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Custom-house at Bristol. He used now mentioned, joined in sending
to call upon me at the Merchants' several letters to the inhabitants of # Hall, while I was transcribing the Old Town, but particularly to Ephraim ti muster-rolls of the seamen there. In Robin John, who was at that time a & short, he seemed to be interested in all grandee or principal inhabitant of the
my movements. He became also a place. The tenor of these letters was, warm supporter both of me and of iny that they were sorry that any jealousy
or quarrel should subsist bei ween the Among others, who were useful two parties; that if the inhabitants of to me in my pursuit, was Mr Henry Old Town would come on board, they Sulgar, an amiable ininister of the
would afford them security and propel belonging to the religious society tection ; adding at the same time, of the Moravians in the same city. that their intention in inviting them From him I first procured authentic was, that they might become mediadocuments relative to the treacherous tors, and thus heal their disputes. massacre at Calabar. This cruel tran- The inhabitants of Old Town, hapsaction had been frequently mentioned py to find that their differences were to me; but as it had taken place likely to be accommodated, joyfully twenty years before, I could not find accepted the invitation. The three one person who had been engaged in brothers of the grandee just mentioned, it, nor could I come, in a satisfactory the eldest of whom was Amboe. Robin manner, at the various particulars be. John, first entered their canoe, attend. langing to it. My friend, however, ed by twenty-seven others, and, being. put me in possession of copies of the followed by nine canoes, directed their real depositions which had been taken course to the Indian Queen. They in the case of the King against Lip- were dispatched from thence the next pincott and others, relative to this e- morning to the Edgar, and afterwards vent, nathely, of captain Floyd, of the to the Duke of York, on board of city of Bristol, who had been a wit- which they went, leaving their canoe ness to the scene, and of Ephraim Ron and attendants by the side of the same bin John, and of Ancona Robin Robin vessel. In the mean time, the people John, two African chiefs, who had on board the other canoes were either been sufferers by it. These deposi- distributed on board, or lying close to, tions had been taken before Jacob the other ships. Kirby, and Thomas Symons, Esquires, This being the situation of the commissioners at Bristol for taking three brothers, and of the principal afhdavits in the court of King's Bench. inhabitants of the place, the treachery The tragedy, of which they gave a now began to appear. The crew of circumstantial account, I shall present the Duke of York, aided by the capto the reader in as concise a manner tain and mates, and armed with pisa as I can.
tols and cutlasses, rushed into the caIn the year 1767, the ships Indian bin, with an intent to seize the persons Queen, Duke of York, Nancy, and of their three innocent and unsuspiciConcord, of Bristol ; the Edgar, of ous guests. The unhappy men, alarmLiverpool, and the Canterbury of Lon- ed at this violation of the rights of don, lay in old Calabar river. hospitality, and struck with astonish
It happened at this time, that a ment at the behaviour of their suppoquarrel subsisted between the principal sed friends, attempted to escape thro? i abitants of Old Town and those of the cabin windows, but being woundYew Town, Old Calabar, which had ed, were obliged to desist and to submit originated in a jealousy respecting to be put in irons. caves. The captains of the vessels In the same moment, in which this atrocious attempt had been made, an him into the canoe, where his head order had been given to fire upon the was immediately struck off in the sight canoe, which was then lying by the of the crew, and of his afflicted and side of the Duke of York. The ca- disconsolate brothers. As for them, noe soon filled and sunk, and the they escaped his fate ; but they were wretched attendants were either seiz- carried off with their attendants to ed, killed, or drowned. Most of the the West Indies, and sold for slaves. other ships followed the example. I determined to inquire into the Great numbers were additionally kill- truth of the reports that seamen had ed and drowned on the occasion, and an aversion to enter, and that they others were swimming to the shore. were inveigled, if not often forced in
At this juncture the inhabitants of to this hateful employment. For this New Town, who had concealed them- purpose I was introduced to a landselves in the bushes by the water-side, lord of the name of Thompson, who and between whom and the command- kept a public-house called the Seven ers of the vessels the plan had been Stars. He was a very intelligent man, previously concerted, came out from was accustomed to receive sailors, when their hiding-places, and embarking in discharged at the end of their voyages, their canoes, made for such as were and to board them till their ressels swimming from the fire of the ships. went out again, or to find them births The ships' boats also were manned, in others. He avoided however all and joined in the pursuit. They but- connection with the Slave-trade, dechered the greatest part of those whom claring that the credit of his house they caught. Many dead bodies were would be ruined, if he were known soon seen upon the sands, and others to send those, who put themselves unwere floating upon the water ; and in- der his care, into it. cluding those who were seized and From him I collected the truth of carried off, and those who were drown- all that had been stated to me on this ed and killed, either by the firing of subject. But I told him I should not the ships, or by the people of New be satisfied until I had beheld those Town, three hundred were lost to scenes myself, which he had described the inhabitants of Old Town on that to me ; and I entreated him to take day.
