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not allow in myself. Where truth's cause is treated, human affections, whereby the clear light is dimmed, ought to be laid apart. Glikes, nips, and scoffs, bites, cuts, and girds, become not that stage. Yet, if I shall perhaps sometimes seem to scar or lance a festered bunch that deserveth to be cut off, you will remember, I doubt not, how the meekest and the holiest of the ancient fathers, in reproving heretics, ofttimes hare shewed themselves zealous, earnest, eager, severe, sharp, and bitter.
Whose taste soever longeth most after such sauce, in this treatise he shall find small liking. For it is occupied more about the fortifying of the articles denied, than about disproving of the person who hath denied them. Wherein I have some deal followed the latter part of Chilo the wise man his counsel, which I allow better than the first: Ama, tanquam osurus; oderis tanquam amaturus: "Love as to hate; hate as to love."
If any man that shall read this be of that humour as shall mislike it as being cold, low, flat, and dull, and require rather such verdure of writing as is hot, lofty, sharp, and quick, which pleaseth best the taste of our time; understand he that, before I intended to put this forth in print, I thus tempered my style for these considerations. First, whereas a certain exercise of a learned man, of five or six sheets of paper, spread abroad in the realm in defence of some of these articles by M. Jewel denied, was fathered upon me, which indeed I never made sentence of, and therefore a storm imminent was mistrusted; that, by changing the hue, which many know me by that know me familiarly, in case it should come to the hands of many, as it was likely, I might escape the danger of being charged with it, and nevertheless satisfy my friend's request, and in some part also my conscience, and do good. Secondly, that I thought meek, sober, and cold demeanour of writing to be most fitting for such kind of argument. Thirdly, and specially, that my heart served me not to deal with M. Jewel, mine old acquainted fellow and countryman, otherwise than sweetly, gently, and courteously. And indeed here I protest that I love M. Jewel, and detest his heresies.
And now, sir, as I love you, right so I am desirous of your soul health, which you seem either to forget or to procure by a wrong way. Bethink yourself, I pray you, whether the way you walk in be not the same, and you the man, that Salomon, mored with the Spirit of God, speaketh of: "There is a way that seemeth to a man Prov. xvi. right; and the end of it leadeth to damnation." Certain it is you are deceived, and maintain untruth, as it shall appear by this treatise. Herein you sustain the evil of human infirmity. Marry, when deceit is by plain truth detected, then to dwell and continue in error, that proceedeth not of human weakness, but of devilish obstinacy. But you, M. Jewel, as many men think, and I trust, are not yet swallowed up of that gulf. Fain would I do you good, if I wist how. I fear me, your sore is putrefied so far as oil and lenitives will not serve now, but rather vinegar and corrosives. You remember, I doubt not, what Cicero saith, that medicine to profit most which causeth the greatest smart; and what Salomon also, "The wounds of a friend to be Prov. xxvii. better than the kisses of an enemy."
The best salve any man can minister unto you, verily I think, is, to exhort you to humility, and to denying of yourself. For if you could be brought to humble yourself, and to deny yourself, doubtless you should see in yourself that you see not. If you were humble, you would not be so puffed up, and swell against your mother the church; you would not contemn her whom you ought to honour. You would not rejoice, like the accursed Cham, to shew her unseemliness, if by corruption of times Gen. ix. any perhaps be grown. For by authority and public consent, say what ye will, none is maintained. If you would deny yourself to be the man you be not, you should better see who and what you be indeed. Deny yourself to be so well learned as you seem to esteem yourself, and you will be ashamed to make such strange cracks and raunts of your being well assured of that you have preached and written touching these articles wherein you are deceived. Deny yourself to be a bishop, though you have put on the bishop of Salisbury his white rochet, and you shall be content and think it meet also to give a reckoning of the doctrine which you preach openly before the high estates, and therefore confer with D. Cole and with meaner men also, which In the beginmore insolently than reasonably you refused to do: and by such conference you first answer shall be advertised of your error. Deny your private judgment, and estimation of to D. Cule. your long study in divinity, which you acknowledge in your replies, and of your
ning of the
great cunning in the same, and you shall evidently see and remember that your time hath been most bestowed in the study of humanity and of the Latin tongue, and concerning divinity your most labour hath been employed to find matter against the church, rather than about serious and exact discussing of the truth; and that, in In the ser- comparison of that holy and learned father B. Fisher and others, whom you jest and scoff at, and seek to discredit by fond arguments of your own framing upon them by you fathered, you are, touching the sound and deep knowledge of divinity, scantly a smatterer.
