Obrazy na stronie

definite conclusions as to the person and age of the poet. With the exception of the anger of Neptune, who always works unseen in the obscure distance, the gods appear in a milder form; they act in unison, without dissension or contest, for the relief of mankind, not, as is so often the case in the Iliad, for their destruction. It is, however, true, that the subject af. forded far less occasion for describing the violent and angry passions and vehement combats of the gods. At the same time, the gods all appear a step higher above the human race; they are not represented as descending in a bodily form from their dwellings on Mount Olympus, and mixing in the tumult of the battle, but they go about in human forms, only discernible by their superior wisdom and prudence, in the company of the adventurous Ulysses and the intelligent Telemachus. But the chief cause of this difference is to be sought in the nature of the story, and, we may add, in the fine tact of the poet, who knew how to preserve unity of subject and harmony of tone in his picture, and to exclude everything irrelevant. The attempt of many learned writers to discover a different religion and mythology for the Iliad and the Odyssey, leads to the most arbitrary dissection of the two poems. M. Constant, in particular, in his celebrated work “De la Religion” (vol. 3), has been forced to go to this length, as he distinguishes “trois espèces de mythologie” in the Homeric poems, and determines from them the age of the different parts. It ought, however, above all things, to have been made clear how the fable of the Iliad could have been treated by a professor of this supposed religion of the Odyssey, without introducing quarrels, battles, and vehement excitement among the gods; in which there would have been no difficulty, if the difference of character in the gods of the two poems were introduced by the poet, and did not grow out of the subject. On the other hand, the human race appears, in the houses of Nestor, Menelaús, and especially of Alcinois, in a far more agreeable state, and one of far greater comfort and luxury, than in the Iliad. But where could the enjoyments, to which the Atridae, in their native palace, and the peaceable Phaeacians could securely abandon themselves, find a place in a rough camp 1 Granting, however, that a different taste and feeling is shown in the choice of the subject and in the whole arrangement of the poem, yet there is not a greater difference than is found in the inclinations of the same man in the prime of life and in old age; and, to speak candidly, we know no other argument, adduced by the Chorizontes both of ancient and modern times, for attributing the wonderful genius of Homer to two different individuals. It is certain that the Odyssey, in respect of its plan and the conception of its chief characters, of Ulysses himself, of Nestor and Menelaús, stands in the closest affinity with the Iliad; that it always presupposes the existence of the earlier poem, and silently refers to it; which also serves to explain the remarkable fact, that the Odyssey mentions many occurrences in the life of Ulysses which lie out of the compass of the action, but not one which is celebrated in the Iliad. If the completion of the Iliad and the Odyssey seems too vast a work for the lifetime of one man, we may, perhaps, have recourse to the supposition, that Homer, after having sung the Iliad in the vigour of his youthful years, communicated in his old age to some devoted disciple the plan of the Odyssey, which had long been working in his mind, and left it to him for completion. (Müller, Hist. Gr. Lit., p. 57, seqq.) CEA, I. a town in the island of AEgina, above 20 *tadia from the capital. (Herod., 5,835–II. A town in the island of Thera, called also Calliste-III. A city on the coast of Africa, between the two Syrtes, and forming, together with Sabreta and Leptis Magna, the district called Tripolis. This city first grew up under the Roman sway, and was founded by a colo

ny consisting of the natives and certain Sicilians intermingled. (Compare Silius Ital, 3, 257.) It was a small place in comparison with the neighbouring Leptis, and yet was able to sustain a contest with this city about their respective boundaries, by the aid of the Garamantes in its vicinity. (Tacit., Hist., 4, 50.) In the reign of Valentinian, the Tripolitan cities were for the first time obliged to shut their gates against a hostile invasion of the savages of Gaetulia; and, finding themselves unprotected by the venal commander to whom the defence of Africa was intrusted, they joined the rebellious standard of a Moor. The insurrection was suppressed by the ability of Theodosius, the Roman general. Seventy years after, the whole country was ravaged by the Vandals. In the sixth century, CEa no longer existed, since Procopius, who speaks of the walls of the other cities in Tripoli being rebuilt, passes over CEa in silence. The ruins of the ancient city are said to lie four geographical miles to the east of the modern Tripoli (or, as the natives call it, Tarables). Ptolemy writes the name of the city 'Eóa (Eoa); the Peutinger Table gives Osa, and the Antonine Itinerary CEea. (Mannert, Geogr., vol. 10, pt. 2, p. 135.) CEAGRus, the father of Orpheus by Calliope. He was king of Thrace, and from him Mount Haemus, and also Hebrus, one of the rivers of the country, have received the appellation of CEagrius, which thus becomes equivalent to “Thracius” or “Thracicus.” (Orid, Ib., 484.