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ναι, καίπερ πολλῶν ἐπιθυμούντων τοῦτο ποιῆσαι καὶ κοινωνῆσαι τῷ ἁγίῳ αὐτοῦ σαρκίῳ. ὑπέβαλεν γοῦν Νικήτην τὸν τοῦ Ἡρώδου πατέρα, ἀδελφὸν δὲ ̓́Αλκης, ἐντυχεῖν τῷ ἄρχοντι ὥστε μὴ δοῦναι αὐτοῦ τὸ σῶμα, μή, φησίν, ἀφέντες τὸν ἐσταυρωμένον, τοῦτον ἄρξων- 5 ται σέβεσθαι· καὶ ταῦτα [εἶπον] ὑποβαλλόντων καὶ ἐνισχυόντων τῶν Ἰουδαίων, οἳ καὶ ἐτήρησαν, μελλόντων ἡμῶν ἐκ τοῦ πυρὸς αὐτὸν λαμβάνειν, ἀγνοοῦντες ὅτι

· ἐπιθυμούντων] ἐνθυμούντων ν alone. 2 αὐτοῦ σαρκίῳ] σαρκίῳ αὐτοῦ p alone. ὑπέβαλεν γοῦν] b; ὑπέβαλον γοῦν τινες Ε; ὑπέβαλεν γὰρ Ρ; summisit namque L; ὑπέλαβεν (so Gebhardt, but ? ὑπέβαλεν) m; ὅθεν ὑπέβαλεν ὡς δεινὸς καὶ μισάγιος ὁ πονηρὸς ν. 3 Νικήτην] Νικήταν alone. *Αλκης] bsys ; ἀλκῆς p; alces L; ἕλκεις m; δάλκης Ε (Mss, with some vv. 11.). 4 ἐντυχεῖν] εὐτυχεῖν b. ἄρχοντι] bpv; rectorem L; ἡγεμόνι Ε; ἀνθυπάτῳ m. αὐτοῦ] αὐτοῖς p alone.

σώμα] add. ταφῇ b alone.

5 μὴ] μήποτε 6 καὶ] om. m alone. εἶπον] Ε; ὑποβαλλόντων] G; ὑποβαλόντων Ε. τῶν] pv; om. mb. In E the Mss vary. μελλόντων ἡμῶν] here, mbvE; before λαμβά

v alone.
ἄρξωνται] ἄρξονται bpv.
εἰπὼν pv; εἰπῶν b; om. m [L].
7 ἐνισχυόντων] G; ἐνισχυσάντων Ε.
ἐτήρησαν] ετήρουν ν alone.

νειν, Ρ.

8 αὐτὸν] ΡΕ; αὐτὸ m ; τοῦτο v; om. b.

The reason however which is there given for the wish of the persecutors to obliterate the reliques is not, as here, to prevent the worship of the martyrs, but to crush out all hope of a resurrection. Again the motive of Ignatius in entertaining this wish for himself (Rom. 4 μηθὲν καταλίπωσιν τῶν τοῦ σώματός μου) is quite different from either, ἵνα μὴ κοιμηθεὶς βαρύς τινι γένωμαι.

σωμάτιον] With a tinge of commiseration, as in Ep. Vienn. et Lugd. (Eus. H. E. v. 1) § 23 tò dè owμáriον...ὅλον τραῦμα καὶ μώλωψ: comp. §§ 24, 52 (v. l.); and see especially the index to Epictetus.

2. κοινωνῆσαι] i.e. by gathering together about his grave for the purpose of common worship.

σαρκίῳ] The diminutive is used in pity or tenderness, like owμáriov just above. These diminutives were

λαμβάνειν] In v the

especially favourites of the Stoics, who employed them to express their philosophical contempt of the body, M. Anton. ii. 2 ὅ τί ποτε τοῦτό εἰμι, σαρκία ἐστὶ καὶ πνευμάτιον ... ἀλλ ̓ ὡς ἤδη ἀποθνήσκων τῶν σαρκίων ... κατα φρόνησον. Thus also Epictetus uses the double diminutive, i. 3. 5 sq. τί γὰρ εἰμί; ταλαίπωρον ἀνθρωπάριον· καὶ τὰ δυστηνά μου σαρκίδια κ.τ.λ., and elsewhere. So too the Latin 'caruncula,' e.g. in Arnob. adv. Nat. ii. 76 ‘nobis......in carunculae hujus folliculo constitutis'.