mon, fol. 31.1
Again, deny yourself to be so great a man, but that you may take advertisement of a man of meaner calling; deny yourself to be so honourable, but that it may stand with your honesty to abide by your promise in a most honest manner by your own prepensed offer made; you may easily learn how to redress that hath been done amiss, you may see your own infirmities, defects, oversights, and ignorances plainly, as it were in a glass, all self-love and blind estimation of yourself set apart; you may, with the favour of all good men, with the winning of your own soul, and many others, whom you have perilously deceived, and to the glory of God, be induced to yield to the truth, to subscribe to the same, and to recant
your errors. Wherein you should do no other thing than,
these articles, which you deny, by us with sufficient proofs
and testimonies avouched, you have already freely and
largely offered. Which thing, that it may be
done, God give you the grace of his holy
Spirit, to humble your heart, to deny
yourself, and to make a greater
accompt of your everlasting
M. HARDING'S PREFACE.
Ir misliketh you much, M. Harding, that, in so many and sundry cases by me moved, wherein standeth the greatest force of your religion, I should say you and others of that part are utterly void, not only of the scriptures, but also of the old councils and ancient fathers; and that in such an audience I should so precisely and so openly discover the wants and weakness of your side. And therefore, "The greater my heap riseth, the less," say you, "is mine advantage."
Whereunto I may easily reply, the larger is mine offer, the more will your discreet reader mislike the insufficiency of your answer; and, the more enlarged is your liberty, the less cause have you to complain.
"Wise men," ye say, "would more have liked greater modesty." Verily, the men that you call wise would have thought it greatest modesty to have dissembled and said nothing. But what may the same wise men think of your modesty, that, having so often made so large and so liberal offers of so many doctors, are not able in the end to shew us one?
Neither "look we so fiercely, nor shake we the sword so terribly," as you report us. This was evermore your and your fellows' special and peculiar commendation; who, besides your fierce and cruel looks, and besides the shaking and terror of your sword, have also hewn, and cut, and slain, and filled your hands with the blood of your brethren.
Wherefore ye should not take it in such grief, that, only for distinction's sake, by so civil and courteous a name we call you our 66 adversaries." For, finding you armed with sword and fire, and imbrued with our blood, we might well have spared you some other name. That I said, ye have no such assurance of the ancient fathers as ye have borne us in hand, and as your friends upon your credit have believed, I said it not, neither of ambition, as you expound it, nor of malice; but forced thereto by your importunity, and with great grief of mind.
Therefore ye did me the greater wrong to say, "I came vaunting, as Goliath, and throwing forth my glove like a challenger, and proclaiming defiance to all the world." In these words, M. Harding, wise men may find some want of your modesty. For whoso avoucheth the manifest and known truth, and saith that you both have been deceived yourselves, and also have deceived others, ought not therefore to be called Goliath. And notwithstanding you have adventured yourself to be the noble David, to conquer this giant, yet, forasmuch as ye have neither David's sling in your hand, nor David's stones in your scrip, and therefore not likely to work great masteries, ye may not look that the ladies of Israel with their lutes and timbrels will receive you in triumph, or sing before you, "David hath conquered his ten thousands." He rather is Goliath, that setteth his face against the heavens and his foot in emperors' necks, and openeth his mouth awide to utter blasphemies, that soundeth out these words into all the world: "I cannot err: I have all laws, both spiritual and temporal, in my breast: I am above all general councils: I may judge all men; but all the world may not judge De Electio. me, be I never so wicked: I am king of kings, and lord of lords: I can do what- testate, Signisoever Christ himself can do: I am all, and above all: all power is given to me, ix. qu. 3. as well in heaven as in earth2." Ye know whose words these be, by whom they De Majorit.
et Elect. Po
et Obedient. Unam Sane
tatem et facta sint, et robur acceperint, &c.-Pas- tam.
