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10. Warden's Letters "Mr.Ware well informed men. None but the den's pretences and falsehoods," say most ignorant can expect, and none the Reviewers, “ if not detected on but the most wrongheaded, or unprinthe spot, and at the moment when the cipled, will teach the people to expect means of detection happen to be at any relief, under the present distresses hand, might hereafter tend to deceive of the country, from universal sufa other writers, and poison the sources of frage and annual parliaments. But the history.” The motive of the Reviewers Reviewer does not confine himself to is therefore a very laudable one, and topics in the discussion of which he the detection' will no doubt be very would have carried along with him the satisfactory to a certain class of read- approbation of all those whose appro
But the historian! Sources of bation is of any value. Unfortunatehistory! If the historian and philo- ly, we think, for the cause of which sopher should sit down to this, and the he is so able an advocate, he has introcorresponding article in the Edinburgh duced a great deal of extraneous matReview, about a hundred years hence, ter, concerning which men of the what must he think of the political clearest heads and purest intentions parties, and of the state of literature, cannot be brought to agree. He has in Britain in the year 1816 ? Mr War- also counteracted the effects which the den is a “ blundering, presumptuous, soundness of his judgment, and the and falsifying scribbler ;” and the powers of his eloquence, might have proof is, that he actually brought the otherwise produced upon misguided materials of this book from St Helena or unthinking reformers, by indulging in the shape of notes, instead of hav- in a strain of violent exaggeration and ing really despatched letters from sea, reproach. So wide a departure from and from St Helena, to a correspond- the Roman poet's maxim of suaviter in ent in England !
modo, fortiter in re, brings him too 11. Parliamentary Reform.-That near to the style of the orators and part of this article which corresponds authors whom he so justly exposes, with its title, contains sentiments, am and is inconsistent with the respect bout the justness of which there will which so able a writer owes to himself be little difference of opinion among and to his readers.
LITERARY AND SCIENTIFIC INTELLIGENCE.
DR CLARKE, the celebrated traveller, silica,-were melted into glass, slag, or en. who is now professor of mineralogy at Cam. amel. Dr Clarke has since stated, however, bridge, has lately been employed in the that plumbago has also yielded to the power performance of some very curious and im- of this instrument; and from the following portant experiments with a blowpipe, of a quotation from the doctor's communicapower far exceeding that of any similar in- tion, in the Annals of Philosophy for strument which has formerly been used. March, it will be seen that he considers This instrument is in reality the invention charcoal itself as not decidedly refractory of Mr Brooke,-although, when Dr Clarke when the fusing power is in all its perfecemployed it in his first experiments, he ap- tion :-" As far,” says the doctor, “ as pears to have considered it as the invention mineral substances are concerned, the charof Mr Newman, who was the only artist acter of infusibility is forever annihilated. employed in making it, and from whose Every mineral substance, not excepting hands Dr Clarke had probably received it. plumbago, has been fused. There remains This mistake, however, the doctor has now therefore, only one substance, namely charbeen careful to correct. The instrument coal, to maintain this character; and if I consists essentially of a close box, in which have leisure for a subsequent dissertation, air is condensed by means of a syringe. I trust I shall be able to shew, that charFrom this box, the air which in the experi- coal itself exhibits some characteristics of a ments of Dr Clarke consisted of two volumes fusible body.”—The most remarkable, howhydrogen, and one volume oxygen gas, high- ever, of all the results obtained during these ly condensed, is allowed to rush upon the brilliant experiments, was the reduction of flame of a lamp or candle ; and by the barytes and strontian to their metallic powerful heat thus produced, Dr Clarke bases :--to these the doctor has since add. found that every substance which he tried, ed a long list of other metallic salts and excepting charcoal and plumbago, were ca- ores, which he has been able to reduce to pable of being fused. All the most refrac- their pure metallic state, and of which spetory stones--the earths, namely, lime, ba cimens have repeatedly been transmitted for rytes, strontian, magnesia, alumina, and the inspection of the most illustrious scientific characters whom this country contains, in Norfolk, Esq. who married Matilda, The instrument itself, by means of which only surviving daughter of General James all those important results have been ob- Lockhart of Lee and Carnwath, Count of tained, has also received some improvements the Holy Roman empire, grandson of the from the hand of the doctor, by which not author of the Memoirs. This work will be only greater safety is obtained in the use of comprised in two quarto volumes, of six or it, but a very considerable degree both of seven hundred pages each ; it admirably power and of facility has been added to the connects with the Stuart and Culloden pa. energy which it originally possessed ; while pers, and is calculated to excite and reward the splendid scientific results which its em- the attention of all lovers of national history ployment has developed, have also been ac- and political anecdote. companied by some of the most brilliant A paper has been read to the Royal Sophenomena which chemistry has to exhibit. ciety by Dr Brewster, containing the rel'he combustion of iron has been particularly sults of a very extensive and ingenious sementioned as actually exhibiting a shower of ries of experiments on the action of regufire.