3. "Αλκης] Α Christian of Smyrna ; for she is doubtless to be identified with the Alce mentioned Ign. Smyrn. 13, Polyc. 8. See the note on the former passage, and also I. p. 353

5. ἄρξωνται σέβεσθαι] See Lactant. Inst. Div. v. 11' Nemo hujus tantae belluae immanitatem pro merito describere...non tantum artus hominum

οὔτε τὸν Χριστόν ποτε καταλιπεῖν δυνησόμεθα, τὸν 1ο ὑπὲρ τῆς τοῦ παντὸς κόσμου τῶν σωζομένων σωτηρίας παθόντα, ἄμωμον ὑπὲρ ἁμαρτωλῶν, οὔτε ἕτερόν τινα σέβεσθαι. τοῦτον μὲν γὰρ υἱὸν ὄντα τοῦ Θεοῦ προσκυ νοῦμεν, τοὺς δὲ μάρτυρας ὡς μαθητὰς καὶ μιμητὰς τοῦ Κυρίου ἀγαπῶμεν ἀξίως ἕνεκεν εὐνοίας ἀνυπερβλήτου τῆς 15 εἰς τὸν ἴδιον βασιλέα καὶ διδάσκαλον· ὧν γένοιτο καὶ ἡμᾶς συγκοινωνούς τε καὶ συμμαθητὰς γενέσθαι.

XVIII. Ἰδὼν οὖν ὁ κεντυρίων τὴν τῶν Ἰουδαίων

remainder of the chapter is omitted.

alone.

9 οὔτε] om. m.

ΜΕ; ποτε καταλειπεῖν (sic) b; καταλιπεῖν πώποτε ρ.
τῶν σωζομένων] bpE; om. m.
alone.
ἄμωμον ὑπὲρ ἁμαρτωλῶν] G; om. E.
qui pro peccatis nostris pati tanta dignatus est.
13 τοῦ Κυρίου] bpE; αὐτοῦ m (comp. L).

of Evary.

ποτε καταλιπεῖν] το παντός] om. m

11 παθόντα] ἀποθανόντα m In L the whole sentence runs 12 σέβεσθαι] G; σέβειν Ε. 14 ἕνεκεν] m ; ἕνεκα bp. The MSS 16 συγκοινωνούς] ΡΕ; 17 ovv] om. v.

15 v] bpE; ipsorum L; & m.

συμμαθητὰς] mbpL; μαθητὰς Ε.

κοινώνους mb.
κεντυρίων] τν (comp. Chron-Pasch. p. 481 ); ἑκατοντάρχης Ε; ἑκατόνταρχος
κεντυρίων bp. τὴν] mvpE (comp. Chron-Pasch.); om. b.
γενομένην] bp; judacorum L; λεγομένων Ιουδαίων m v(?) (comp. Rev. ii. 9, iii. 9).

dissipat, sed et ossa ipsa comminuit et in cineres furit, ne quis extet sepulturae locus, quasi vero id affectent qui Deum confitentur, ut ad eorum sepulcra veniatur, ac non ut ipsi ad Deum perveniant.' See also Euseb. H. E. viii. 6, where he relates that the bones of the Nicomedian martyrs were dug up and thrown into the sea, ὡς ἂν μὴ ἐν μνήμασιν ἀποκειμένους προσκυνοϊέν τινες, θεοὺς δὴ αὐτούς, ὡς γε ᾤοντο, λογιζόμενοι: Act. Fruct. Augur. etc. 2 (p. 265 Ruinart) 'Aemilianus praeses Eulogio diacono dixit, Numquid et ne Fructuosum colis ? Eulogius dixit, Ego Fructuosum non colo; sed ipsum colo, quem et Fructuosus,' on which saying Augustine, Serm. cclxxiii. 2 (Op. v. 1106), comments in the same spirit as our martyrologists here. See also August. c. Faust. xx. 21 (Ορ.

Ἰουδαίων

VIII. 347) • Populus autem Christianus memorias martyrum religiosa sollemnitate concelebrat...ita tamen ut nulli martyrum, sed ipsi Deo martyrum, quamvis in memoriis martyrum, constituamus altaria'; comp. de Civ. Dei viii. 26, 27, xxii. 10 (Op. VII. 215 sq., 673 sq.), where this father is especially careful to contrast the honour paid to the martyrs by the Christians with the worship offered to dead men by the pagans.

