatise ) all this was at first but one continued Prayer, but afterwards was interpolated as now we find it. Yet this whole matter is now very

immethodical; for this, or some other Prayer for the Descent of the Holy Ghost, fi 29. 2. fhould rather have been set just before that which you have towards the end of

the Synaxis ; where the Pricft to represent Christ's Ascension goes out of the, aylov ermice, Chancel into the Prothesis, where he recounts that Christ had now fulfilled all bis Father's Dispensations; there they remained nothing but his fulfilling his Promise of sending the Holy Spirit; and then would have been the properest place to have Pray'd for it.

Now this whole Symbolical way of setting forth the History of Christ, could not be thus delivered by Christ himself; for whence then came it into the

pretended Liturgies of James, Chryfoftom, Basil and the rest with that variery? Whence came so many different Copies of them, especially of that of ChrySotom, which Goar himself complains of, as you find in the following Treatile and my notes upon it? All this most evidently prove my above laid Allertion, that these were only invented or taken up by the Governors of feveral Churches in several places, and could not be the entire or certain Traditions of Christ himself; much less therefore be of purely divine Authority; Patriarchs dictated or imposed what they pleased, and the Ignorant Mulcitude receiv'd it. Besides they have been manifestly patcht and interpolated; and either ignorantly or carelessly jumbled together by later hands. Though the first Composer or inventor of this Symbolical way of the whole Synaxis, might perhaps intend thereby to represent Christ's History to the Communicants, and

thereby

P. 23. A.

Ibid.

p. 22

p. 195.

20.

Luk. 24. 13.

p• 23.

Maldon. in loc

thereby briefly to enliven their Commemoration of it in ther; yet following Ages have made it a confused, and. (to most of them) an unintelligible Mystery indeed; and the Celebration of the Eucharist therein, being only part of the representation of the whole Oeconomy, must therefore needs be thought by them to be but only Symbolical or Figurative it self; you may see this more fully and plainly in the following Treatise.

The Marquis in answer to this always apply'd that other common Norion of the Lativs, that although the Greeks might have many Rites and Observances in the Celebration of the Eucharist much different both from the Latins, and from many of themselves, yet they all alike believed the Thing, that is, the Doctrine of the real Presence, and a Corporeal Presence, such as is pretended to be in Transubstantiation. Christ himself hath promised, where two or three Mat. 18. 19, are gathered together in my name, there am I in the midst of them; and again, Lo, I am with you always even unto the end of the World. In both Mat. 28. 20. these places is plainly promised, a real, true, and continual Presence; but can it be meant of a Bodily Presence, such as when Christ appear'd to the two Disciples which were going to Emmaus? Or, as he stood in the midst of his Joh. 20.19, 20; Disciples after the Resurrection, and shew'd unto them his Hand and his Side? His Feet, his Flesh, and his Bones ? Let us see how the Latios them- Luk. 24. 39, felves expound these places; furely they will stand by the sence of their own 40. Doctors, cfpecially those their topping Emissaries, the Jesuits. As to the first place say they; In my name, that is, for me, in respect of me, in regard to A Lapide in lome, for my sake, for love of me, seeking nothing but me and my Glory. Incuma my name, that is according to some, for Christ, so as they may seek nothing Mat. 18. 19, but him and his Glory. According to others, by calling upon the name of 20.1 Chris, which seems more agreeable because mention is made of asking, (or cum. Praying in the verse before going, according to this agreeableness with what was there said, and with the common custom of Speech, to be gathered together in the name of Christ, jeems 10' me to be nothing else but by his Authority, as St. Paul explains it, with the Authority and Power 1 Cor. 5. 4. of Christ.

I am there in the midst of them. That is, there I affift, I cooperate, and A Lapide in ladirect their desires and vows (or Prayers) and fulfill them. I am there, Maldom. in lonot only as Hilary faith, dwelling in them by my common Grace, as I am in cum. every single Saint; but by a more eminent Presence, I am by a greater and more peculiar Help and Alifance in the middle of a Congregation of pious Souls, met together by my Authority and my command, with one Mind, and one Heart 10 ask it of me. We find both these Authors at last desirous to make this 'Promise of Christ's Presence, chiefly, if not solely, to have been given to Synods and Councils, and consistories, or Judicial meetings of the Governors of the Church ; but yet cruly to me it seems most properly applicable to Christians meeting at the Eucharist; for that is called by way of Excellence, the Communion, the publick Office whereby we testify our perfect Agreement Mat. 18. 19. touching every thing that we then ask; the whole desire of our Hearts is thus to agree, to be united to Christ our Head, and to one another as fellow Members of his Mystical Body.

Let us now consider the second Text. Lo, I am with you always; as well Mat. 28. 20. as I am God, as, as I am Man, by my present Help, Grace, Strength, Com. A Lapide in lofort, Direction, Deliverance, which I will always afford you and your Succeffors, whereby I will make all hard things easy to you. --The World shall first cease to be, before my Presence in the Church Jhall fail.

You shall rule the Church visibly, but I will govern and Protect it Invisibly. I will ask the Father and he shall give you another Paraclete, that he may re-Joh. 14. 16. main with you for ever, even the Spirit of Truth.

He here (perhaps unawares ) rightly owo'd Christ's Presence to be Invisible, but in what follows he with the Schools Sophistically endeavor to hide it under the Species.

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