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"Messieurs, the Deputies of the De
partments to the Legislative Body; "The code of laws, laying down the principles of property and of civil free dom, which forms the subject of your Jabours, will be adopted as the sentiment of Europe. My people already experience the most salutary effects from them.
"The latest laws have laid the foundation of our system of finance. This is a monument of the might and greatness of France. We shall henceforward 'be able to meet the expenditure which might be rendered necessary, even by a general coalition of Europe, from our yearly income alone. Never shall we be reduced to have recourse to the fatal expedients of paper money, of loans, or of anticipation of revenue.
"I have, in the present year, laid out more than a thousand miles of road. The system of works which I have established for the improvement of our territory will be carried forward with zeal.
"The Emperor of Russia and myself have had an interview at Erfurth. Our first thought was a thought of peace. We have even resolved to make some sacrifices, in order to enable the hundred millions of men whom we represent, if possible, the sooner to enjoy the benefits of the commerce of the seas. We are agreed, and unchangeably united, as well for peace as for war.
"I have ordered my Minister of Finance, and of the General Treasury, to lay before you an account of the receipt and expenditure of the year. You will therein see, with satisfaction, that I have not felt it necessary to increase the tarif with any impost. My people shall experience no new burdens.
"The Speakers of my Council of State will submit to you many plans of laws, and among others all those which have relation to the criminal code.
"I rely constantly on your co-ope ration."
His Majesty's speech excited the most lively emotion, and the sitting was closed under repeated acclamations of Long live the Emperor! The same rejoi cings were manifested in the streets through which his Majesty passed.
We do not find in this address any idea thrown out of a conditional abandonment of his designs against Spain; whatever sacrifices he was to make for “gi ving peace to the world," they certainly
statues of the villa Borghese, purchased by his Majesty the Emperor. They chiefly consist of the Gladiator, the Achilles, the Venus, Vietriæ, and a vas of an uncommon size, and are destined for the Museum Napoleon.
ly were not to be found in Spain, nor in any thing connected with her affairs. The doom of that country is fixed, as far as he can fix it. On the 27th Oct. a deputation of the Legislative Body repaired to the palace of the Thuilleries, and Napoleon being seated on the throne, surrounded by his princes, and grandees, and Senators, and counsellors, their president Fontanes addressed the Emperor in a long speech, which we do not mean to give at length, because it is remark. able for nothing but an extravagance of adulation, equal to any thing that we have yet heard from any of the grovelling herd that lick the dust under the feet of the tyrant. It might indeed pass for a fine piece of irony, in which the speaker, by praising him for all those qualities that he does not possess, makes the disgusting features of his character more prominent and more odious. He dwells with rapture on the prosperity and happiness which France enjoys from the discoveries of the only financier and legislator of the age, whose codes will extend farther than his conquests, and reign without effort over 20 different nations. He then introduces us to Bonaparte as the greatest of captains, yet placing his glory not in conquering countries, but in making good laws! he delights in peaceable triumphs-he sacrifices every thing to the happiness of the people when he says he will make sacrifices, be completes his triumph! He increases his grandeur by moderating the use of it! He reserves for the world the extraordinary spectacle of force, which has subdued every thing, subduing itself!! He finally informs us, that hitherto when Monarchs met, all was alarm among the neighbouring states; but the two Emperors met at Erfurth, "not to invade but to pacify the world!" and to prove the sincerity of his desire to pacify the world, Napoleon hastened from this meeting, with a courier's speed, to carry the most cruel, unjust, and unprovoked war that ever was waged into the heart of Spain. Napoleon's reply to this precious address was very short. He thanked the Legislative body for their love to him, and informed them that he should soon return to his capital.
On the 24th of last month arrived in Grenoble, eight very large waggons, loaded with the collection of antique Nov. 1808.