—Virg., G., 4, 524.—Apollod, 1, 3.) CEBALíA, I. the ancient name of Laconia, which it received from CEbalus, one of its ancient kings. (Serv. ad Virg., Georg., 4, 125.) Hence CEbalius is used by the poets as equivalent to Laconicus or Spartanus, and is applied to Castor and Pollux (“OEbalii fratres,” Statius, Sylp., 3, 2, 10), to Helen (“OEbalia pellez,” Opid, Rem. Am., 458), to Hyacinthus (“OEbalius puer,” Martial, 14, 173), &c.—II. A name applied to Tarentum, because founded by a Spartan colony. (Plin., 3, 11.-Flor., 1, 18.) CEBALUs, I. a son of Argulius, king of Laconia, which country received from him, among the poets, the name of CEbalia. He was the father of Tyndarus, and grandfather of Helen. (Hygin, fab., 78. )—II. A son of Telon, king of Capreas, and of the nymph Sebethis. (Virg., AEn., 7, 734–Serr., ad loc.) CEchalía, H. a city of Thessaly, in the district of Estigeotis. (Hom., Il., 2, 729.) Homer here couples it with Tricca and Ithome, and of course means by it a Thessalian city. Many poets, however, as Strabo observes, not adhering to the Homeric geography, were of opinion that &li, was in Euboea, as Sophocles, for instance, in his Trachinja: ; while others consigned it to Arcadia or Messenia. (Strabo, 438– Cramer's Anc. Greece, vol. 1, p. 362.)—II. A city of AEtolia, belonging to the tribe of Eurytanes. (Strabo, 448.)—III. A city of Euboea, where Eurytus reigned, and which was destroyed by Hercules. But this opinion, which is maintained by many writers, would seem not to have been a well-grounded one, and we ought to look, in all probability, for the GEchalia of Eurytus in Thessaly. (Wid. OEchalia I. —Cramer's Anc. Greece, vol. 2, p. 139.)—IV. A city of Messenia, ac, cording to some the residence of Eurytus. (Pausan., 4, 33.) This is, however, a question which has been much agitated by the commentators on Homer; for, as Strabo remarks, the poet seems to speak of two places of that name, both belonging to Eurytus, one in Thessaly, the other in Messenia; it was from the latter that Thamyris, the Thracian bard, was proceeding on his way to Dorium, another Messenian city, when he encountered the Muses, who deprived him of his art. (Il., 2,594.) Apollodorus acknowledged only one CEchalia of Eurytus, which he placed in Thessaly; but Demetrius of Scepsis admitted also the Messenian city, which he identified wo A*. a well-known town of that province on the Arcadian frontier. (Strabo, 339.-Cramer's Anc. Greece, vol. 3, p. 146, seqq.) OEcuMENius, an ancient Greek Commentator on the Scriptures. The time at which he lived is uncertain; but it was after the eighth century and before the tenth. He is generally placed in the ninth century; Cave assigns to him the date A.D. 990; Lardner, A.D. 950. OEcumenius was bishop of Tricca, and the author of commentaries on the Acts of the Apostles, the fourteen epistles of St. Paul, and the seven Catholic epistles, which contein a concise and perspicuous illustration of these parts of the New Testament. Besides his own remarks and notes, they consist of a compilation of the notes and observations of Chrysostom, Cyrill of Alexandrea, Gregory Nazianzen, ...! others. He is thought to have written also a commentary on the four gospels, compiled from the writings of the ancient fathers, which is not now extant. The works of CEcumenius were first published in Greek at Verona in 1532, and in Greek and Latin at Paris in 1631, in 2 vols. fol. To the second volume of the Paris edition is added the commentary of Arethas on the book of Revelations. (Consult Hoffmann, Ler. Bibliogr., vol. 3, p. 156.) CEdipus (Oióirovc), was the son of Laius, king of Thebes, and of Jocasta, the daughter of Menoeceus. Homer calls his mother Epicasta. An oracle had warned Laius against having children, declaring that he would meet his death by means of his offspring ; and the monarch accordingly refrained, until, aster some lapse of time, having indulged in festivity, he forgot the injunction of the god, and Jocasta gave birth to a son. The father immediately delivered the child to his herdsman to expose on Mount Cithaeron. The herdsman, moved to