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be saved, but the name of Christ' (Acts iv. 12). Those, doubtless, who rest in him by faith do not seek any thing without Christ.

Yet, for all that, we do neither despise the saints nor think basely of them; for we acknowledge them to be the lively members of Christ, the friends of God, who have gloriously overcome the flesh and the world. We therefore love them as brethren, and honor them also; yet not with any worship, but with an honorable opinion of them, and with just praises of them. We also do imitate the saints, for we desire, with the most earnest affections and prayers, to be followers of their faith and virtues; to be partakers, also, with them of everlasting salvation; to dwell together with them everlastingly with God, and to rejoice with them in Christ. And in this point we approve that saying of St. Augustine, in his book De Vera Religione, “Let not the worship of men departed be any religion unto us; for, if they have lived holily, they are not so to be esteemed as that they seek such honors, but they will have us to worship Him by whose illumination they rejoice that we are fellow-servants as touching the reward. They are therefore to be honored for imitation, not to be worshiped for religion's sake,' etc.

And we inch less believe that the relics of saints are to be adored and worshiped. Those ancient holy men seemed sufficiently to have honored their dead if they had honestly committed their bodies to the earth after the soul was gone up into heaven; and they thought that the most noble relics of their ancestors were their virtnes, doctrine, and faith ; which as they commended with the praise of the dead, so they did endeavor to express the same so long as they lived upon earth.

Those ancient men did not swear but by the name of the only Jehovah, as it is commanded by the law of God. Therefore, as we are forbidden to 'swear by the name of strange gods' (Exod. xxiii. 13; Josh. xxiii. 7), so we do not swear by saints, although we be requested thereinto. We therefore in all these things do reject that doctrine which gives too much honor unto the saints in heaven.


We believe that all things, both in heaven and in earth and in all creatures, are sustained and governed by the providence of this wise,


all ministering spirits sent forth to minister for them who shall be heirs of salvation ?' (Heb. i. 14).

And the Lord Jesus himself testifies of the devil, saying, 'He that hath been a murderer from the beginning, and abode not in the truth, because there is no truth in him. When he speaketh a lie, he speaketlı of his own: for he is a liar and the father of lies' (John viii. 44).

We teach, therefore, that some angels persisted in obedience, and were appointed unto the faithful service of God and men; and that others fell of their own accord, and ran headlong into destruction, and so became enemies to all good, and to all the faithful, etc.

Now, touching man, the Spirit says that in the beginning he was created according to the image and likeness of God' (Gen. i. 27); that God placed him in paradise, and made all things subject onto him; which David doth most nobly set forth in the 8th Psalm. Moreover, God gave unto him a wife, and blessed them.

We say, also, that man doth consist of two, and those divers substances in one person ; of a soul immortal (as that which being separated from his body doth neither sleep nor die), and a body mortal, which, notwithstanding, at the last judgment shall be raised again from the dead, that from henceforth the whole man may continue forever in life or in death.

We condemn all those who mock at, or by subtle disputations call into doubt, the immortality of the sonl, or say that the soul sleeps, or that it is a part of God. To be short, we condemn all opinions of all men whatsoever who think otherwise of the creation of angels, derils, and men than is delivered unto us by the Scriptures in the Apostolic Church of Christ.

CHAPTER VIII.—OF MAN'S FALL; SIN, AND THE CAUSE OF SIN. Man was from the beginning created of God after the image of God, in righteousness and true holiness, good and upright; but by the instigation of the serpent and his own fault, falling from the goodness and uprightness, he became subject to sin, death, and divers calamities; and such a one as he became by his fall, such are all his offspring, even subject to sin, death, and sundry calamities.

And we take sin to be that natural corruption of man, derived or spread from our first parents unto us all, through which we, being drowned in evil concupiscence, and clean turned away from God, but prone to all evil, full of all wickedness, distrust, contempt, and hatred of God, can do no good of ourselves-no, not so much as think any (Matt. xii. 34, 35).

And, what is more, even as we do grow in years, so by wicked thonghts, words, and deeds, committed against the law of God, we bring forth corrupt fruits, worthy of an evil tree: in which respect we, through our own desert, being subject to the wrath of God, are in danger of just punishment; so that we had all been cast away from God, had not Christ, the Deliverer, brought us back again.

By death, therefore, we understand not only bodily death, which is once to be suffered of us all for our sins, but also everlasting punishments due to our corruption and to our sins. For the Apostle says, “We were dead in trespasses and sins, and were by nature the children of wrath, even as others; but God, who is rich in inercy, even when we were dead in sins, quickened us together with Christ' (Eph. ii. 1-5). Again,' As by one man sin entered into the world, and by sin, death, and so death passed upon all men, forasmuch as all men have sinned, ' etc. (Rom. v. 12).

We therefore acknowledge that original sin is in all men; we acknowledge that all other sins which spring therefroin are both called and are indeed sins, by what naine soever they may be termed, whether mortal or venial, or also that which is called sin against the Holy Spirit, which is never forgiven.