6. εἶπον] i. e. Nicetes and those who acted with him,' if the reading be correct; but a probable inference from the authorities is that εἶπον should be omitted, in which case καὶ ταῦτα κ.τ.λ. will mean this too at the instigation of the Jews', with a reference to the active part they had taken at a previous stage of the martyrdom, §§ 11, 12.

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γενομένην φιλονεικίαν, θεὶς αὐτὸν ἐν μέσῳ, ὡς ἔθος αὐτοῖς, ἔκαυσεν. οὕτως τε ἡμεῖς ὕστερον ἀνελόμενοι τὰ τιμιώτερα λίθων πολυτελῶν καὶ δοκιμώτερα ὑπὲρ χρυσίον ὀστᾶ αὐτοῦ, ἀπεθέμεθα ὅπου καὶ ἀκόλουθον ἦν. ἔνθα ὡς δυνατὸν ἡμῖν συναγομένοις ἐν ἀγαλλιά- 5 σει καὶ χαρᾷ παρέξει ὁ Κύριος ἐπιτελεῖν τὴν τοῦ μαρτυρίου αὐτοῦ ἡμέραν γενέθλιον, εἴς τε τὴν τῶν προηθληκότων μνήμην καὶ τῶν μελλόντων ἄσκησίν τε καὶ ἑτοιμασίαν.

ΧΙΧ.

τυρος ν.

Pasch.).

τότε ν. χρυσίων b. v alone.

Τοιαῦτα τὰ κατὰ τὸν μακάριον Πολύκαρπον,

1 αὐτὸν] mbpE (comp. Chron-Pasch.); corpus L; τὸ σῶμα τοῦ ἁγίου μάρ ὡς ἔθος αὐτοῖς] mΕ; τοῦ πυρὸς bp v(?); om. [L] (comp. Chron2 έκαυσεν. οὕτως τε] mb (οὕτω for οὕτως b) PE; κατέκαυσεν αὐτὸ 3 δοκιμώτερα] δοκιμωτέρων p ; δοκιμότερα bv. 4 χρυσίον] ἀπεθέμεθα] ἀποθέμεθα b. Add. εἰς ὃν εὐδόκησεν ὁ θεὸς τόπον καὶ ἀκόλουθον ἦν] pvE ; καὶ ἀκολουθεῖν ἦν b ; ἀκολούθως πι. 5 ἔνθα] om. m alone. η μαρτυρίου] μάρτυρος m alone. ἡμέραν γενέθλιον] mbE; ἡμέραν γενέσθαι p; γενέθλιον ἡμέραν ν. τὴν] bv; om. mp. The Mss of E τῶν προηθληκότων] mpE ; τῶν ἡλθηκότων (sic) b ; αὐτοῦ ν. 8 μνήμην] 11 8s] here, G; before μόνος, Ε. δωδέκατος...μαρτυρήσας] G ;

vary. ἡμῖν p.

3. τιμιώτερα...ὑπὲρ] For this construction see Winer Gramm. xxxv. p. 301.

4. ἀπεθέμεθα] The grave of Polycarp is mentioned as being at Smyrna by one who lived in a neighbouring city and had already grown up to manhood when the martyrdom took place, Polycrates of Ephesus writing soon after A.D. 190, Euseb. Η. Ε. ἔτι δὲ καὶ Πολύκαρπος ἐν Σμύρνῃ [κεκοίμηται] καὶ ἐπίσκοπος καὶ μάρτυς. For these martyria or memoriae of the martyrs, see Bingham Christ. Ant. viii. 1. 9, xx. 7. 3. ἀκόλουθον ἦν] “ it was consequent, and so 'conformable, convenient? The place is not mentioned, lest it should be divulged to their enemies.

7. γενέθλιον] For the commemo

ration of these 'birth-days' of the saints and martyrs, on which they were born into a higher life, see Bingham Christ. Antig. xiii. 9. 5, xx. 7. 2. Comp. Tertull. de Coron. 3

Oblationes pro defunctis, pro natalitiis annua die facimus,' and see Ducange Gloss. s. v. 'Natalis.' For the idea comp. Ign. Rom. 6 ὁ τοκετός μοι ἐπίκειται...μὴ ἐμποδίσητέ μοι ζῆσαι (with the note), Tertull. Scorp. 15 'Tunc Paulus civitatis Romanae consequitur nativitatem, cum illic martyrii renascitur generositate.'