“ The general result of my observa- larly crystallized bodies upon light. From tions,” says the author, “ has excited in these experiments Dr Brewster has determy mind a hope that the means I have used mined all the laws by which the phenowill be employed upon a more extended mena are regulated, and has been enabled scale to aid the manufactures of this coun- to compose formulæ, by which the tints, try. By increasing the capacity of the re- and the direction of the axis of the parti. servoir, and the condensing power of the cles of light, may in every case be calculat, apparatus, the diameter of the jet may be ed a priori. The law of double refraction also enlarged ; and the consequence will investigated by La Place, and the laws of be, that a power of fusion the most extra- the polarising force deduced by M. Biot, are ordinary, as a work of art, 'which the world shewn to be merely simple cases of laws of ever witnessed, may be employed with the much greater extent and generality, being utmost economy both of space and expen- applicable only to a few crystals, while those diture, and with the most certain safety." investigated by Dr Brewster are applicable to We hope these splendid anticipations will the vast variety of crystallized bodies which soon be realized : and, upon the whole, we exist in nature. cannot help expressing our satisfaction that We understand that Professor Leslie the employment of this powerful instru- has very lately made an important addition ment, in the developement of such striking to his curious and beautiful discovery of arresults, has fallen to the lot of a gentleman tificial congelation. He had found by his who has already rendered such essential early experiments, that decayed whinstone, service to the literature of his country, and or friable mould, reduced to a gross powwhom, from the evidence afforded by his der and dried thoroughly, will exert a power works (for we have not the honour of any of absorbing moisture, scarcely inferior to more intimate acquaintance with him), we that of sulphuric acid itself. But circumare really disposed to regard as not only stances having lately drawn his attention to one of the most accomplished scholars, but this subject, he caused some mouldering one of the best men also, which this country fragments of porphyritic trap, gathered from contains.
the sides of that magnificent road now formThe Lockhart Papers are announced for ing round the Calton Hill, to be pounded publication, consisting of memoirs concern- and dried carefully before the fire in a baing the affairs of Scotland, from Queen chelor's oven. This powder, being thrown Anne's aecession to the commencement of into a wine-decanter fitted with a glass stopthe Union ; with commentaries, containing per, was afterwards carried to the College ; an account of public affairs from the Union and, at a lecture a few days since in the to the queen's death. All these papers were Natural Philosophy Class (which he has composed by, and are chiefly in the hand- been teaching this session in the absence of writing of, George Lockhart, Esq. of Carn. Professor Playfair in Italy), he shewed the wath, who was a very able and distinguish- influence of its absorbing power on his hyed member of the Scottish and British Par. grometer, which, enclosed within a small liaments, and an unshaken disinterested receiver of an air-pump, fell from 90° to partizan of the fallen family of Stuart. 320°, the wetted bulb being, consequently, They contain also a register of letters be- cooled about 60° of Fahrenheit's scale. The tween the son of James II. generally called professor, therefore, proposed on the instant the Chevalier de St George, or the old Pre- to employ the powder to freeze a small body tender, and George Lockhart; with an ac- of water. He poured the powder into a saucer count of public affairs from 1716 to 1728; about 7 inches wide, and placed a shallow and journals, memoirs, and circumstantial cup of porous earthen-ware, 3 inches in diadetails, in detached pieces, of the young meter, at the height of half an inch above, Pretender's expedition to Scotland in 1745; and covered the whole with a low receiver. his progress, defeat, and extraordinary ad- On exhausting this receiver till the gage ventures and escape after the battle of Cul- stood at 2-10ths of an inch, the water in a loden in 1746, by Highland officers in his very few minutes ran into a cake of ice army. All these manuscripts are in the With the same powder an hour afterward possession of Anthony Aufrere of Hoveton he froze a large body of water in three m.
nutes ; and he will, no doubt, push these the summer, the British surveyors are to be ingenious and interesting experiments much joined by two eminent French academicifarther.-It appears that such earth will ans, with a view of connecting the trigonoabsorb the hundredth part of its weight of metrical surveys of the two countries, and moisture without having its power sensibly thus not only attaining a greater degree of impaired, and is even capable of absorbing geographical accuracy, but obtaining, peras much as the tenth part. It can hence haps, à more satisfactory solution of the easily be made to freeze the eighth part of problem respecting the true figure of the its weight of water, and might even repeat earth. The French gentlemen appointed the process again. In hot countries, the to assist Colonel Mudge and Captain Colby powder will, after each process, recover its are, M. Biot and M. Mathieu of the Insti. power by drying in the sun. Ice may there- tute of France, whose principal object is, to fore be procured in the tropical climates, measure the length of the pendulum at and even at sea, with very little trouble, and Greenwich, Edinburgh, and the Orkneys. no sort of risk or inconvenience.