compassion, according to one account (Soph, OEd. Tyr., 1038), gave the babe to a neatherd belonging to Polybus, king of Corinth, or, as others say (Eurip., Phaeniss., 28), the neatherds of Polybus found the infant after it had been exposed, and brought it to Periboea, the wise of Polybus, who, being childless, reared it as her own, and named it GEdipus, on account of its swollen feet (from otóéo, to swell, and Toto, a foot); for Laius, previous to its exposure, had pierced its ankles, and had inserted through the wound a leathern thong. The foundling OEdipus was brought up by Polybus as his heir. Happening to be reproached by some one at a banquet with being a supposititious child, he besought Periboea to inform him of the truth; but, unable to get any satisfaction from her, he went to Delphi and consulted the oracle. The god directed him to shun his native country, or else he would be the slayer of his father and the sharer of his mother's bed. He therefore resolved never to return to Corinth, where so much crime, as he thought, awaited him, and he took his road through Phocis. Now it happened that Laius, at this same time, was on his way to Delphi, for the purpose of ascertaining whether the child which had been exposed had perish. ed or not. He was in a chariot, accompanied by his herald Polyphontes; a few attendants came after. The father and son, total strangers to each other, met in a narrow road in Phocis. CEdipus was ordered to make way, and, on his disregarding the command, the charioteer endeavoured to crowd him out of the path. A contest thereupon ensued, and both Laius and the charioteer, together with all the attendants except one, who fled, were slain by the hand of CEdipus. Immediately after the death of Laius, Juno, always hostile to the city of Bacchus, sent a monster named the Sphinx to ravage the territory of Thebes. It had the face of a woman, the breast, feet, and tail of a lion, and the wings of a bird. This monster had been taught riddles by the Muses, and she sat on the Phicean Hill, and propounded one to the Thebans. It was this: “What is that which has one voice, is four-foot

ed, two-footed, and at last three-footed 4” or, as others give it, “What animal is that which goes on four feet in the morning, on two at noon, and on three at evening!”. The oracle told the Thebans that they would not be delivered from her until they had solved her riddle. They often met to try their skill; and when they had sailed, the Sphinx always carried off and devoured one of their number. At length Hæmon, son of Creon, having become her victim, the father of. fered by public proclamation the throne, to which he had succeeded on the death of Laius, and the hand of his sister Joaasta, to whoever should solve the riddle of the Sphinx. OEdipus, who was then at Thebes, hearing this, came forward and answered the Sphinx that it was Man ; who, when an infant, creeps on all fours; when he has attained to manhood, goes on two feet; and when old, uses a staff, a third foot. The Sphinx thereupon flung herself down to the earth and perished; and CEdipus now unknowingly accomplished the remainder of the oracle. He had by his mother two sons, Eteocles and Polynices, and two daughters, Antigone and Ismene.—After some years Thebes was afflicted with famine and pestilence; and the oracle being consulted, ordered the land to be purified of the j which defiled it. Inquiry was set on foet after the murder of Laius, and a variety of concurring circumstances brought the guilt home to GEdipus. Jocasta, on the discovery being made, hung herself, and her unhappy son and husband, in his grief and despair, put out his eyes. He was banished from Thebes; and, accompanied by his daughters, who faithfully adhered to him, he came, after a tedious period of miserable wandering, to the grove of the Furies at Colonus, a village not far from Athens, and there sound the termination of his wretched life, having mysteriously disappeared from mortal view, and been received into the bosom of the earth. (Apollod., 3, 5, 8, seq.-Soph. CEd. Col.) The history of his sons will be found under the articles Eteocles and Polynices.—Such is the form in which the history of CEdipus has been transmitted to us by the Attic dramatists. We will now consider its more ancient shape. The hero of the Odyssey says, “I saw (in Erebus) the mother of GEdipodes (such being his Homeric name), the fair Epicasta, who, in her ignorance, did an awful deed, marrying her own son, and he married, having slain his own father, and immediately the gods made this known unto men. Now he ruled over the Cadmoeans in desirable Thebes, suffering woes through the pernicious counsels of the gods; but she, oppressed with grief, went to the abode of Aides, the strong gatekeeper, having fastened a long halter to the lofty roof, and left to him many woes, such as the Furies of a mother produce.” (Od., 11, 271, seqq.) In the Iliad (23,679) the funeral games are mentioned which were celebrated at Thebes in honour of the “fallen CEdipodes.” Hesiod (Op. et D., 162) speaks of the heroes who fell fighting at the seven-gated Thebes, on account of the sheep of CEdipodes. It would also seem that, according to the above passage of the Odyssey, and to the epic poem the “CEdipodea.” (Pausan. 