ΙΙ. σὺν τοῖς ἀπὸ Φιλαδελφίας] For the connexion between Philadelphia and Smyrna see above p. 240 sq. This notice has given rise to the false reading ἐν Φιλαδελφίᾳ for ἐν Φιλομηλίῳ in the address of

10

ὃς σὺν τοῖς ἀπὸ Φιλαδελφίας δωδέκατος ἐν Σμύρνη μαρτυρήσας μόνος ὑπὸ πάντων [μᾶλλον] μνημονεύεται, ὥστε καὶ ὑπὸ τῶν ἐθνῶν ἐν παντὶ τόπῳ λαλεῖσθαι, οὐ μόνον διδάσκαλος γενόμενος ἐπίσημος, ἀλλὰ καὶ μάρτυς 15 ἔξοχος, οὗ τὸ μαρτύριον πάντες ἐπιθυμοῦσιν μιμεῖσθαι, κατὰ τὸ εὐαγγέλιον Χριστοῦ γενόμενον. Χριστοῦ γενόμενον. διὰ τῆς ὑπομονῆς καταγωνισάμενος τὸν ἄδικον ἄρχοντα καὶ οὕτως τὸν τῆς ἀφθαρσίας στέφανον ἀπολαβών, σὺν τοῖς ἀποστόλοις καὶ πᾶσιν δικαίοις ἀγαλλιώμενος δοξάζει 20 τὸν Θεὸν καὶ πατέρα παντοκράτορα καὶ εὐλογεῖ [τὸν] Κύριον [ἡμῶν] Ἰησοῦν Χριστόν, τὸν σωτῆρα τῶν ψυχῶν

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mby;

τίμιος καὶ ἐξοχώτατος v alone.

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add. ἐθνῶν p (comp. L magister adhuc vocatur a populo). 15 ἔξοχος]
μιμεῖσθαι] μιμήσασθαι m alone.
16 υπο-
19 ἀποστόλοις] txt mbpl; add. καὶ
ἀγαλλιώμενος] ἀγαλιώμενος b.
20 τὸν
παντοκράτορα] mL; om. bpv by homote-
21 ἡμῶν] bpvL; om. m.

μονῆς] txt pv; add. γὰρ msb.
μάρτυσι ν.

πᾶσιν] bν ; πᾶσι msps.
Θεὸν καὶ] θεὸν m alone.
leuton.
τὸν] m (?) bv ;. om p.
σοῦν...ψυχῶν ἡμῶν] om. b by homæoteleuton.
καὶ ν alone.

the letter (see above, p. 947); but, if the letter had been addressed to the Philadelphians the mention of their own martyrs would certainly not have been made in this casual way. For the idiomatic δωδέκατος, 'with eleven others,' see Kühner Gramm. § 468, II. p. 562. The most natural interpretation here is that all the eleven were Philadelphians (as taken above, p. 243); but σὺν τοῖς κ.τ.λ. may perhaps mean 'with eleven others including those from Philadelphia.' Of these eleven others one only, Germanicus, is mentioned in this letter by name (see above, § 3). It is not impossible however, that we have the names of others in

Ιησωτῆρα] præf. κηδέμονα

the list in the ancient Syrian Martyrology (published by Wright) under Feb. 23, 'In Asia of the number of the ancient confessors Polycarp the bishop, Arutus (?), Cosconius, Melanippus, and Zeno'; comp. also Martyrol. Hieron. vii Kal. Mart. (Op. XI. ii. p. 555), where the same names and others are given as martyred either 'Smyrnae' or 'in Asia,' with the usual confusion of this Latin Martyrology.

12. μόνος κ.τ.λ.] * is singled out by all rather (than the others) to be remembered.

18. ἀπολαβών] receiving as his due'; see the note on Gal. iv. 5, and comp. [Clem. Rom.] ii. 8.

*

ἡμῶν καὶ κυβερνήτην τῶν σωμάτων ἡμῶν καὶ ποιμένα τῆς κατὰ τὴν οἰκουμένην καθολικῆς ἐκκλησίας.