We also confess that sins are not equal (John v. 16, 17), although they spring from the same fountain of corruption and unbelief, but that some are more grievous than others (Mark iii. 28, 29); even as the Lord has said, 'It shall be easier for Sodom' than for the city that despises the word of the Gospel (Matt. x. 15). We therefore condemn all those that have taught things contrary to these; but especially Pelagius, and all the Pelagians, together with the Jovinianists, who, with the Stoics, count all sins eqnal. We in this matter agree fully with St. Angustine, who produced and maintained his sayings out of the Holy Scriptures. Moreover, we condemn Florinus and Blastus (against whom also Irenæus wrote), and all those who make God the author of sin; seeing it expressly written, Thou art not a God that loveth wickedness; thou hatest all them that work iniquity, and wilt destroy all that mands us to garnish our wit, and therewithal he gives gifts and also the increase thereof. And it is a clear case that we can profit very little in all arts without the blessing of God. The Scripture, no donbt, refers all arts to God; yea, and the Gentiles also ascribe the beginnings of arts to the gods, as the authors thereof.

Lastly, we are to consider whether the regenerate have free-will, and how far they have it. In regeneration the understanding is illuminated by the Holy Spirit, that it may understand both the mysteries and will of God. And the will itself is not only changed by the Spirit, but it is also endued with faculties, that, of its own accord, it may both will and do good (Roin. viii. 4). Unless we grant this, we shall deny Christian liberty, and bring in the bondage of the law. Besides, the prophet brings in God speaking thus: ‘I will put my laws into their minds, and write them in their hearts' (Jer. xxxi. 33; Ezek. xxxvi. 27). The Lord also says in the Gospel,' If the Son make yon free, ye shall be free indeed' (John viii. 36). Paul also to the Philippians, ‘Unto you is given for Christ, not only to believe in him, but also to suffer for his sake' (Phil. i. 29). And, again, “I am persuaded that he that began this good work in you will perform it until the day of Jesus Christ' (ver. 6). Also, 'It is God that worketh in you the will and the deed’ (Phil. ii. 13).

Where, nevertheless, we teach that there are two things to be observed--first, that the regenerate, in the choice and working of that which is good, do not only work passively, but actively; for they are moved of God that themselves may do that which they do. And Augustine does truly allege that saying that God is said to be our helper; but no man can be helped but he that does somewhat.' The Manichæans did bereave man of all action, and made him like a stone and a block.

Secondly, that in the regenerate there remains infirmity. For, seeing that sin dwells in iis, and that the flesh in the regenerate strives against the Spirit, even to our lives' end, they do not readily perform in every point that which they had purposed. These things are confirmed by the apostle (Rom. vii. 13-25; Gal. v. 17).

Therefore, all free - will is weak by reason of the relics of the old Adam remaining in us so long as we live, and of the human corruption which so nearly cleaves to us. In the meanwhile, because the strength of the flesh and the relics of the old man are not of such great

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force that they can wholly quench the work of the Spirit, therefore the faithful are called free, yet so that they do acknowledge their infirmity, and glory no whit at all of their free-will. For that which St. Augustine does repeat so often out of the apostle onght always to be kept in mind by the faithful: What hast thou that thou didst not receive? and if thou didst receive it, why dost thou glory, as if thou hadst not received it?' (1 Cor. iv. 7). Hitherto may be added that that comes not straightway to pass which we have purposed, for the events of things are in the hand of God. For which cause Paul besonght the Lord that he would prosper his journey (Rom. i. 10). Wherefore, in this respect also, free-will is very weak.

But in outward things no man denies but that both the regenerate and the unregenerate have their free-will; for man hath this constitution common with other creatures (to whom he is not inferior) to will some things and to nill other things. So he inay speak or keep silence, go out of his house or abide within. Although herein also God's power is evermore to be marked, which brought to pass that Balaam could not go so far as he would (Numb. xxiv. 13), and that Zacharias, coming out of the Temple, could not speak as he would have done (Luke i. 22).

In this matter we condemn the Manichæans, who deny that the begin. ning of evil unto man, being good, came from his free-will. We condeinn, also, the Pelagians, who affirm that an evil man has free-will sufficiently to perform a good precept. Both these are confuted by the Scripture, which says to the former, ‘God made man upright' (Eccles. vii. 29); and to the latter, 'If the Son make you free, then ye shall be free indeed' (John viii. 36).



God has from the beginning freely, and of his mere grace, without any respect of men, predestinated or elected the saints, whom he will save in Christ, according to the saying of the apostle, ' And he hath chosen us in him before the foundation of the world' (Eph. i. 4); and again,

Who hath saved ns, and called us with an holy calling, not according to our works, but according to his own purpose and grace, which was given unto us, throngh Jesus Christ, before the world was, but is now made manifest by the appearance of our Saviour Jesus Christ' (2 Tim. i. 9, 10).

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