9, 5, 11), Epicasta had not any children by her son; Eurygeneia, the daughter of Hyperphas, being the mother of his well-known offspring. According to the cyclic Thebais, the fatal curse of CEdipus on his sons had the following origin: Polynices placed before his father a silver table which had belonged to Cadmus, and filled a golden cup with wine for him; but when CEdipus perceived the heir-looms of his family thus set before him, he raised his hands and prayed that.” sons might never divide their inheritance peaceably, but ever be at strife. Elsewhere (ap. Schol ad Saph, OEd. Col., 1440) the Thebais said, that his sons having sent him the loin, instead of the shoulder of the victim, he flung it to the ground, and prayed that they might fall by each other's hands. The motive” “

signed by the tragedians are certainly of a more dignified nature than these, which seem trifling and insignificant.—This story affords convincing proof of the great liberties which the Attic tragedians allowed themselves to take with the ancient myths. It was purely to gratify Athenian vanity that Sophocles, contrary to the current tradition, made CEdipus die at Colonus. His blindness also seems a tragic fiction. Euripides makes Jocasta survive her sons, and terminate her life by the sword. (Keightley's Mythology, p. 340, seqq.) CENeus, a king of Calydon in Altolia, son of Parthaon. He married Althaea, the daughter of Thestius, by whom he had, among other children, Meleager and Deianira. After Althaea's death, he married Periboea, the daughter of Hipponous, by whom he became the father of Tydeus. In a sacrifice which OEneus made to all the gods, upon reaping the rich produce of his fields, he forgot Diana, and the goddess, to revenge this neglect, sent a wild boar to lay waste the territory of §. The animal was at last killed by Meleager and the neighbouring princes of Greece, in a celebrated chase known by the name of the chase of the Calydonian boar. (Vid. Meleager.) After the death of Meleager, CEneus was dethroned and imprisoned by the sons of his brother Agrius. Diomede, having come secretly from the city of Argos, slew all the sons of Agrius but two, who escaped to the Peloponnesus, and then, giving the throne of Calydon to Andraemon, son-in-law of CEneus, who was himself now too old to reign, led the latter with him to Argolis. OEneus was afterward slain by the two sons of Agrius, who had fled into the Peloponnesus. Diomede buried him in Argolis, on the spot where the city of CEnoë, called after OEneus, was subsequently erected. CEneus is said to have been the first that received the vine from Bacchus. The god taught him how to cultivate it, and the juice of the grape was called after his name (olvoc, “wine.”—Apollod, 1,8.—Hygin., fab., 129). CENiid Æ, a city of Acarnania, near the mouth of the Achelous. Thucydides represents it as situated on the Achelotis, a little above the sea, and surrounded by marshes caused by the overflowing of the river, which rendered it a place of great strength, and deterred the Athenians from undertaking its siege; when, unlike the other cities of Acarnania, it embraced the cause of the Peloponnesians, and became hostile to Athens. (Thucyd., 1, 111 ; 2, 102.) At a later period of the war, it was, however, compelled by the Acarnanian confederacy to enter into an alliance with that power. (Thucyd., 3, 77.) The same writer gives us to understand, that CEniadae was first founded by Alcmaeon, according to an oracle which he consulted after the murder of his mother, and that the province was named after his son Acarnan (2, 102). Stephanus asserts that this city was first called Erysiche, a fact of which the poet Alcman had made mention in a passage cited by more than one writer; but Strabo, on the authority of Apollodorus, places the Erysichaei in the interior of Acarnania, and consequently appears to distinguish them from the OEniadae. From Pausanias we learn (4, 25), that the Messenians, who had been settled at Naupactus by the Athenians not long after the Persian invasion, made an expedition from that city to OEniadae, which, after some resistance, they captured and held for one year, when they were in their turn besieged by the united forces of the Acarnanians. The Messenians, despairing of bein able to defend the town against so great a number o troops, cut their way through the enemy, and reached Naupactus without experiencing any considerable loss. The AEtolians having, in process of time, conquered that part of Acarnania which lay on the left bank of the Achelotis, became also possessed of OEniadae, when they expelled the inhabitants under circumstan. * apparently of great hardship and cruelty, for which, * was said, they were threatened with the vengeance