ΧΧ. Υμεῖς μὲν οὖν ἠξιώσατε διὰ πλειόνων δηλωθῆναι ὑμῖν τὰ γενόμενα· ἡμεῖς δὲ κατὰ τὸ παρὸν ὡς ἐν κεφαλαίῳ μεμηνύκαμεν διὰ τοῦ ἀδελφοῦ ἡμῶν Μαρκι- 5 ανοῦ. μαθόντες οὖν ταῦτα καὶ τοῖς ἐπέκεινα ἀδελφοῖς τὴν ἐπιστολὴν διαπέμψασθε, ἵνα καὶ ἐκεῖνοι δοξάσωσι τὸν Κύριον τὸν ἐκλογὰς ποιούμενον τῶν ἰδίων δούλων.

καθολικῆς] bpvL; ἁγίας m.

ι ἡμῶν pri.] pv (comp. L); om. m; def. b (but the omission by homeoteleuton shows that the scribe had it in his copy). 2 τὴν] om. m alone. ἐκκλησίας] mbp; add. et spiritum sanctum per quem cuncta cognoscimus L; add. καὶ τὸ πανάγιον καὶ ζωοποιὸν πνεῦμα, ὅθεν καὶ ἡμεῖς ἅπαντες τὸν μὲν χριστὸν προσκυνοῦμεν ὡς υἱὸν ἀληθινὸν ὄντα τοῦ θεοῦ, τοὺς δὲ μάρτυρας ὡς μιμητὰς καὶ μαθητὰς τοῦ κυρίου ἀγαπῶμεν ἀξίως· ὧν γένοιτο καὶ ἡμᾶς πάντας συνκοινωνοὺς αὐτῶν γενέσθαι καὶ ἐπιτυχεῖν τῆς βασιλείας τῶν οὐρανῶν σὺν χριστῷ Ἰησοῦ τῷ κυρίω ἡμῶν ὦ ἡ δόξα καὶ τὸ κράτος εἰς τοὺς αἰῶνας τῶν αἰώνων.ἀμήν ν (and so this Ms ends). 4 γενόμενα] mb ; γινόμενα p. ὡς ἐν] m ; ἐπὶ bp ; al L. μάρκου bp. ζωσιν b.

5 Μαρκιανοῦ] marcianum L; μαρκίωνος m; η διαπέμψασθε] διὰ πέμψασθαι b. δοξάσωσι] mp ; δοξά 8 ποιούμενον] m; ποιοῦντα ἀπὸ bp. L has bonorum electione

5. διὰ τοῦ ἀδελφοῦ] For the possible meanings of the preposition see the note on Ign. Rom. 10. It cannot here denote the scribe, for his name Euarestus is given below; nor can it very well denote the bearer, for the word μεμηνύκαμεν seems to exclude this. It must therefore designate the composer of the letter, as in Dionys. Cor. quoted by Euseb. Η. Ε. iv. 23 τὴν προτέραν ἡμῖν διὰ Κλήμεντος γραφεῖσαν.

Μαρκιανοῦ] This is probably the correct reading. The change into Μαρκίωνος in one Ms is explained by the fact that Marcion's name appears in the context of that same MS. The alteration into the more familiar name Μάρκου in other authorities is natural enough. On the variations here, and on similar confusions elsewhere, see Gebhardt in the Zeitsch. f. Hist. Theol. 1875,

p. 370 sq.; who however adopts the reading Μαρκίωνος. A Marcianus is mentioned by Eusebius H. E. v. 20 as a person to whom Irenæus dedicated one of his treatises; and this is not improbably the same man. The name however is not uncommon at this time. A contemporary of our Marcianus, a lawyer, is mentioned by Fronto Epist. p. 43 (ed. Naber).

6. τοῖς ἐπέκεινα] who are farther away'; comp. Ign. Ephes. 9 παροδεύσαντάς τινας ἐκεῖθεν.

9. τῷ δὲ δυναμένῳ κ.τ.λ.] Comp. Rom. xvi. 25, Eph. iii. 2o, Jude 24. On account of the parallel passages in S. Paul, Zahn would connect διὰ παιδὸς κ.τ.λ. with what follows: but the order rather suggests their connexion with the preceding words.

14. Εὐάρεστος] The name occurs three times in Smyrnæan inscriptions (Boeckh Corp. Inscr. Graec.

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