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The original, and classical, orthography was satura. Besides this we find satira and satyra. The former was very likely due to false analogy with words like maxumus : maximus; optumus: optimus; the latter to a fancied connection with the Greek σάτυροι.

The transition to the meaning 'mixed' is found in the expression per saturam, found, for example, in Sallust, Jug. 29. 5, dein postero die quasi per saturam sententiis exquisitis, in deditionem accipitur. Here we perhaps have ellipsis of legem, although the often quoted lex satura and lanx satura are not found in the literature, but rest only on the authority of the grammarians.

16. The noun satura (sc. fabula) is applied by Livy, vii. 2. 4 ff. to an early form of the native Italian drama. According to his very unsatisfactory account, the dramatic satura formed a transition from the rude Fescennine verses to the Graeco-Roman comedy of Livius Andronicus. The aetiological character of Livy's narrative is generally recognized, and some scholars1 have gone so far as to deny the existence of a dramatic satura, believing that it was invented as a parallel to the Greek satyr-drama or to the Old Comedy. This view has not been generally accepted, and the nonexistence of a dramatic satura cannot be regarded as proved.2

Concerning the meaning of satura, as applied to the drama, opinions differ widely. Mommsen3 regards it as signifying 'the mask of the full men,' while Ribbeck assumes that

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1 See Hendrickson, The Dramatic Satura and the Old Comedy at Rome, and A pre-Varronian Chapter of Roman Literary History, Amer. Jour. of Phil. xv. (1895), pp. 4 ff., and xviii. (1898), 285 ff.

2 See especially Schanz, Geschichte der römischen Litteratur, I2, p. 19; Pease, article Satira in Harper's Dict. of Class. Lit. and Antiquities.

3 Röm. Geschichte, 16, p. 28.

4 Geschichte der römischen Dichtung, 12, p. 9.

the word has the sense of the Greek σárvpot and refers to the dress of the actors, who he believes were clad in goatskins. It seems simplest to regard the word as meaning 'a medley.' This view establishes a connection between the dramatic and the literary satura, and has a parallel in French farce (= farsa) and in Juvenal's lines,1

Quidquid agunt homines, votum, timor, ira, voluptas,
Gaudia, discursus, nostri farrago libelli est.

B. THE LITERARY SATURA.

1. The School of Ennius.

17. When the dramatic satura gave place to the GraecoRoman comedy, it seems to have survived as a literary form. The same thing was true of the versus Fescennini, which appear in the classical period in the epithalamia, in the songs of the soldiers during the triumphal processions, and the like. In its earliest form it seems to have been a medley of prose and of verse in various metres, in which a variety of subjects were briefly treated. The earliest representative of this form of composition is said to have been Cn. Naevius (269-204 B.C.) of Campania, the well-known dramatic and epic poet. It is, however, very probable that the satura of Naevius, to which Festus refers, was dramatic.

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18. The first writer who is known to have published saturae is Quintus Ennius (239-169 B.C.) of Rudiae in Calabria, the father of Roman poetry,' from whose work a number of fragments have been preserved. Quintilian, ix. 2. 26, tells us that they consisted, in part at least, of dialogue: ut Mortem ac Vitam, quas contendentes in satura tradit Ennius. They seem to have been wholly in verse and

1 I. 86.

2 Porphyrio, on Hor. Serm. i. 10. 46, Ennius qui quattuor libros saturarum reliquit.

to have been composed in various metres. No prose fragments can with certainty be attributed to the elder Ennius.

To what extent Ennius was indebted to Greek originals is a matter of dispute. If we take into account the wellknown statement of Quintilian1 and the case of Varro,2 it seems probable that the form was original with Ennius, and that it was adapted from the dramatic satura, although in his subject-matter he undoubtedly followed Greek sources. It is perhaps noteworthy that the early writers of satire, as well as those to whom such works are attributed, were also dramatic poets.

The satires of Ennius also resembled those of Horace, in that he recorded his personal experiences and feelings, and made free use of the Aesopian fables.3

Saturae are attributed by Diomedes and by Porphyrio 5 to the nephew of Ennius, the tragic poet and painter, M. Pacuvius (220-132 B.C.) of Brundisium, but it is possible that his saturae, like those of Naevius, were dramatic.