of Alexander the Great. (Plut., Wit. Aler.) By the advice of Cassander, the OEniadae settled at Sauria (probably Thyria), another Acarnanian town. Many years afterward, the AEtolians were compelled to evacuate OEniadae by Philip the son of Demetrius, king of Macedon, in an expedition related by Polybius. This monarch, aware of the advantage to be derived from the occupation of a place so favourably situated with regard to the Peloponnesus, sortified the citadel, and enclosed within a wall both the sort and arsenal. (Polyb., 4, 65.) In the second Punic war this town was taken by the Romans, under Valerius Laevinus, and iven up to the AEtolians their allies (Liv., 26, 24.— Polyb., 9,39); but, on a rupture taking place with that people, it was finally restored to the Acarnanians. (Liv. 38, 11.-Polyb., fragm., 22, 15.) The precise site of this ancient city remains yet unascertained ; for, though many antiquaries have supposed that it is represented by a place called Trigardon, close to the mouth of the Aoi. and on its right bank, there are several strong objections against the correctness of this. A principal obstacle to the reception of such an opinion is found in the fact, that Trigardon is situated on the right bank of the Achelous, whereas the ancient town was evidently on the left. The ruins which Sir W. Gell describes as situated above Missolonghi and the lake of Anatolico, on the spot named Kuria Irene, seem to possess many of the characteristic features appertaining to OEniadae. (Itin. of Greece, p. 297.) Dodwell, however, decides against Kuria Irene, and in favour of Trigardon. (Cramer's Anc. Greece, vol. 2, p. 21, seqq.) CENidks (Oiveiðms), a patronymic of Meleager, son of OEneus. (Orid, Met., 8,414.) CENöe, I. a town, and demus or borough, of Attica, classed by Harpocration and the other lexicographers under the tribe AEantis. We are informed by the same writers that it was part of the Tetrapolis. (Harpocr., s. v. Olvöm.—Steph. Byz., s. v.–Strabo, 383.) From Dodwell we learn (vol. 2, p. 163) that the site of this town still retains its name and some vestiges near the cave of Pan.—II. Another borough of Attica, on the confines of Baeotia, near Eleutherae.—III. A small Corinthian fortress, near the promontory of Olmiae. (Strabo, 380.) Xenophon states (Hist. Gr., 4, 5, 5) that it was taken on one occasion by Agesilaus.-IV. A city of Elis, supposed by some to be the same with Ephyre, situated near the sea on the road leading from Elis to the coast, and 120 stadia from that city. (Strabo, 338.)—W. A sopwn of Argolis, between Argos and Mantinea, and of the Arcadian frontier. It was said to have been founded by Diomede, and named aster his grandfather OEneus. (Pausan., 2, 25.-Apollod., 1, 8, 6.) The site of this place, according to modern maps, is still called Enoa. (Cramer's Anc. Greece, vol. 3, p. 292.) CENoMKus, a son of Mars by Sterope, the daughter of Atlas. The legend connected with his name will be found under the article Pelops. CENône, a nymph of Mount Ida, daughter of the river Cebrenus in Phrygia. Paris, when a shepherd on Mount Ida, and before he was discovered to be a son of Priam, had united himself in marriage to OEnone; and as she had received from Apollo the gift of prophecy, she warned her husband against the consequences of his voyage to Greece. She at the same time told him to come to her if ever he was wounded, as she alone could cure him. Paris came to her, accordingly, when he had been wounded by one of the arrows of Philoctetes, but CEnone, offended at his desertion of her, refused to aid him, and he died on his return to Ilium. Repenting of her cruelty, CEnone hastened to his relief; but, coming too late, she threw herself on his funeral pile and perished. (Apollod., 3, 12, 6–Quint, Smyr., 10, 259, seqq.Conon., 22.) 917

