Obrazy na stronie

education, the great object is to fix at-farther advanced, slates and pencils

tention, and excite exertion, or to pre-
vent the waste of time in schools."
But the advantages are summed up
by the Trustees of the Parochial Cha-
rity Schools of St Mary's, White-Cha-
pel, in their printed Report of April
7th 1807, in these words: "The
chief advantages of Dr Bell's plan
are, 1st, It completely fixes and se-
cures the attention of every scholar;
the indolent are stimulated, the vi-
cious reclaimed, and it nearly annihi-
lates bad behaviour of every sort.
24, The children make a regular pro-
gress in their learning, which is daily
noted and registered, no lesson being
passed over till it be correctly studied.
3d, It saves the expence of additional
instructors; the eye of some intelli-
gent master or mistress alone being re-
quired to see that their agents, the se-
nior good boys and girls, do their du-
ty in teaching their juniors. 4th, It
not only possesses excellent mechani-
cal advantages in communicating in-
struction generally, but it is particu-
larly adapted to instil into, and fix
practically in the mind, the principles.
of our holy religion, while it material-
ly secures the moral conduct of the
children, both in and out of school.-
5th, By economizing time hitherto so
lamentably wasted in charity schools
conducted on the old plan, it affords
ample and very inviting opportunity
to add to the ordinary establishment
of schools, Industry." The superio-
rity which writing on Sand possesses
over every other mode, as an initiato-
ry process, consists in its being per-
formed with the simplest and most
manageable instrument, the finger,
which the child can guide more rea-
dily than he can a piece of chalk, a
pencil, or a pen. The simplicity of
this process, and its fitness for chil-
dren of four years, at which age they
were admitted into the asylum, entitle

it to the notice of all shools in a simi-
lar predicament; but with children.

may be used after the sand.

Among various testimonies to the merit of Dr Bell's plan of education, the two following may be added to that already transcribed, one from the report of the Asylum, or House of Refuge: "The committee, in gratitude to the Rev. Dr Bell, feel it due to the public to inform them, that the admirable mode of education, invented by that gentleman, is now practised at the asylum; it was introduced by the recommendation of his Royal Highness the President, with the approbation of his Grace the Archbishop of Canterbury." The other from "the society for promoting the comforts of the poor in Dublin," viz. "Resolved, that in order to express our sense of the benefit conferred upon the public by the Rev. Dr Bell's introduction of a method of popular education, which, in expedition and efficaciousness, appears wholly unexampled; that reverend gentleman be, and he is hereby requested to permit himself to be enrolled as an honorary member of this society.

These observations and extracts serve to point out some of the advantages of the new system of popular instruction, and to promote its exten sion, by bringing it under the public eye, in an approved and widely circulated publication: and if the system itself has a just claim to praise, every advocate for it, and patron of it, shares in the general plaudit, especially those who have actually adopted and acted upon it, either partially, entirely, or with supplementary additions.


Description of EDINBURGH with an
Account of the present State of its

From the German of Frank, Lecturer on

Pathology at Wilna, Vienna, 1805.

WITH the greatest emotion I now

write an account of my three


weeks stay in this remarkable city. The situation of Edinburgh, the build ings of the new part of the city, and the views which it commands, are, in the strictest sense of the word, unequalled. The stile of society, which here prevails, is easy and frank, and the hospitality is unbounded. The The university is distinguished not only as the foremost in Britain, but also as one of the first in Europe. Nor does this metropolis of Scotland fail in point of charitable establishments. In short, I found here, united in one place, every thing which could interest me in the highest degree, both as a man and as a physician.

Edinburgh is divided into the Old and New Town. Its eastern part lies between two hills, the western extends over a height, which rises into a steep cliff, on whose summit stands the castle. The New Town is at the foot of this cliff. It consists of three parallel streets, each of which is an English mile long. These are intersected, at equal distances, by five cross streets. Each of these streets is a hundred paces and upwards in breadth, and furnished with suitable pavements for foot passengers. The three parallel streets terminate at both their extremities in two beautiful squares.

The houses

are built uniformly throughout. In a word, the New Town resembles a regiment of soldiers, divided into companies, and standing three deep.

The cliffs, on which what is called the Castle is built, command the most varied prospects. To the east we see the Old Town, and the neighbouring sea port of Leith; this view is bounded by the sea. To the north, we have beneath us the New Town; a fruitful plain lies behind, bounded by a considerable arm of the sea, which stretches far into the land; and a high mountain appears behind these. To the west lies a wide plain, divided by a hill, terminating, at a greater distance, in a mountain. The view to the south is nearly the same, only that it is more

confined. Not less romantic is the prospect which we have from the two other hills, Salisbury Craggs, and particularly the Calton Hill.