19. The Menippean satires of M. Terentius Varro (11628 B.C.) of Reate belong to the school of Ennius, so far as their form is concerned. In a medley of prose and verse, the latter representing many different metres, he describes and comments on familiar events of everyday life. The collection consisted of one hundred and fifty books, and its nature is indicated by some of the titles of the various topics which have come down to us: Cave canem; Nescis quid vesper serus vehat; Cras credo, hodie nihil; Bimarcus; Marcopolis, etc.

The titles, as well as the statement of Cicero in Acad. Post. ii. 8, lead to the inference that, while Varro modelled his work in general on the Zovdoyéλotov of Menippus of

1 Satura quidem tota nostra est, x. 1. 93. 2 See below.

3 See Gellius, ii. 29. 20.

4 Gramm. Lat. i. 485. 33. K.

5 On Hor. Serm. i. 10. 46.

See, however, Hopkins, Proc. Amer. Phil. Assoc. xxxi. (1901) p. 1.

Gadara (about 250 B.C.), he inserted much original matter, and that he chose as his literary form the native Roman

satura.

Although the existing fragments belong to a work of superior finish and interest to that of Lucilius, it seems never to have become popular. Horace does not mention it at all, and in fact ignores the entire school of Ennius.1

2. The School of Lucilius.

20. At the hands of C. Lucilius the satura received a form which, through Horace's recognition of it as a standard, became the conventional one. After experimenting with various metres, he finally adopted the dactylic hexameter, and in that measure the greater part of his thirty books are composed. To the subject-matter also Lucilius gave a conventional form, which, though variously modified by his successors, continued to be regarded as characteristic of that class of writing.

Lucilius was born in Suessa Aurunca, in Campania, in 180 B.C.,2 and died in 103. He was of equestrian rank, and is said by Porphyrio to have been a grand-uncle of Pompey the Great. He served with the younger Scipio in the Numantine War, and was afterwards on terms of familiar intimacy with his commander and with the latter's friend, Laelius.3

21. Lucilius composed thirty books of satires, which appear to have been published in three instalments, xxvi.-xxx.,

1 See note on Serm. i. 10. 47.

2 Hieronymus gives the date of his birth as 147 B.C., but the suggestion of Haupt is very probable, and has been generally accepted, that Hieronymus confused the consuls of the year 180, A. Postumius Albinus and C. Calpurnius Piso, with those of 147, Sp. Postumius Albinus and L. Calpurnius Piso.

3 See Serm. ii. 1. 71 ff.

xxii.-xxv., and i.-xxi. The first collection was composed in various metres, the last two in hexameters.

Of the work of Lucilius only a comparatively small number of fragments survive, and the longest continuous passage consists of but fourteen lines. Nevertheless, from these and from the scattered notices of the grammarians, some idea of their contents may be derived, and the extent of Horace's indebtedness to his predecessor may be inferred.

Book xxvi., which was the first in order of publication, contained a justification of Satire, an account of the Numantine War, and an erotic satire. Book xxx. also treated of the nature and the object of Satire, and literary criticism seems to have been a feature of this, as well as of some of the other books. In Book ii. a suit is described, which was brought by T. Albucius against Q. Mucius Scaevola, on account of the latter's extortions in Asia. Book iii. contained an account of a journey from Rome to the Straits of Messana, on which Horace modelled the fifth Sermo of his first book. Book iv. included a discourse on gluttony, followed by Persius in his third satire. Book ix. dealt with literary criticism and with grammatical questions, in particular with orthography. Book x. inspired Persius to

write Satire, and Book xiii. seems to have had the same theme as Horace's Serm. ii. 4. Of Book xvi. Porphyrio1 says: liber Lucilii sextus decimus Collyra inscribitur, eo quod de Collyra amica in eo scriptum sit.

22. An examination of the existing fragments of Lucilius confirms Horace's judgment of his work, as given in Serm. i. 4 and 10, and in ii. 1. His language and versification are rude and unpolished, not only when judged by classical standards, but also as compared with the earlier writings of Terence. Munro 2 regards Horace's estimate of him as far 2 Jour. of Phil. vii. p. 294.

1 On Hor. Odes, i. 22. 10.

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