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to construct a perfect text by correcting it. The contractions indeed have been expanded, and the holy name of our Lord is printed with large Capitals, according to the custom of our Society : otherwise there has been no deviation from the original text. Words, or letters, printed in Italic type denote that they are printed in red in the original ; the black letter is represented by the Roman.

There are eleven other volumes, portions or full copies, of the York Breviary, eight of known dates and three undated. Full notices of these will be found below : and thanks to the great liberality of their owners, who have accorded to me free use of them at my own leisure, their texts are here collated with our original. They are all later than 1493 : one and one only dates from the reign of Philip and Mary. The researches of the late Mr. Davies, sometime Townclerk of York, have given us a glimpse of an edition printed in France before 1510, which was supplied to a York bookseller, Gerard Wansfort.' And it is probable that one at least of the above-named undated copies, that of Mr. Blew, is of this edition. A third issue, apparently a large one, came from the press of Fr. Regnault in 1526: and of this, six volumes are still in existence. The fourth and last dated edition is of 1533 : of which we possess the two parts that constitute a perfect whole. Its correctness and good arrangement might have led us to take it as the original of our reprint: only it seemed on the whole advisable to reproduce of those with a known date the earliest rather than the latest known edition.

The printer of the Bodleian book deserves a passing tribute. Johannes Hammanus, or as he called himself later J. Hertzog, describes himself of Spires in the earliest book we have of his printing : subsequently he speaks of Landau as his own city, but he printed always at Venice. His surname of Hamman recalls that of a more famous bearer of the name, Jost Amman, the great engraver, who died at Nürnberg in 1591. Like so many others of the early Venice printers, Hamman was evidently a man who took great pride in his work. He describes himself as magister, exercising an ars mirifica, vir solers, vir probatissimus, impressor famatissi

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I Memoir of the York Press, p. 13.


mus, and once impressorum monarcha. Under his name we have notices of nearly fifty works given by Maittaire, Denis, Panzer, Van Praet, and Hain. To this lot may be added two more, catalogued by M. Alès in the Library of the Comte de Villafranca, and yet two more, in my own possession. He printed works on all subjects, save apparently the Classics : and this between the years 1482 and 1501 : after which date his name disappears. He printed for others more often than for himself (indeed this York Breviary was put forth at the expense of Fridericus Egmundt and Gerardus Barrevelt) : and at different times he had different partners associated with him. His device is very striking; and in its varieties is well known to book-collectors. A copy of this device, one form of it, from a book in the library of St. Gall, is presented with this volume to our subscribers. In the second volume will be given a copy of the woodcut of Saint William of York, which is on the final page in the Bodleian book.

In its time this Bodleian book has been the property of two Yorkshiremen, men of renown: Ralph Thoresby and Marmaduke Fothergill. Thoresby describes it in the catalogue of his Museum as 'perfect, and a great curiosity, and gives the summary of its contents. After Thoresby's death in 1725 it passed into the hands of Marmaduke Fothergill. Fothergill was Vicar of the retired village of Skipwith, ten miles from York and six from Selby. He became a Nonjuror 3: and was superseded in his living in 1713. He then retired first to Pontefract and afterwards to Massam Street in Westminster, where he died in 1731. He bequeathed a large liturgical library, enriched with many MS. volumes of his own research, to the parishioners of Skipwith on condition that they built a room to hold it: this they failed to do, and thereupon his widow happily passed the whole over to the authorities of York Cathedral, who are

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still the guardians of the trust. After Fothergill the next known possessor of the book was one Edw. Jacob,' from whoin it passed in the year 1789 to the great collector Richard Gough, and by him was left with the rest of his books to the Bodleian in 1809.

It remains that I should express my grateful thanks to those to whom they are due. First to the gentlemen who have so freely put the use of their volumes at my disposal, Mr. Blew of Warwick Street, Pall Mall, Mr. Sherbrooke of Oxton, Southwell, Mr. Davies Cooke of Owston, Doncaster, Dr. Gott, Vicar of Leeds, and the authorities of York Cathedral. To the first-named of these, the Reverend William J. Blew, my special thanks are offered, for his unwearied friendliness and ready help. To Mr. Bradshaw also, and to the Reverend Canon Raine, I am under great obligations: and from the Reverend Joseph Fowler of Durham, and from the Editors of the new Sarum Breviary (the Reverend Francis Procter and the Reverend Christopher Wordsworth), I have received kind assistance and an inspection of valuable materials.

The following is a table of all the editions known and copies extant of the York Breviary, with the place and date of printing, and summary of contents. The book is assumed to be made up of the four component parts described in the Introduction to Messrs. Procter and Wordsworth's Sarum Breviary. Pars. iida, pp. viij to xiij.

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Venice Jo. Hamman

Bodl. Gough 6 Rouen? P. Violette (Kal. gone) Rev. W. J. Blew

, (Kal. & Ps. discarded) Rev. W. J. Blew
Paris F. Regnault for J. Gaschet,

British Museum
Bodl. Gough 59
York Mins. Libry.
York Mins. Libry.