OENOP1A, one of the ancient names of the island AEgina. (Ovid, Met., 7, 473.) OEN opion, a son of Bacchus and Ariadne, and king of Chios. His name is connected with the legend of Orion. (Wid. Orion.) CENotri, the inhabitants of OEnotria. OENot RIA, a name derived from the ancient race of the OEnotri, and in early use among the Greeks to designate a portion of the southeastern coast of Italy. The name is derived by some from olvoc, “wine,” and they maintain that the early Greeks called the country CEnotria, or the wine-land, from the number of vines they found growing there when they first became acquainted with the region. (Mannert, Geogr., vol. 9, pt. 1, p. 542.) With the poets of a later age it is a general appellation for all Italy. The OEnotri, as they were called, appear to have been spread over a large portion of Southern Italy, and may be regard. ed, not as a very early branch of the primitive Italian stock, but rather as the last scion propagated in a southerly direction. (Cramer's Anc. Italy, vol. 2, p. 336.) CENotrídes, small islands, two in number, off the coast of Lucania, and a little above the promontory of Palinurus. They lay in front of the city of Velia, where the river Heles empties into the sea. (Plin., 7, 7.) CENôtrus, a son of Lycaon. He was fabled to have passed with a body of followers from Arcadia into Southern Italy, and to have given the name of OEmotria to that part of the country where he settled. (But consult remarks under the article OEnotria, where a more probable etymology is given for the name of the country.) OENüsAs or CENuss AE, I. small islands in the AEgean Sea, between Chios and the mainland, now Spermadori, or (as the modern Greeks more commonly term them.) Egonuses. (Herod., 1, 165.- Thucyd, 8, 24.—Plin., 5, 31.-Bischaff und Möller, Wörterb, der Geogr., p. 800.)—II. Small islands off the coast of Messenia, and nearly facing the city of Methone. They are two in number, and are now called Sapienza and Cabrera. (Pausan., 4, 34.—Plin., 4, 11.) CENUs, I. a town of Laconia, supposed to have been situated on the river of the same name flowing near Sellasia. (Polyb., 2, 65.—Liv., 34, 28.) The modern name is Tchelesina. Sir W. Gell describes the river as a large stream, which falls into the Eurotas a little north of Sparta. (Itin. of the Morea, p. 223.) —II. or Ænus, a royer of Germany, separating Noricum from "...o. and falling into the Danube at Boiodurum or Passau. It is now the Inn. (Tacit., Hist, 3, 5–Id., Germ., 28.-Ptol., 2, 14.) CETA, a celebrated chain of mountains in Thessaly, whose eastern extremity, in conjunction with the sea, forms the famous pass of Thermopylae. It extended its ramifications westward into the country of the Dorians, and still farther into AEtolia, while to the south it was connected with the mountains of Locris, and those of Boeotia. (Liv., 36, 15.-Strabo, 428.-Herod., 7, 217.) Its modern name is Katarothra. Sophocles represents Jove as thundering on the lofty crags of QEta. (Trach., 436.) As regards the expression of Virgil, “tibi descrit Hesperus (Etam,” the meaning of which many have misconceived, consult the remarks of Heyne (ad Eclog., 8, 30). The highest summit of CEta, according to Livy, was named Callidromus : it was occupied by Cato with a body of troops in the battle fought at the pass of Thermopylae between the Romans under Acilius Glabrio and the army of Antiochus, and, owing to this manoeuvre, the latter was entirely routed. (Liv., 36, 15–Plin., 4, 7.) Herodotus describes the path by which the Persian army turned the position of the Greeks as beginning at the Asopus. Its name, as well as that of the mountain, is Anopoea. It leads along this ridge as far

as Alponus, the first Locrian town (7, 216). On the summit of Mount CEta were two castles, named Tichius and Rhoduntia, which were successfully defended by the AEtolians against the Romans. (Lor, 36, 19.-Strabo, 428.—Cramer's Anc, Greece, vol. 1, p. 445.) OEty LUs, a town of Laconia, so called from an Arive hero of that name, was situate eighty stadia from halamae. (Pausan., 3, 26.) Homer has noticed it among the towns subject to Menelaus. (Il., 2, 585.) Strabo observes that it was usually called Tylus. (Strab., 360.) Ptolemy writes the name Bityla (p. 90), and it is still known by that of Vitulo. (Geit’s Itin., p. 237.) Pausanias noticed here a temple of Serapis, and a statue of Apollo Carneius in the foruin. (Cramer's Anc. Greece, vol. 3, p. 187.) Ofellus, a character drawn in one of the satires of Horace. Ofellus represents a Sabine peasant, whose plain good sense is agreeably contrasted with the extravagance and folly of the great. (Horat., Sat., 2, 2.) OGLAs A, a small island off the coast of Etruria, some distance below Planasia, famed for its wine, now Monte Cristo. (Plin., 3, 7.) OGYges or Ogygus ('Qyvync or 'Qyvyoc) is said to have been the first king of Athens and of Thebes. (Tzetz. ad Lycophr., 1206.) Thus, Pausanias tells us that the Ectenes, who were the most ancient inhabitants of Boeotia, were the subjects of Ogyges, and that Thebes itself was called Ogygian, an epithet which is also applied to it by Æschylus. (Pausan., 9, 5, 1. —AEsch, Pers., 37.) That Ogyges was closely connected with Thebes as well as Attica, appears from the tradition, according to which he was said to be the son of Boeotus. (Schol. ad Apollon. Rh., 3, 1178.) It may also be mentioned, that the oldest gate in Thebes was called Ogygian. (Pausan., 9, 8, 3.) The name of