A new and ingenious instrument, called In the Bath Literary and Philosophical the Colorigrade, has lately been constructed Society, the Rev. Mr Wright has described by M. Biot, for giving names to different a very ingenious method of working a ship's colours, according to the place which they pump by mechanical means, when
the crew occupy in Newton's scale. By this means are too few in number to attend to that du- colours may be described accurately and ty, and particularly in a heavy gale. It was scientifically. used by Capt. Leslie in June last, during a A new species of resin from India, has voyage from Stockholm to America, when been analysed by J. F. Daniell, Esq. F.R.S. the crew were exhausted with pumping, and It consists of the ship was sinking. He fixed a spar a- Extractive matter soluble in water, 0.4 loft, one end of which was ten or twelve feet Resin soluble in alcohol and ether, 62.6 above the top of his pumps, and the other Resin insoluble in alcohol and ether, 37.0 extremity projected over the stern; to each end of the-spar he fastened a block : he then
100.0 fastened a rope to the spears of his pump, It forms a very admirable varnish, which is and after passing it through both pulleys a- not only highly transparent, but bears the long the spar, dropped it into the sea astern : heat of the warmest climate without crackto this end he fastened a cask of 110 gallons ing or changing colour. measurement, and containing 60 or 70 gal- Mr Pond, the astronomer royal, has dis. lons of water, which answered as a balance covered in the stars a Aquilæ & Lyræ, and weight: and the motion of the ship made a Cygni, a constant parallax of half a sethe machinery work. When the stern of cond; but he is disposed to ascribe it to the ship descended, or any agitation of the some other cause than that of the ordinary water raised the cask, the pump-spears de- parallax. Dr Brinkley of Dublin found scended, and the contrary motion raised the the parallax to be two seconds. spear, and the water flowed out.
A stone is said to have been lately found. was thus cleared in four hours,
at Pompeii, on which the linear measures At a meeting of the commissioners ap- of the Romans are engraved. pointed to manage the yearly grant of The Congo sloop of war is arrived at £10,000, voted by Parliament for finishing Deptford. Several large cases, containing the college of Edinburgh, the plan of Mr the natural productions of Africa, collected W. Playfair being adopted, the prize of 100 in the late expedition to the Congo, have guineas was adjudged to that gentleman. been sent to Sir Joseph Banks, for the purAccording to Mr Playfair's plan, the exter. pose of being assorted in their respective ior of the building, as originally planned by classes : many of them are of a kind hitherAdams, is to be retained with very little al. to unknown, and the whole will shortly be teration ; but there will be a total departure submitted to the inspection of the public. from the internal arrangements. The south- Mr Murray has succeeded in fusing two ern side of the quadrangle is to be occupied emeralds into one uniform mass ; also two almost entirely by the library, which will sapphires into one, by the compressed mixbe 190 feet long, and one of the most ele- ture of the gaseous constituents of water in gant rooms in the kingdom. The western the oxihydrogen blow pipe. side is to be appropriated to the museum, Mr Locateli, the celebrated mathemaand the other two sides are to be occupied tician of Milan, has invented a new piece chiefly as class rooms.
of mechanism (says a Paris paper), by means A new mode of giving additional strength of which vessels may ascend rivers without to iron and steel, is proposed by Mr Daniell. the assistance of a steam-engine. The first His plan is to twist metal in the same man- experiment, which was made on a small ner as strength and compactness are given boat, completely succeeded. The inventor to hemp and flax.
asserts, that his plan is applicable even to a The trigonometrical survey of Great Bri. man of war, and
that it will secure her from tain, under the direction of the Ordnance the danger of shipwreck. The strength of Board, proceeds without interruption. The a single man, or at most that of a horse, is maps of three-fifths of England and Wales sufficient to put this machine in motion. are already completed. In the course of
WORKS PREPARING FOR PUBLICATION.
LONDON. THE Journal of the late Captain Tuckey, A new edition of Dr Thomson's System on a Voyage of Discovery into the Interior of Chemistry is in the press, and will speedof Africa, to explore the Source of the ily be published. The work will be enZaire, or Congo---with a Survey of that tirely remodelled, and will be comprised in river beyond the cataracts will soon be four octavo volumes. published by authority.