Nemo judicabit primam sedem justitiam tempe-
are spoken, by whom they are defended, and to whom they are applied. This seemeth to be the very express and lively image of Goliath; that Goliath, I say, whom now you see knocked in the forehead and falling down, not with force of worldly power, but only with that little rough despised stone of God's everlasting and heavenly word. Touching that most worthy and learned father, sometime your master, D. Peter Martyr, whom ye would seem somewhat to commend, not for his doctrine, from which you have so suddenly fallen away, but only for his modesty, it cannot be doubted but he, being at Poissy in that worthy assembly, in the presence of the king, and of other the princes and nobles of that realm, both did and spake that might stand with the truth of the cause, and also might well become his own person. But, being demanded his judgment in these cases, he would have answered even as we do, and would much have marvelled that any learned man would say the contrary. Not long sithence, ye made the pulpits ring that your mass and all other your whole doctrine was assured unto you by Christ and his apostles, and that for the same ye had the undoubted continuance and succession of fifteen hundred years, the consent of all the old councils, doctors, and fathers, and all antiquity, and the universal allowance of the world1. Thus ye doubted not then to say, without fear of controlment of God or man. Many thousands thought ye dealt simply, and would not deceive them, and therefore were easily led to believe you.
In this case christian duty and charity required that the truth and certainty of your tales should be opened, that the simple might understand ye had deceived them, and that of all that your so large talk and countenance of antiquity you were, as you well know, utterly able to avouch nothing. Whereas it so much offended you that I should so precisely avouch the negative, and require you to prove your affirmative, whereof ye would seem so well assured, it may please you to consider that St Gregory, writing against John the bishop of Constantinople, that had entitled himself the universal bishop of the whole world, rested3 Lib. iv. Epist. himself likewise upon the negative. His words be these: Nemo decessorum meorum hoc superbo vocabulo uti consensit: nemo Romanorum pontificum hoc singularitatis nomen assumpsit1: "None of my predecessors ever consented to use this arrogant name: no bishop of Rome ever took upon him this name of singularity." St Augustine, when he had reckoned up all the bishops of Rome before his time, Aug. Epist. added thereto by a negative: In hoc ordine successionis nullus Donatista episcopus invenitur 5: 66 In this order of succession there is found no bishop that was a Donatist." Yet neither St Augustine nor St Gregory was ever condemned for Goliath. By the like negative you, M. Harding, yourself say, although untruly, as you do many other things besides, that "neither M. Jewel, nor any one of his side, is able to shew that the public service of the church in any nation was ever, for the space of six hundred years after Christ, in any other tongue than in Greek or Latin." And yet we may therefore not call you either Goliath, or Thersites, or by any other like uncourteous name. You say, "I take presumptuously upon me to have read all things, and to be ignorant of nothing;" only because I say you in these cases can allege nothing. And why so? Can no man descry your wants and disclose your untruths without presumption? You say ye have
In the 3 Article, and in the
Iste [summus pontifex] omnia judicat etiam auctoritate, quia supra omnes auctoritatem habet: et ipse a nemine judicatur, quia nullus habet auctoritatem super ipsum.-Gloss. in eod. in Extrav. Comm. Lib. 1. De Major. et Obed. cap. 1. col. 211.
...sicut in Jerusalem illa quæ in cœlis est...unus tantum dominus est Jesus Christus: ita in hac Jerusalem illius filia...unus tantum princeps est, vicarius Christi et pontifex maximus, cui omnes...obedire debent, &c....accingere, pater sancte, gladio tuo... binos enim habes...accingere, potentissime, et accingere super femur tuum, id est super universas humani generis potestates...regna, sacerdos et rex...Is namque idem, quem imitari debes, et rex regum est, &c. -Orat. Cajetan. in Sess. ii. Concil. Later. v. in Concil. Stud. Labb. et Cossart. Lut. Par. 1671-2,
Tom. XIV. cols. 73, 5.
Quapropter Bernardus ad Eugenium tamquam ad summum hierarchicum in cœlo ecclesiæ virum, in quo erat omnis potestas supra omnes potestates, tam cœli quam terræ, recte scripserat: Tibi data est omnis potestas, &c.-Orat. Steph. Arch. Patrac. in Sess. x. in eod. col. 269.]
[Of all the world, 1565, 1609.]
[3 Resteth, 1565.]