The only information that we have from this country relates to commercial restrictions; it is in substance as follows:
The decree for shutting the Dutch ports was so far modified, that vessels loaded before its publication were to be suffered to proceed on their voyage, but an unfair advantage is stated to have been taken of this indulgence by the Dutch merchants, some of whom put cargoes on board their vessels after the period allowed. The consequence was, that another decree was issued, prohi biting all vessels with Dutch produce, having licences or not, from sailing after the 15th of November, and all such vessels were held bound to return by the 30th of that month. After these two periods, their departure and return were absolutely prohibited, and the ports were to be finally closed. We are also informed, that, in consequence of the earnest solicitations of the merchants to King Louis, the latter had obtained the reluctant consent of his brother to the repeal of the decree prohibiting the introduction of colonial produce into France from Holland. Napoleon, however, desired that he might be no more troubled with similar applications, as he was fixed in his resolution to grant no facilities to commerce until the re-establishment of peace, and signified that, in whatever related to trade, the Dutch merchants would henceforth be considered as French subjects. We are more. over informed that, in order more ef fectually to prevent the clandestine introduction of foreign merchandise into Holland, all the shops and warehouses are to be placed under an excise! Officers are to be appointed to take stock, and to keep an account of goods sold and delivered, and should there at any time be an increase of stock, for which legal vouchers cannot be produced, the surplus is to be confiscated. This regulation is, it is said, to take place on the 30th November.
CONFERENCES AT ERFURTH.
We have no certain intelligence respecting these conferences, but what we find published in the Paris papers, as articles from Erfurth. The following is the substance of these articles.
Erfurth, October 2.
The Kings of Saxony and Westphalia have already arrived. To-morrow we expect the King of Wirtemberg, and, on the 4th, the King of Bavaria.
From Russia, we have here, besides the Emperor and the Grand Duke Constantine, the Minister of State, Count Romanzow, the Counsellor of State Servais, the Grand Marshal Count Markolini, and both the Counts Tolstoy, one of whom is the Ambassador at the Court of Paris.
Among the principal French Officers here are Marshals Lannes, Mortier, and · Duroc, with a number of Generals and Field Officers belonging to Mortier's corps, the greater part of which is at present quartered in Bavaria. Of the German Princes, we have here Prince William of Prussia, the Duke of Saxe-Go tha, the Prince of Homberg, the Prince of Mecklenburgh Schwerin, and the Prince of Rentz and Redalstadt.
Oct. 7. His Majesty the Emperor Napoleon gave a grand dinner, at which were present his Majesty the Emperor Alexander, the Kings of Saxony and Westphalia, the Duke of Saxe-Gotha, the Hereditary Prince of Weimar, the Prince of Mecklenburgh-Schwerin, Pr. William of Prussia, and the Princes of Benevento and Neufchatel.
The two Monarchs daily meet about one o'clock, and at the termination of their conference, their Majesties, on horseback, or in the same coach, make an excursion among the neighbouring villages. The principal Ministers of both the Emperors have also daily conferences.
Oct. 11. On Sunday last, the Emperor of the French heard mass performed in his Palace, as he also had on the preceding Sunday. There was also a grand parade in front of the High Church, where all the Generals attended Mass. The two Emperors live in the closest intimacy. They constantly spend a part of the evening together. Europe must doubt. less look with anxiety to the happy result of this important meeting; but it is
very unbecoming, as some German newspapers have done, to pretend to give an account of plans which can be known only to the two Sovereigns themselves.
Oct. 14. This day, at one o'clock, the Emperor Napoleon, and the Emperor Alexander, proceeded half way from this place to Weimar, where with the same solemnity as when they met, the two Sovereigns embraced each other, and took a most affectionate adieu. The Emperor Alexander went forward to Weimar, where he will remain a few days. The Emperor Napoleon returned hither, received a visit from the King of Saxony, gave a farewell audience to Count Tolstoy, who returns to Russia, and soon after an audience to Baron Von Vincent, to whom his Majesty delivered a letter in answer to the communication of his Majesty the Em. peror of Austria. It is believed that the mission of Baron Von Vincent has removed all the distrust which gave rise to the Austrian levies. Soon after the audience, his Imperial and Royal Majesty departed from this place.