A residence in Edinburgh must indeed be particularly agreeable in winter; whereas I spent there only a part of the months of the months of June and July, during which a great many families fly to the country. I have, however, formed a very advantageous idea of the good stile of society which prevails among the cultivated inhabitants of Edinburgh. I spent some evenings in a most agreeable manner in a club of literary men, where, among others, I became acquainted with Mess. Mackenzie, Scott, Brougham,Sidney Smith, and Jeffrey.

Hospitality was freely bestowed without ostentation. The Scotch cooks approach very near to the French, especially in regard to soups, which are excellent. No where have I met with so good strawberries as in Scotland. This fruit is supplied in profusion.

Yet Scotland presents, in many respects, a disadvantageous contrast to England. One misses particularly the cleanliness, and, in general, the solid luxury of the English.


This University is said to have been founded in the year 1583. For a long time, nothing was taught in it but theology. The first medical professors were Sir Robert Sibbald, and Dr Archibald Pitcairn. They were appointed in 1685. These professors, however, were chiefly for the sake of ap pearance, though they took an opportunity to give some lectures on Anatomy and Botany, that is, on officinal plants. In the year 1720, the whole art of healing first began to be taught. In general, it is from this pe riod, that the illustration of the whole University may be dated. The names of the great men, who taught here, are so fresh in our memory that it cannot be necessary to recount their merits.


gory, Cullen, and Black, must be for ever memorable.

Those of the physicians Monro, Gre- may be expected, are very highly prized. Dr Monro the father, notwithstanding his great age, is still fresh and active. His services to this University are boundless. Nothing is more ardently desired, than that this learned man may long be able to devote his services to it. He has besides' the greatest medical and surgical prac tice in Edinburgh; we may say, in all Scotland.


The building, in which lectures are given, having partly fallen to ruin, and partly also having been found too small, they have begun, within these few years, to build a new one. want of the necessary funds has, however, prevented the completion of this work, which was planned on a very large scale. The Façade is magnificent. Pity that this edifice should not be in the New Town.

The library of this University is considerable, and of general use. Every candidate who wishes to have the benefit of it, has only to pay halfa-crown at the beginning of the col lege-year; yet most give voluntarily larger sums. They carry the books to their houses, after depositing the value of them,

Every year two courses are given in this University, which are called the Winter and Summer course. The former is the most considerable, as many professors give no lectures du ring the summer.

The order of medical lectures is as follows:

The Winter Course (from the beginning of November to the end of April.)

Materia Medica. Dr James Home. From 8 to 9.

Dr Home is son to the celebrated author of Principia Medicine. I had not an opportunity of forming an acquaintance with him, as he was in the country. Dr Home is understood to lean more than the other professors to the system of Brown, and treats Materia Medica for the most part on the principles of that writer.,

Anatomy and Surgery, Drs Monro, Father and Son. From 1 to 3.

The first half of this course relates to Anatomy, the second to Surgery. Monro the father commonly opens the course, and leaves his son to continue it. The lectures of the former, as

[ocr errors]

The amphitheatre, in which the lec tures are given, is roomy and lightThe table, on which the professor de monstrates, is shaped like a desk; a most convenient arrangement, which I have no where else seen. The ana tomical preparations which have served for the lectures are laid out for some days in an adjoining room, that the students may examine them, and go over again the lectures. This custom is well deserving of imitation. The collection of anatomico-pathological preparations is very considerable. They are formed for the most part by the deceased Dr Monro and his son. Among the anatomical preparations is particularly shewn a rich collection of diseased bones, and of calculi. department of comparative anatomy has been particularly enriched by Dr Monro, junior; and the services of Mr Fyffe, the dissector, in the whole of this cabinet, are very highly extolled. The cabinet is indeed under the immediate superintendance of Dr Monro, junior. It is merely intended to furnish materials for the lectures, and it evidently expresses its aim. Yet as, like every other cabinet of this art, it should be occasionally shewn to learned inquirers, it were to be wished, that a better order were introduced into it. The dissecting room is in the highest part of the house, an arrangement which must be excessively inconvenient.


Chemistry & Pharmacy. Dr Hope. From 10 to 11.

Dr Hope, on the day after my arrival in Edinburgh, undertook a jour


ney to London. I was thus deprived of the opportunity of longer enjoying his acquaintance: this I regretted the more, as the short time, during which I enjoyed his conversation, gave me the most advantageous idea of him; an idea which has been completely strengthened by every thing which I have since learned of this Professor.

Medical Institutions, i.e. Physiology in connection with Pathology, and Universal Therapeutics. Dr Duncan, sen. I reserve till a future time what I have to say of this valuable lecturer. This eminent man lectures also once a week on Medical Police, and Medicina Forensis.

Midwifery. Dr James Hamilton. From 3 to 4.

This Professor also was absent from Edinburgh. I saw unattended his delivery room, which is very small. About thirty births may take place in it annually. Dr Hamilton lectures also on the diseases of women.

(To be continued.)

ced in the zealous co-operation of our troops now engaged in the country of Spain; and may, perhaps, instruct Buonaparte, that it will be a work of no ordinary difficulty for him to add one leaf of laurel to his wreath, when he has to contend with Britons. TIMON.