[ Gregor. Magni Papæ I. Op. Par. 1705. Epist. Lib. v. Indict. XIII. Ad Eulog. et Anastas. Epist. xliii. Tom. II. col. 771. See before, page 32, note 2.] [ August. Op. Par. 1679-1700. Ad Gen. Epist. liii. 2. Tom. II. col. 121.]
[Ye, 1565, 1609.]
the consent of all doctors, of all ages, and of all times, of your side: shall we, therefore, say that you vaunt yourself of your knowledge, or that you know all things, and are ignorant of nothing? You say, ye "have all the doctors:" I say, and true it is, ye have not one doctor. The difference of these sayings standeth only in this, that the one is true, the other untrue; that your affirmative cannot be proved, my negative cannot be reproved. But touching vaunt of reading and knowledge, there is no difference.
Howbeit, forasmuch as this negative so much offendeth you of our side, let us hardly turn it of your side; and let us say so as it may best like you to have us say, that it cannot appear by any sufficient clause or sentence, either of the scriptures, or of the old doctors, or of the ancient councils, or by any example of the primitive church, either that the priest then received the holy communion together with the people, or that the sacrament was then ministered unto the people under both kinds, or that the public prayers were ever said in the vulgar or known tongue, or that the whole people thereto said "Amen," within the space of six hundred years after Christ. Let us say, further, that Christ himself and
all his apostles said private mass, and received the holy sacrament severally alone; that all the ancient fathers ministered the half communion only under one kind; that all the common prayers were every where said in a strange learned tongue, utterly unknown unto the people. This offer is free and liberal. And what can you desire more? But perhaps it shameth you to say so much. For, albeit some of you have often said it, yet the untruth thereof is manifest, and sheweth itself. Only ye wish, I "had used some greater modesty." And would you that I should have said, "Ye have one ancient doctor directly and plainly of your side," and so in that place and in that presence, for modesty's sake, to have avouched open untruth, as you and others had done before? O, M. Harding, in these cases a mean way is no way. Accursed is that modesty that drowneth the truth of God. Chrysostom saith: Veritatem negat, qui eam non libere prædicat" : "He xi. Quæst. 3, Nolite. 8 a renouncer of the truth, that dareth not freely say the truth." Ye say, I "have sought up certain small questions of light importance, wherein the ancient doctors have not travailed," as not daring to enter into matters of greater weight. Howbeit it seemeth overmuch for you to limit and appoint each man what he should preach at Paul's Cross. Neither is it much material whether these matters be great or small, but, whether you, by colour of the same, have deceived the people.
But would ye have us now at last believe that your mass, your transubstantiation, your real presence, your adoration, your sacrificing of the Son of God, and your supremacy of Rome, be so small matters? Ye told us not long sithence, there were no other matters so great as these. And may we think that your religion is now greater, now smaller; and increaseth and vadeth9, and waxeth and waneth, as doth the moon? Verily pope Nicolas would have joined your transubstantiation to the creed, and would have made it the thirteenth article of our faith 10. And pope Boniface the eighth saith that "to be subject to the church of Rome is of the necessity of salvation"." And pope Nicolas saith: "Whoso- Extr. de ever denieth the authority and pre-eminence of that see is an heretic 12." Notwithstanding, how great or small these matters be, it forceth not. you had learned them in very small time; and, as now, ye avouch them with Omnes. very small proofs. And how small and light soever you would now have them to appear, yet for the same ye have made no small ado. Nothing ought to be taken for small, wherewith so great multitudes of God's people may be deceived.
[...non solum ille proditor est veritatis, qui, &c. ...sed etiam ille, qui non libere veritatem pronunciat, -Chrysost. in Corp. Jur. Canon. Lugd. 1624. Decret. Gratian. Decr. Sec. Pars, Caus. XI. Quæst. ii. can. 86. col. 952.]
* To say, 1565, 1609.]
[ Vadeth: goeth away, fadeth.]
[10 The author doubtless refers to the confession imposed on Berengarius.-Ibid. Decr. Tert. Pars. De Consecr. Dist. ii. can. 42. cols. 1932, 3.] ["Porro subesse Romano pontifici, omni huma
Indeed, Dist. 22,
næ creaturæ declaramus, dicimus, diffinimus, et pro-
[12 Qui autem Romanæ ecclesiæ privilegium ab