Ogyges is connected with the ancient deluge which preceded that of Deucalion, and he is said to have been the only person saved when the whole of Greece was covered with water. We possess scarcely any particulars respecting him ; and the accounts which have come down to us are too vague and unsatisfactory to form any definite opinion on the subject. He clearly belongs to mythology rather than to history. The earlier Greek writers, Herodotus, Thucydides, Xenophon, &c., make no mention of his name; but the accounts preserved by Pausanias and other authors appear to indicate the great antiquity of the traditions respecting him. Varro places the deluge of Ogyges, which he calls the first deluge, 400 years before Inachus, and, consequently, 1600 years before the first Olympiad. This would refer it to a period of 2376 years before Christ; and the deluge of Noah, according to the Hebrew text, is 2349, there being only 27 years difference. Varro's opinion is mentioned by Censorinus (de Die Nat., c. 21). It appears from Julius Africanus (ap. Euseb., Prop. Er) that Acusilaus, the first author who placed a deluge in the reign of Ogyges, made this prince contemporary with Phoroneus, which would have brought him very near the first Olympiad. Julius Africanus makes only an interval of 1020 years between the two epochs; and there is even a passage in Censorinus conformsble to this opinion. Some also read Erogitium in place of Ogygium, in the passage of Varro which we have quoted. But what would this be but an Erogi. tian cataclysm, of which nobody has ever heard? (Curier, Theory of the Earth, p. 144, Jameson's transl.)—In a note appended to Lemaire's edition of Ovid's Metamorphoses, Cuvier enumerates the Mosaic, Grecian, Assyrian, Persian, Indian, and Chinese traditions concerning a universal deluge, and concludes from them that the surface of the globe, five or six thousand years ago, underwent a general and sudden revolution, by which the lands inhabited by the human beings who lived at that time, and by the

various species of animals known at the present day, were overflowed by the ocean; out of which emerged the present habitable portions of the globe. This celebrated naturalist maintains, that these regions of the earth were peopled by the few individuals who were saved, and that the tradition of the catastrophe has been preserved among these new races of people, variously modified by the difference of their situation and their social condition. According to Cuvier, similar revolutions of nature had taken place at periods long antecedent to that of the Mosaic deluge. The dry land was inhabited, if not by human beings, at least by land animals at an earlier period; and must have been changed from the dry land to the bed of the ocean; and it might even be concluded, from the various species of animals contained in it, that this change, as well as its opposite, had occurred more than once. (Theory of the Earth, Jameson's transl., p. 418.) This theory, however, has been ably attacked by Jameson.—Various etymologies have been proposed for the name Ogyges. Kenrick supposes that the word was derived from the root yuym, signifying darkness or night, and quotes a passage of Hesychius in support of his view, which appears, however, to be corrupt. The more favourite theory of modern scholars connects the name with Oceanus: which etymology is supported, as is thought, by the tradition that places Ogyges in the time of the deluge. In support of this view, it is remarked that Ogyges is only a reduplications of the radical syllable Og or Oc, which we find in Oceanus (rid. Oceanus II.), and also in Ogen (which is explained by Hesychius as equivalent to Oceanus : '[lyńv, 'Qkeavóc). A similar reduplication appears to take place in orvuot, Brărvor Örtouai, Öturrevo drażoo, dirtrazzo. (Kenrick, Philol. Museum, No. 5, “On the early Kings of Attica.”—Thirlwall, Philol. Mus., No. 6, “On Ogyges.”—Creuzer und Hermann, Briefe über Homer und Hesiodus, p. 105, in notis-Wölcker, Mythol. des Iap. Geschl., p. 67.—Schwenck, Andeut., p. 179.) Regarding, therefore, the name Ogyges as a general type of the waters, we may trace a resemblance between its radical syllable and the forms dy-a, “water” (compare the Latin aq-ua); aly-ec, “the waves;” 'Ax-17fic, “the water-god ;” Alak-6c, another marine deity, and the ruler over the island Aly-tva. (Schwenck, l.c.) But, whatever may be the etymology of the name, the adjective derived from it is frequently employed by the Greek writers to indicate any thing ancient or unknown. We learn from the scholiast on Hesiod, that, according to one tradition, Ogyges was the king of the gods, and some think that the name originally indicated nothing more than the high antiquity of the times to which it referred. (Encycl. Us. Knowl., vol. 16, p. 412.) Ogygia, I. an ancient name of Boeotia, from Ogyges, who reigned there. (Wid. Ogyges.)