ALICANT is a city and port, situated in lat. 38° 24′ N. long. 0.0 and commanded by a strong castle, standing on a rock, at a small distance from the sea, about sixty-eight miles south from the capital city of Valencia.➡, There was in it, a pretty good garrison, under the command of Maj.-Gen. Richards, which made an obstinate defence against a very numerous army of the enemy, with a very large train of heavy artillery, and excellently supplied with ammunition. At last, the city being absolutely untenable, the garrison resolved to retire into the castle, which had hitherto been esteemed impregnable. They sunk three cisterns in the solid rock, and then, with incredible labour, filled them with water. The troops that retired into it,

Brave Defence of the CASTLE of were Sir Charles Hotham's regiment,


ALICANT in 1709.

To the Editor.

A -T such a time as this, when every eye is directed to the glorious struggle now carrying forward in Spain; and when our gallant countrymen are on the eve of acting a conspicuous part in defence of that gallant nation, I presume, Sir, to direct the attention of your readers to the following instance of unparalleled heroism in a handful of British troops, who were besieged in the Castle of Alicant, in the year 1709, during the reign of Queen Anne; and altho' the issue of this unequal contest terminated in the surrender of the fort, yet it will serve to point out (if proof was wanting) that the most unbounded confidence may, undoubtedly, be pla

and that of Colonel Sibourg, (generally called the French regiment, because it was composed of refugees.)After some progress made in this se cond siege, the French saw that it was impossible to do any great matter in the usual way, and therefore, contrary to all expectation, resolved upon a work, excessively laborious, and in all outward appearance impracticable; which was that of mining through the solid rock, in order to blow up the castle and its garrison into the air together. At first, Maj.-Gen. Sibourg, and all the officers in the place, looked upon the enemy's scheme as a thing utterly impossible to be accomplished, and were secretly well pleased with their undertaking, in hopes it would give time for our fleet to come to their relief: yet this did not hinder them from doing all that lay in their power,

to incommode the workmen, and, at last, to countermine them *.

The besiegers, however, wrought so incessantly, and brought such numbers of peasants to assist them in their labours, that they having, in about twelve weeks time, finished the works thought proper for this service, by very experienced engineers, and charged them with 1,500 barrels of powder, several large beams, iron bars and crows, and other utensils of destruction, summoned the castle to surrender, March 20th, most solemnly as suring a safe and honourable convoy to Barcelona, with bag and baggage for every person in it, if they submitted within three days, and prevented the ruin of the castle; but threatened otherwise, no mercy should be shewn, if any might accidentally escape the blow: and, to demonstrate the reality of their design, they desired the garri son might depute three, or more engineers, with other gentlemen of competent skill, to view their works, and make a faithful report of what they saw. Accordingly, two field-officers went to the mine, and were allowed the liberty of making what scrutiny they pleased: upon which, they told the governor, that if their judgement failed them not, the explosion would carry up the whole castle to the eastermost battery, unless it took vent in their own counter-mine, or vein; but at least, they conceived it would carry away the sea-battery, the lodgingrooms in the castle.close, some of the chambers cut for soldiers barracks, and, they very much feared, might affect the great cistern +.

A grand council of war was called

* Burchet, Oldmixon, compleat history of Europe, annals of Queen Anne, Pointer's chronological history.

+ Taubman's memoirs of the British fleets and squadrons in the Medite ranean, life of Queen Anne, compleat history of Europe for the year 1759. His tory of the late war.

upon this; the French message delivered, and the engineers made their report; the besieged acknowledged their want of water; but believing the fleet might be sensible of their distress, and consequently under some concern for their relief, their unanimous resolution was, to commit themselves to the providence of God, and, whatever fate attended them, to stand the springing of the mine. The French were extremely concerned at this answer, and the second night of the three allowed, sent to divert them from what they called inexcusable obstinacy, offering the same honourable articles as before, upon that late compliance; but these still were rejected by the besieged. The fatal third night approaching, and no fleet seen, the French sent their last summons, and withal, an assurance, that their mine was primed, and should be sprung by six o'clock the next morning; and though, as they saw all hope and prospect of relief was vain, yet there was room for mercy still, and the terms already proposed was in their power to accept. The besieged persisted in their adherence to the result of their first council, and the French met their usual answer again; therefore, as a prologue to their intended tragedy, they ordered all the inhabitants of that quarter to withdraw from their houses before five o'clock the ensuing morning. The besieged, in the mean time, kept a general guard, devoting themselves to their meditations. The Major-General, Colonel Sibourg, and Lieutenant-Colonel Thornicroft of Sir Charles Hotham's regiment, sat together in the governor's usual lodging room; other officers cantoned themselves as their tempers inclined them to pass the melancholy night ‡.


Mercure historique et politique for 1709, vol. i. p. 472. Taubman, Old mixon, &c.

« PoprzedniaDalej »