The second edition of Mr Murray's EleThe Plays and Poems of James Shirley, ments of Chemical Science is in the press, now first collected and chronologically arrang- and will be forthwith published. This edi. ed, and the text carefully collated and restor- tion will contain a succinct and lucid view ed, with occasional Notes, and a Biographical of those important and beautiful discoveries and Critical Essay, are preparing for pub- which have illuminated the rapid and bril. fication ; by William Gifford, Esq. ; hand. liant march of chemistry. somely printed by Bulmer, in 6 vols 8vo. Dr Spurzheim's new work, entitled, Ob. uniformly with Massinger and Ben Jonson. servations on the Deranged Manifestations
Specimens of the British Poets, with of the Mind, or Insanity, is in the press. Biographical and Critical Notices, and an In a few weeks will be published, a new Introductory Essay on British Poetry, are work, entitled, Boarding-school Corresponpreparing for press ; by Thomas Camp- dence, or a Series of Letters between a Mobell, Esq. author of the Pleasures of Hope, ther and her Daughter at School; a joint &c. In 4 vols post 8vo.
production of Mrs Taylor, author of " Ma. Mr A. J. Valpy has in the press a new ternal Solicitude,” « Practical Hints to edition of the Greek Septuagint, in one large Young Females,” &c. and of Miss Taylor, vol. 8vo. The text is taken from the Ox. author of “Display,' Essays in Rhyme," ford edition of Bos, without contractions. &c. Also, a new edition of Homer's Iliad, from The Memoirs of John Duke of Marl. the text of Heyne, with English notes, in- borough, chiefly drawn from his private cluding many from Heyne and Clarke; one correspondence and the family documents vol. 8vo.-And Catullus, with English preserved at Blenheim, as well as from other notes ; by T. Forster, Esq. Jun. 12mo. authentic sources, never before published,
A work of Biblical Criticism on the Books are preparing with all speed by Wm Coxe, of the Old Testament, and Translations of archdeacon of Wilts. Sacred Songs, with Notes critical and ex. An Account of the Island of Java; by planatory, will soon .appear; by Samuel Thomas Stamford Raffles, Esq. late lieuHorsley, LL.D. F.R.S. F.A.S. late lord tenant.governor there. With a map and bishop of Asaph.
numerous plates, by Daniel. In the course of this month will be pub. Pompeiana, or Observations on the To. lished, a Treatise touching the Libertie of pography, Edifices, and Ornaments, of Poma Christian Man ; written in Latin, by Dr peii ; by Sir W. Gell and J. P. Gandy, Martyne Luther, and translated by James Esq. with numerous engravings, are in the Bell ; imprinted by R. Newberry and H. press. Bynneman, 1579; dedicated “ to Lady Mr Mill's long expected History of BriAnne, Countesse of Warwicke;" with the tish India is now in the press, and will be celebrated Epistle from M. Luther to Pope published in three 4to volumes. Leo X. : edited by W. B. Collyer, D.D. Journey through Asia Minor, Armenia, F.A.S. and dedicated (by permission) to the and Koordistan, in the years 1813 and 1814; Duke of Sussex.
with Remarks on the Marches of Alexan. Mr Joseph Lancaster has printed pro- der, and the retreat of the Ten Thousand; posals for publishing, by subscription, in by John Macdonald Kenneir, Esq. 4to. one volume octavo, a Matter-of-fact Ac- Early this present month will be publishcount of many singular and providential ed, a Narrative of a Voyage to Hudson's Events, which have occurred in his public Bay, in his Majesty's ship Rosamond ; conand private Life.
taining some account of the North Eastern J. E. Bicheno, Esq. will soon publish an Coast of America, and of the Tribes inha. Inquiry into the Nature of Benevolence, prin- biting that remote region ; illustrated with cipally with a view to elucidate the moral plates ; by Lieut. Edward Chappell, R.N. and political Principles of the Poor Laws. A work on the Principles of Political
Mr W. Savage, printer, of London, has Economy and Taxation, is preparing by issued proposals for publishing, by sub- David Ricardo, Esq. scription, Practical Hints on Decorative An Authentic Narrative is preparing of Printing, with specimens, in colours, en- the Loss of the American brig Commerce, graved on wood; containing instructions wrecked on the western coast of Africa, in for forming black and coloured printing the month of August 1815; with an Acinks—for producing fine press-work-and count of the sufferings and captivity of her for printing in colours.
surviving officers and crew, on the great African Desert; by James Riley, her late guishing by a star such as are not containmaster and supercargo.