me into them, saying that I would reThe carnage, which I have been ward him for all his time and trouble, now describing, was scarcely over, and that I would never forget him when a canoe, full of the principal while I lived. To this he consented; people of New Town, who had been and as three or four slave-vessels at the promoters of the scheme, dropped this time were preparing for their voy. along-side of the Duke of York. They ages, it was time that we should begin demanded the person of Amboe Ro- our rounds. At about twelve at night bin John, the brother of the grandee we generally set out, and were emof Old Town, and the eldest of the ployed till two and sometimes thret three on board. The unfortunate man in the morning. He led me from one put the palms of his hands together, of those public houses to another, and beseeched the commander of the which the mates of the slave-vessels vessel, that he would not violate the used to frequent to pick up their rights of hospitality by giving up an hands. These houses were in Marshunoffending stranger to his enemies. street, and most of them were then kept But no entreaties could avail. The by Irishmen. The scenes witnessed commander received from the New in these houses were truly distressing Town people a slave, of the name of to me; and yet, if I wished to knotv Econg, in his stead, and then forced practically what I had purposed,,!
could not avoid them. Music, danc- during the voyage, the wages then ing, rioting, drunkenness, and profane due to them should be paid in the swearing, were kept up from night to currency where the vessel carried her night. The young mariner, if a stran- slaves, and that half of the wages duc
ger to the port, and unacquainted with to them, on their arrival there, should E the nature of the Slave-trade, was sure be paid in the same manner, and that
to be picked up. The novelty of the they were never permitted to read voyages, the superiority of the wages over the articles they had signed. By in this over any other trades, and the means of this iniquitous practice, the privileges of various kinds, were set wages in the slave trade, tho' nomibefore him. Gulled in this manner, nally higher, in order to induce seahe was frequently enticed to the boat, men to engage in it, were actually which was waiting to carry him away. lower than in other trades. All these If these prospects did not attract him, usages 1 ascertained in such a mannen he was plied with liquor till he became that no person could doubt the truth intoxicated, when a bargain was made of them. I actually obtained possesover him between the landlord and the sion of articles of agreement belonging mate. After this his senses were kept to these vessels, which had been signin such a constant state of stupefaction ed and executed in former voyages.
I by the liquor, that in time the former made the merchants themselves, by might do with him what he pleased. sending those seamen, who had claims Seamen also were boarded in these upon them, to ask for their accounts houses, who, when the slave-ships were current with their respective ships, going out, but at no other time, were furnish me with such documents as encouraged to spend more than they would have been evidence against them had money to pay for; and to these, in any court of law. On whatever when they had thus exceeded, but one branch of the system I turned my eyes, alternative was given, namely, a slave. I found it equally barbarous. The
gaol. These distressing trade was, in short, one mass of iniquiscenes I found myself obliged frequent- ty, from the beginning to the end. ad to witness, for I was no less than I employed myself
occasionally in ineteen times occupied in making the Merchants-hall, in making copies these hateful rounds. And I can say of the muster-rolls of ships sailing to from my own experience, and all the different parts of the world, that I information I could collect from might make a comparative view of the Thompson and others, that no such loss of seamen in the slave trade with practices were in use to obtain seamen that of those in the other trades from for other trades.
the same port. The result of this emThe treatment of the seamen em- ployment showed me the importance ployed in the Slave-trade had so deep- of it: for, when I considered how imly interested me, and now the manner partial the inhabitants of this country of procuring them, that I was deter- were to their fellow-citizens, the seamined to make myself acquainted with men belonging to it, and in what estitheir whole history; for I found by mation the members of the legislature repxt, that they were not only person- held them, by enforcing the navigation ally ill treated, as I have already pain- act, which they considered to be the fully described, but that they were bulwark of the nation, and by giving robbed by artifice of those wages bounties to certain trades, that these which had been held up to them as so might become so many nurseries for superior in this service. All persons the marine, I thought it of great im. were obliged to sign articles, that in portance to be able to prove, as I was ease they should die, or be discharged, then capable of doing, that more per
sons would be found dead in three slave every thing upon her deck. I knew vessels from Bristol, in' a given time, also that she had been built as a pleathan in all the other vessels put to-sure-boat for the accommodation of gether, mumerous as they were, belong- only six persons upon the Severn. I ing to the same port.
determined, therefore, to suspend my 1 procured also an account of the belief till I could take the admeasure. exports and imports for the year 1786, nient of each vessel. This I did; but by means of which I was enabled to lest, in the agitation of my mind on judge of the comparative value of this this occasion, I should liave made any and the other trades.