—II. The island of Calypso. (Wid. Calypso.) The name Ogygia is supposed to refer to its being in the middle of the ocean. (Vid. Ogyges.) Oileus, king of the Locrians, was son of Odoedocus, and father of Ajax the Less, who is called, from his parent, the Oilean Ajax. Oileus was one of the Argonauts. (Apollod, 3, 10, 7. Hygin., fab., 14, 18.) Olbia, I. a city of Bithynia, in the eastern angle of the Sinus Olbianus, and probably the same with Astacus. (Plin., 5, 27–Steph. Byz., p. 512.)—II. A city on the coast of Pamphylia, west of Attalea. (Ptol. Steph. Byz., p. 512.)—III. A town on the coast of Gaul, founded by Massilia. It was also called Athenopolis, and is supposed by Mannert to have been the same with Telo Martius, or Toulon, these three ancient names indicating, as he thinks, one and the same city. (Mannert, Geogr., vol. 2, p. 81.)— IV. A town on the eastern coast of Sardinia, in the

northern part of the island. According to Reichard, some traces of it still remain on the shores of the bay of Volpe. (Itin. Ant., p. 79.)—V. Or Borysthenis, called also Olbiopolis and Miletopolis, a city of European Sarmatia, according to Stephanus of Byzantium and Mela, at the mouth of the Borysthenes, but, according to other writers, at some distance from the sea. i. was colonized by the Milesians, and is at the present day, not Otchakow, as some have thought, but Kudak, a small place in the vicinity. (Bischoff und Möller, Worterb. der Geogr., p. 195.) The latest of the ancient names of this place was Borysthenis, and the one preceding it Olbia. Olchinium or Olcinium, now Dulcigno, a town of Dalmatia, on the coast of the Adriatic. (Liv., 45, 26. —Plin., 3, 22.) Ole Kros. Wid. Antiparos. Ole N ('Q2 ov), the name of one of the earliest bards mentioned in the history of Greek Poetry. According to a tradition preserved by Pausanias (10, 5, 4), he came originally from the country of the Hyperboreans, and the Delphian priestess Boeo called him the first prophet of Phoebus, and the first who, in early times, founded the style of singing in epic metre (tréov douéá). He appears to have settled in Lycia, and afterward to have proceeded to Delos, whither he transplanted the worship of Apollo and Diana, and the birth of which deities, in the country of the Hyperboreans, he celebrated in his hymns. Many ancient hymns, indeed, attributed to Olen, were preserved at Delos, which are mentioned by Herodotus (4, 35), and which contained remarkable mythological traditions and significant appellatives of the gods. Mention is also made of his nomes, that is, simple and antique songs, combined with certain fixed tunes, and fitted to be sung for the circular dance of a chorus. The time when Olen flourished is uncertain. It is supposed to have been before Orpheus. (Schöll, Hist. Lit. Gr., vol. 1, p. 33.-Müller, Hist. Lit. Gr., p. 24.) OLENUs, I. an ancient city of Ætolia, in the vicinity of Pleuron, and known to Homer, who enumerates it in his catalogue. (Il., 2,638.) It was destroyed by the AEtolians, and preserved but few vestiges in Strabo's time. (Strab., 460.) The goat Amalthaea is called Olenia by the poets (Ovid, Met., 2, 594), because nurtured in the vicinity of this place.—II. One of the most ancient of the cities of Achaia, situate on the western coast, at the mouth of the river Peyrus. According to Polybius (2, 41, 7), it was the only one of the twelve cities which refused to accede to the confederation, upon its renewal after an interruption of some years. In Strabo's time it was deserted, the inhabitants, as Pausanias affirms, having retired to the adjacent villages. (Cramer's Anc. Greece, vol. 3, p. 70.) Olisippo, a city of Lusitania, at the mouth of the Tagus, near the Atlantic Ocean. (Plin., 4, 35.—Id., 8, 67.—Varro, R. R., 2, 1.) It was the only municipium in this section of the country, and, as such, had the appellation of Felicitas Julia. It was very probably of Roman origin, and the story of its having been founded by Ulysses is a mere fable, arising out of an accidental coincidence of name. The horses bred in the territory adjacent to this place were remarkable for their speed. (Plin., 8, 42.) Mannert and many other geographical writers make Olisippo coincide with the modern Lisbon (Lissabon), but others oppose this. (Mannert, Geogr., vol. 1, p. 342–Compare Ukert, vol. 2, p. 394.) The name of this city is variously written. Thus we have Olisipo in some authors, and in others, who favour the account of its foundation by Ulysses, we find Ulysippo. (Consult Wesseling, ad Itin., p. 416.-Tzschucke, ad Mel, 3, 1, vol. 2, pt. 3, p. 25.) - Ollius, a river rising in the Alps, and falling into the Po. It is now the Oglio, and forms in its course

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