Yesterday the King of Wirtemberg and Bavaria also left this town.
Oct. 15. Notwithstanding the confer ences of their Imperial Majesties, during their residence here, have been covered with a thick veil, there appears to be no doubt that they had the following objects:
1st, The restoration of general Peace; for two couriers, one French and onc Russian, have been dispatched from this place, whose journey could be for no other purpose but to communicate to the Court of London,the desire of both Emperors. zdly, The securing the tranquility of Germany; indeed, it appears that the Princes of the Confederation of the Rhine have received orders to break up their encamped contingents for their respective garrisons, or the neighbour. ing cantoniments. It is also certain, thet, through the medium of the Emperat Alexander, Prussia has obtained, in the last treaty with France, a considerable reduction of her contributions. His Majesty the Emperor Napoléon has pre. sented Count Von Tolstoy and his bro ther with the Grand Eagle of the Legion of Honour, and Messrs Wieland and Goethe with the cross of the same Legion. · OVER
OVERTURES FOR PEACE.
A circumstance of an interesting nature has occurred since our last publication. On Thursday night, October 20. though it blew a gale of wind, a flag of truce left Boulogne, with French and Russian messengers on board, with dispatches for the British Government, who were directed to make all possible speed to Deal or Dover. At eight o'clock on Friday morning the flag of truce arrived in the Downs, and was immediately boarded by one of our cruisers, who took out the messengers. The French messenger was not permitted to come to London, but was sent on board a ship of war till the pleasure of his Majesty's Ministers be known. The Russian messenger, as soon as he reached the shore, was sent off for London, accompanied by one of Admiral Camp. bell's Lieutenants. They arrived at Mr Canning's office about eleven o'clock on Friday night, where they delivered their dispatches, and went to the house of Mr Shaw the messenger, where they lodged all night. Next morning a passport was sent from the Foreign Office for the Russian messenger, who returned to Dover immediately, and embark ing on board the flag of truce, proceeded to France.
If this statement be correct, the an swer that will be returned by his Majesty's Ministers to such a communication is obvious. The epithet applied by the enemy to the kind of peace which they are desirous of negociating, shews us at once that they do not admit our interference in the affairs of the Continent. His Majesty's Ministers, we should conjecture, would reply to M. de Champagny and M. Romanzow, that his Bri. tannic Majesty was animated by the desire which he had always expressed, and which was well known to all Europe, to put an end to the calamities of war, whenever he could do so consistently with the security of his dominions, the honour of his Crown, and the good faith he owed to his allies-that he was ready to enter into a negociation in concert with those allies, and that he would immediately communicate the overture that had been made to them.
Nothing certain has yet transpired, either with respect to these dispatches, or the reply returned by our Government. The former are said to be very short-that they consist of two letters dated from Erfurth, and addressed by M. de Champagny, the French Minister for Foreign Affairs, and M. de Romanzow, the Russian Minister, to his Excellency George Canning, Esq.that the two letters are in substance the same, stating that his Majesty the Em. peror of all the Russias, and his Majesty the Emperor of the French, being equalfly animated with a desire to put an end to the calamities of war, he (the Minister for Foreign Affairs) has it in command from his Majesty to request his Excellency to communicate to his Britannic Majesty that desire; and if his Britannic Majesty be influenced by a similar desire, to propose that Plenipotentiaries shall be immediately named, to proceed to a place that may be fixed upon, to open a negociation with the Plenipotentiaries of his Imperial Majesty or the conclusion of a maritime peace.
The more we reflect upon the overture from Erfurth, the more are we convinced that it has a double object in view:-First, to attempt to produce a coolness between the Spaniards and this country, as if we meant to enter into a negociation for peace without including them, and 2dly, to alarm and paralyse Austria. These two objects were, if not the sole, the principal motives of the imperial journey to Erfurth.