Mr. Cooke
(Temp. only) Mr. Sherbrooke

(Sanctorale only) York Mins. Libry. Paris F. Regnault

Rev. Dr. Gott

(Kal. gone) British Museum Rouen ?

? (Kal. gone) Mr. Sherbrooke (Kal. & Temp. gone) Mr. Sherbrooke

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1 The Rev. W. D. Macray has drawn my attention to the fact that Gough has a notice concerning this E. Jacob in British Topography, Vol. i.

P. 464*.

This table has been drawn up by Mr. Bradshaw: to whose kindness I owe so much.

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The following notices and descriptions are of the various copies with their imprints, &c.

Y. 1493. JOHANNES HAMMANUS. Gough 6. This is the original text of our reprint. It has a titlepage [fol. A 1), Breviarium secundum vsum ecclesie Eboracensis, in red.

Imprint in red on verso of page 478 [y. 10. b] :

Breviarium secundum morem et consuetudinem sancte ecclesie Eboracensis anglicane : ad laudem et gloriam sanctissime trinitatis : intemerate quoque genitricis dei virginis marie : totiusque hyerarchie celestis : Ipsiusque sacrosancte ecclesie Eboracensis cleri devotissimi reverentiam et honorem : Singulari cura ac diligentia impensisque Friderici egmundt bene revisum emendatumque : feliciter est explicitum. Impressum venetiis per Fohannem hamman de Landoia dictum hertsog : limpidissimis : ut cernitis : caracteribus : Anno salutis post millesimum quaterque centesimum nonagesimo tertio. Kalendas madii.

In size it is a small octavo: in black letter : bound in brown calf, and wrongly lettered 1498.

1498. Each folio is paginated in right-hand corner in red numerals : which, excepting the 8 folios of the Kalendar, run through the whole book.

The signatures are from 1 to 34 in eights: and 35 in twelves. In this first series are included the Temporale, Kalendar, Psalter, and Commune. The second series of signatures begins with the Sanctorale: a to x all in eights, and y (y 2, y 3, y 4, y 5, y 6) in tens. On verso of y 1o is the woodcut of S. William which concludes the volume. The numbering at the top of each folio is

each folio is very defective between 190 and 198. This latter should be 200 : and allowing eight more for the 8 folios of the Kalendar, the numeral 209 with which the first folio of the Psalter commences comes exactly right. So that both by signatures and by numbering the book proclaims itself complete, with no hiatus : although there are many things in other Breviaries which are not in Y. e.g. the Penitential Psalms. It is six inches high by four broad : each folio has 2 columns, with 36 lines in each. On the title-page, in MS., is a notice : 'This is not noted in Maittaire, therefore very rare. W.(?) Ames.' That this is an error we have shown above, p. viii. note. There

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is also another manuscript note 'e libris Rad. Thoresby (1698), pr. 5s.' And the summary of contents is in M. Fothergill's handwriting, Temporale, p. 1 Kalendarium. Psalterium, p. 209. Commune, p. 265. Sanctorale, p. 301. It is bound in calf and is in good condition.



This is a copy of the whole Breviary in one volume, but with many an ‘hiatus valde deflendus.' It has neither title nor general imprint : and the Kalendar is gone. The first folio (unpaged) is a 2 : folio i is gone, whether it were blank or had the title. (1) Temporale. The first series of signatures runs from a to r, all in eights : from Advent to Easter Eve. The second series goes from aa to mm, all in eights, from Easter Eve to the Commemorations. But after mm 8 b comes an hiatus probably of 8 folios : and there also should have been placed the Kalendar. (2) Psalter and Commune. Third series of signatures from A i to M 8 b from Sunday Mattins to Commune unius virginis. "The commune wants a part of the service ‘unius virginis, all of plurimarum virginum and unius matronae: and another of unius virginis. It is deficient in the Commemoratio B. Marie Virginis, and it wants the Com

memorations of S. William, of SS. Peter and Paul, and · All Saints; as separate services coming with special rubric after the Commemoratio B. Marie V. and before S. Andrew. 'It wants likewise a series of Benedictions.' (MS. note by Rev. W. J. Blew.) (3) Sanctorale begins on ccj. (aa and bb wanting), and runs on to hh 6 b (hh is signed hhij.) Here occurs the only colophon in the volume. ( Finis prime partis hujus breviarii scilicet temporis hyemalis de sanctis. There then occurs a terrible lacuna from aaj to oo 8 (112 folios): pp and 99 are there in eights and vv xx and yy: rrj to tt 8 are wanting, and of z folios 1, 2, 7 and 8 are wanting, and all that would complete the services of S. Katherine S. Linus and S. Saturninus. The book is 5 inches by 31, and has 2 columns in a page and 32 lines to each column. It is bound in dark green morocco with a silver cross let in on either board. It is lettered. Breviarium Eboracense. Pars Hyemalis.' We have ventured to assign it to the date of 1507, classing it with the French edition printed about then for G. Wansfort of York.

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