mistake, I desired my friend George In pursuing another object, which Fisher to apply to the builder for bis was that of going on board the slave. admeasurement also. With this he ships, and learning their constructions kindly complied. When he obtained and dimensions, 'I was greatly struck, it he brought it me. This account, and indeed affected, by the appearance which nearly corresponded with my of two little sloops, which were fitting own, was as follows:- In the vessel out for Africa, the one of only twen of twenty-five tons, the length of the ty-five tons, which was said to be des- upper part of the hold, or roof, of the tined to carry seventy; and the other room, where the seventy slaves riere of only eleven, which was said to be to be stowed, was but little better than destined to carry thirty slaves. I was ten yards, or thirty-one feet. The told also, that which was more affecte greatest breadth of the bottom, or ing, namely, that these were not to floor, was ten feet four inches, and the act as tenders on the coast, by going least five. Hence, a grown person up and down the rivers, and receiving must sit down all the voyage, and conthree or four slaves at a time, and tract his limbs within the narrow lithen carrying them to a large ship, mits of three square feet. In the res which was to take them to the West sel of eleven tons, the length of the Indies, but that it was actually intend- room for the thirty slaves was twentyed, that they should transport their two feet. The greatest breadth of the own slaves themselves; that one if not floor was eight, and the least four.both of them were, on their arrival in The whole height from the keel to the West Indies, to be sold as pleasure- the beam was but five feet eight invessels, and that the seamen belonging ches, three feet of which were occupito them were to be permitted to come ed by ballast, cargo, and provisions, home by wliat is usually called the so that two feet eight inches remained Tun.
only as the height
between the decks. This account of the destination of Hence, each slave would have only these little vessels, though it was dis- four square feet to sit in, and, when in tressing at first, appeared to me after
his head, if he were a fullwards, on cool reasoning, to be incre- grown person, would touch the ceildible. I thought that my informants ing, or upper deck. wished to impose on me, in order that Having now received this admcaI might make statements which would surement from the builder, which was carry their own refutation with them, rather more favourable than my OTTI, and that thus I might injure the great I looked upon the destination of these cause which I had underlaken. And little vessels as yet more incredible I was much inclined to be of this opi- than before. Still the different per nion, when I looked again at the least sons, whom I occasionally saw on board of the two; for any person, who was them, persisted in it that they were tall, standing upon dry ground by the going to Africa for slaves, and also side of her, might have overlooked for the numbers mentioned, which
they were afterwards to carry to the small divisions on the stem ; and acWest Indies themselves. I desired, cordingly when the hydrometer is imhowever, my friends, George Fisher, mersed in any liquid until it sinks to Truman Harford, Harry Gandy, Wal- the middle point on the stem, the speter Chandler, and others, each to make cific gravity of such fluid will be india separate inquiry for me on this sub- cated by the sum of the weight of the ject; and they all agreed that, impro- instrument, and the grains added in bable as the account both of their des- the upper cup. To accommodate it tination, and of the number they were to the use of those who are concerned to take, might appear, they had found with spirituous liquors and of brewers, it to be too true. I had soon after- the inventor attaches a scale, shewing wards the sorrow to learn from official the relation between specific gravities, documents from the Custom-house, and the commercial or technical denothat these little vessels actually clear- mination of per centage with the fored out for Africa, and that now no- mer, and pounds per barrel with the thing could be related so barbarous of latter. this traffic, which might not instantly M. V. AUARIE, apothecary of Vabe believed.
lence, has recently made a number of chemical experiments, on the saccha
rine matter contained in the stalk of Memoirs of the Progress of MANU- Indian corn. The results deduced
FACTURES, CHEMISTRY, SCIENCE, from this examination are : 1. That and the FINE ARTS.
the stalk of Indian corn cannot be
employed for the extraction of sugar, MR TR GEORGE ATKINS has publish- because the expence would exceed the
ed a description of an improved profit; since one hundred weight hydrometer of his contrivance. It yields only two pounds of saccharine consists of a bulb, a small stem, with matter. 2. That this saccharine mata cup on its top to receive weights, ter constantly retains the consistence and a shank beneath the bulb with a of treacle, and is incapable of being pointed screw, to which is affixed a crystallized by any known process. cup to receive weights or solids, when 3. That the gummy extract might be their specific gravities are to be taken. employed in medicine, as an artend"The instrument is accompanied with ant, in consequence of its saponaceous an accurate set of grain-weights. The quality. . weight of the hydrometer itself is se- A capuchin of Vicenza, named ven hundred grains, and on adding JOHN BAPTIST DE SAINT MARTIN, three hundred grains in the upper cup, has invented a very useful instrument and immersing it in distilled water, at for ascertaining the quantity of sacchathe temperature of 60° Fahr. it will sine matter in unferniented wine, and subside to the middle mark on the showing how to extract it. This instem, and will then consequently dis- strument, called an enometer, has been place one thousand grains of water. examined by the academy of Sciences It follows, therefore, from this adjust- at Naples, who were satisfied that it ment of the bulk of the instrument, fully answered the purposes for which that each grain in the upper cup will it was intended. represent one-thousandth part of the A new volcano has made its apspecific gravity of the water, or one pearance in one of the Azore islands. unit in specific gravity, if that of wa- An interesting account of it is given ter be taken at one thousand ; and in the following letter from the Ameone tenth of a grain one tenth of unit, rican Consul at Fayal, to a friend at which is also the value of each of the St Michael's, dated June 25tb, 1808. Nov. 1808.