It is the ordinary policy of Napoleon, before he comes forward personally to direct the horrors of war, to make some previous and fraudulent offers of a treaty; to endeavour to win upon the public feeling by a dissembled show of humanity, and to have the appearance of offering a choice of the olive or the sword. Ministers have doubtless been on their guard against a trick so stale and superficial.
Mr Shaw the messenger was dispatched on Friday Oct. 28. with the answer of the British Court to the above overtures. He reached Paris on Monday morning the 31st, and delivered his dispatches, one packet to M. Champagny, the French Minister for Foreign Affairs, and another to the Russian Ambassador. He was detained in Paris, till the early part of Tuesday afternoon, when, having received answers, addressed to Mr Secretary Canning, from both of the above Ministers, he proceeded on his jour
journey for Boulogne, and arrived in London on the 4th of Nov.
Mr Shaw was received with great satisfaction at all the places through which he passed, and treated with much civility and attention at Paris. During the short time he remained there, he was suffered to go abroad, in company with the French messenger who lately came to England.
It appears that Bonaparte did not wait for the arrival of our messenger. He left Ramboulet on the 30th, the day before Mr Shaw reached Paris; nor could any communication have been made to him between the period of the messenger's arrival and his departure. We all know the speed with which he travels, and having left Rambouillet for Bayonne on Sunday, there was not time to send a messenger to him after Mr Shaw's arrival on Monday morning, and to receive his commands before Mr Shaw left Paris on Tuesday afternoon. It is probable, therefore, that Bonaparte had arranged with his minister the reply which should be returned to this country, provided we declined entertaining the propositions he submitted to
The Africa of 64 guns, Capt. Barret, has had a most severe action in the Baltic with a fleet of Danish gun boats, while protecting a large convoy of merchantmen from Carlscrona. What follows is extracted from the letter of a seaman, of Oct. 24. who has given a very minute account of the action :
"The convoy, consisting of about 200 sail, got all safe into Malmoe, except one taken, and three on shore, which were burnt by our people, to prevent them falling into the hands of the Danes. The Africa had kept between the convoy and the Danes. It fell quite calm, and so large a ship was of course quite unmanageable, and lay like a log on the water, (this was at nine o'clock on the 20th), when 32 Danish gun-boats, carrying about 920 men, and 128 guns (32's and 42's) came 1owing towards the ship. At half past two they came within gun shot, when the Africa open ed a brisk fire from as many guns as she could bring to bear, and they continued advancing courageously, and stationed themselves on the quarters and bows.
The writer was stationed at the lower gun-deck, to hand up powder from the magazine. His situation was perilous, and his escape very providential. The grape-shot was like showers of stones or dust thrown into the ship by shovels; a screen which was thrown around bim to prevent fire from the flashes of the guns communicating to the powder, was knocked to pieces by splinters; a cartridge of 4 lib. of powder, which he held up over his head, blew up, without hurting him; the mau to whom he was banding it was severely wounded. Two iron stauncheons, 6 or 7 inches in diameter, were shot through and broken to pieces. The enemy had, in the mean time, been gradually moving off, and at half past seven, those that remained began to pull away, and night finished the business. The Africa's colours were twice shot away; the enemy supposing she had struck, huzzaed and pulled nearer, but soon drew back. The Africa had seven killed, and a great number (about 50) wounded, many of them badly. Three officers are wounded. The Danes suffered extremely by our fire; several boats were sunk, and they were seen picking up the men out of the water. Some boats had not more than five men left in them. By their own accounts, indeed, their loss of men was very considerable. All whose Lodies were got ashore were buried at Drago with great pomp; and they have gained little by, the attempt; the Africa is indeed dreadfully mauled, but she was before an old crazy ship. She has returned to Cariscrona for repairs. Captain Barret walked the deck all the time of the action, as cool and composed as if nothing was doing. He gave up both his cabina to the wounded, and the officers gave up their cots. The Swedish gun-boats made a little stir in this business, but retura ed to port as soon as they found the convoy safe."