ed in the Thes. as published by H. Steph. We are happy to announce, that the con- All the arrangements being now completed tinuation of the State Trials to the present by the very recent arrival of Professor time, edited by Thomas Jones Howell, Esq. Schæfer's copious MS. materials, which the is in course of publication. The first va editors have purchased at considerable exlume, which has just appeared, comprises pense, the work will proceed without dethe period from 1783 to 1793, and contains lay, and the editors' confidently expect that many cases of the highest interest and im they will be able to announce the publica portance. We understand that, for the tion of the third number very speedily. accommodation of such persons as possess The two first numbers contain about 2000 Hargrave's State Trials, a separate title words omitted by Stephens. A learned pupage has been printed so as to render “ the pil of Lenneps is now engaged in transcribContinuation" applicable to that as well as ing the notes of Ruhnken and Valkenaer, to the octávo edition; as, by a curious co- written on the margin of a Leyden Scapula. incidence, the folio and the octavo editions The editors have carefully perused the parts terminate at nearly the same period.-By already published, for the purpose of ascerthis very admirable mode of publication, taining any typographical errors, and in. those who wish to possess the modern State tend to follow Stephens' example in subTrials, either as a separate work or as a scribing to the General Index a complete supplement to either of the collections, may list of errata. be provided with it accordingly.
Mr T. Moore has in the press, and will Algebra of the Hindus, with Arithmetic speedily publish, Lalla Rookh, an oriand Mensuration ; translated from the Sans- ental romance. Oriental imagery seems to crit, by H. T. Colebrooke, Esq. 4to. be so admirably adapted to the style and
No II. of the new and enlarged edition genius of Mr Moore, that we form high of H. Stephens' Greek Thesaurus, is just expectations of the merit and interest of published. To this number is added an this work. Index of all the words which are discussed A volume of Comic Dramas; by Miss in this and the previous number, distina Edgeworth.
EDINBURGH. Essay on the Theory of the Earth ; trans- Mandeville; a Domestic Story of the lated from the French of M. Cuvier ; with Seventeenth Century; by the author of Ca. Mineralogical Notes, and an account of Cu- leb Williams, 3 vols 12mo. vier's Geological Discoveries, by Professor Travels from Vienna through Lower Jameson ; the third edition, with numerous Hungary, with some account of Vienna additions, 8vo.
during the Congress ; by Richard Bright, On the Nature and Necessity of the A. M.D. 4to, with engravings. tonement; by the Rev. William Stevenson, Mr Hugh Murray is preparing for the minister of the gospel, Ayr, 12mo. press the late Dr Leyden's Historical Ac
A volume of Practical Sermons; by the count of Discoveries and Travels in Africa, Rev. David Dickson, New North Church, enlarged and continued, with a view of the Edinburgh, is in course of preparation for present State of that Continent.
Reports of some recent Decisions by the The Secret and True History of the Consistorial Court of Scotland, in Actions Church of Scotland, from the Restoration of Divorce, concluding for Dissolution of to the year 1678; by the Rev. James Kirk. Marriages celebrated under the English law; ton ; with notes, and a biographical memoir by J. Fergusson, Esq. 8vo. of the author, will speedily appear. The The Edinburgh Gazetteer, or Geographiwork will contain original anecdotes and in cal Dictionary comprising a Complete teresting details, not elsewhere to be found; Body of Geography, physical, political, stathe more valuable, as Kirkton was himself tistical, and commercial ; 6 vols Svo, with an eye and ear witness of many of the facts atlas, by Arrowsmith, 4to. which he records, and a distinguished suf- A new General Atlas will speedily be ferer in the presbyterian cause, during a published, in royal quarto, constructed from part of Charles II.'s reign; by Mr Charles the latest authorities ; by A. Arrowsmith, Kirkpatrick Sharpe.
hydrographer to the Prince Regent: it will Trials for Sedition in Scotland, before be comprehended in fifty-three maps, from the High Court of Justiciary; reported by original drawings, engraved in the best Mr Dow, W. S. 8vo.
style, by Sydney Hall. Dramatic Tales ; by the author of the Memoirs of the most remarkable Passages Poetic Mirror, 2 vols 12mo.
in the Life of Sir James Turner, knight, The Spirit of the Isle, and other Poems; from the commencement of his Military by W. M. Fowler, 8vo. 58.
Career in Germany, in 1632, till his Trial A View of the History of Scotland, from before the Privy Council in 1668 ; written the earliest Records to the Rebellion in the by himself. Published from the original year 1745; in a series of letters, 3 vols 8vo. manuscript ; with a portrait, 8vo. VOL. I.