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824 Account of Books committed te the Flames, suppressed, &c. nals, fatigued by the complaints of the “ Emile, or, On Education, by Jean injured, sought the author of these Jacques Rousseau, citizen of Geneenormities. Every one named Rous-“ va." The parliament of Paris, by seau ; they seemed to recognize the a decree of 9 June 1762, orders that warmth of his style. His infamous this work shall be torn and burnt in epigrams, which he called the Gloria the court of the palace, at the foot of Putri of his psalms, many ill-natured the great stair, by the executioner of couplets against different persons, his public justice :- That the said d. J. licentious tales, his propensity to slan- Rousseau, named in the frontispiece of der, seemed to testify against himn in the book, shall be taken, apprehendthe eyes of his adversaries. People ed, and carried to prison, to be heard compared circumstances; they recol- and interrogated on the facts of the lected speeches which he had been said book, and to reply to the charges heard to utter. It was observed, that which the prosecutor general means to the victims sacrificed in the couplets bring against him. On Friday, Ilth were precisely the persons whom he June 1762, the work mentioned above most hated. In spite of these presump- was torn and burnt at the foot of the tions, it was impossible to pronounce a great stair of the palace. Emile was certain judgment on this fatal affair ; also condemned to be burnt by the because, on the other side, it was hand of the executioner, at Geneva, known that Rousseau had violent ene- The reading of the “Social Contract" mies, raised up, as well by the envy has been severely prohibited in France; inspired by his talents, as by his sati- several editions of it were confiscated rical disposition. The poet would not in 1762, and a bookseller of Lyons, perhaps have been condemned, had he named de Ville, was arrested, and carmerely denied that he was the author ried to Pierre Encyse, on being found of the couplets. But not content with to have begun the printing of an edi. seeking to appear innocent himself, tion. he attempted to make the Geometer The “ Letters from the Mountair" Saurin guilty of the crime of which were condemned to the flames by a he was accused. William Arnold, a decree of the parliament of Paris, 19 young man of weak understanding, March 1765. was said to be the instrument whom " Treatise on heresy, schism, &c. Rousseau employed to crush his ene- “ By Antonio Sanctarel. (Latin.) my. · This wretch deponed, that Sau- “ Rome, Zanetti, 1625, 4to." This rin had given him couplets for the book is rare, having been censured by purpose of having them secretly circu. the Sorbonne, suppressed by decree of lated. The cause was carried before the parliament of Paris, 13 March the parliament; and the blow, with 1626, and condemned to the flames as which Rousseau meant to strike the contrary to the lates of the kingdom. geometrician, fell upon his own headi It was suppressed also in England, at Saurin shewed the contrast between the instigation of the court of France. his own character and that of Rousseau. The author maintains that the Pore He accused him as a suborner of wit- has a right to set regents over kings nesses; and in particular of William incapable of reigning, and even to deArnold, to whoin he had given mo- pose them if he thinks fit. Moreover, ney. The proofs of this subornation he gives them an exorbitant power, not appeared evident, and Rousseau was only over the throne, but even over banished for ever from the kingdom. the life of Princes. This book was After having wandered in Switzerland, approved by the General of the lein Germany, and in Brabant, he diedi suits. The monks of this order, havat Brussels, 17 March 1741. ing been sent for, and interrogated
upon the subject of this work, attempts judges of Servitus, is still more in re. ed to excuse their General. They quest. frankly owned, that though, at Paris, “ Apologia pro Serveto. Authore they disapproved the doctrine of this “Gulielmo Postello, 8vo.” Manubook; yet, at Rome, if they were script never printed. there, they would approve it. They He who should possess these five asked time to deliberate ; three days works, would have, perhaps, the most were granted thein; and it was de- prècious and rarest collection known. creed, that if these fathers should not The Christianismi Restitutio alone was then disapprove the doctrine of Sanc- sold to M. de la Valliere, in 1781, trrel, they should be treated as guilty for 4120 livres (2001.) It is well of high treason. The consequence was, known that the books of Servetus were that they condemned the decree of burned, either with the author at Getheir General, by an authentic act, neva, or elsewhere, which has renderwhich they signed 16th March 1626. ed them excessively rare. Servetus,
“ Discovery of witchcraft, by Re- by bis correspondence with Calvin on “ ginald Scoit.” This work was con- the subject of the Trinity, drew upon demned to the flames in England.- himself the animadversion of that faThat island was then, like the rest of mous sectary ; accordingly the latter Europe, enslaved by popular prejudi- declared, that if ever Servetus set foot ces. The great crime of the author in Geneva, he should not go out of it was the not believing in sorcery : he with impunity. In fact, the latter explains, in his work, the practices having escaped from prison, and wishand the arts which fortune-tellers and ing to go into Italy, was so unfortusorcerers usually employ in deceiving nate as to pass through Geneva. Cal. the simple ; and he solicits compassion vin caused him to be arrested there, in favour of those who are accused of and soon after condemned. On the sorcery. This book was severely cri- 27th Oct. 1553, Servetus was led to ticized by many learned men, and the stake; he continued more than James I. wrote an answer to it, under two hours in the fames, because the the title of Demonology. Reginald wind drove them in a contrary direcScott, born in the province of Kent, tion; and it is said that he cried out, in 1645, died in 1599.
when he felt his torments prolonged : “ Michaelis Serveti, de trinitatis Wretch, cannot I then die ? What!
erroribus libri VII, anno 1531.— with a hundred pieces of gold, and * Ejusdem Serveti de trinitate dialo- the rich necklace which they tools u gorum libri duo, et de justitia regni when they arrested me, could they “ Christi capitula quatuor, 1532, 8vo.” not purchase wood enough to consume A work excessively rare.
me more quickly ?" * Ejusdem Serveti de trinitate libri Servetus was born at Villa Nueva, “ tres, lingua Belgica editi, per R. T. in Arragon, in the year 1509. He « impressum, anno 1620, in 4to.”- was a physician, and practised that art Very rare.
for some time at Paris. “ Ejusdem Serveti Christianismi Res"titutio. Viennæ Allobrogum, 1553, *8vo.” This is said to be the rarest Character of the late Sir WILLIAM of all books.
FORBES. * " Joannis Calvini defensio ortho“ doxæ fidei, de Sacra trinitate contra (From Funeral Sermon, by the Rev. Archi.
bald Alison.) “ Serveti errores. Oliva Rob. Stephani, 4 1551, 8vo.” Rare. A translation of
T was the first blessing of his life, this work by Colladon, one of the that it was begun in the way of Nov. 1808.
righteousness. In those carly years, same principles. Born the representawhen all our profoundeșt opinions and tive of a noble, but unfortunate famiaffections are formed, he had the hap- ly, he felt it his business to restore it, piness of being brought up by a wi: if not to the rank, at least to the digdowed parent, who, like the pious mo- nity, which it had bequeathed to him. ber of the infant Prophet, educated Looking forward to that connection, him in the temple of God; whose voice and to that numerous family, with instructed him in the service of the which heaven afterwards blessed him, Christian, and whose example spoke he felt it his duty to prepare for them, the truth of the lessons which she (in an age when wealth had more than taught. I can testify, with what deep its real value) all the honourable inemotion, even in his last hours, he re- dependence, which his industry and collected this blessing of his infant activity could provide. He felt still years; and I can say, to every mo- more, perhaps, the ambition which is ther that hears me, that such, in the natural to every noble mind, of distinexquisite system of Divine Widom, is guishing himself in the eyes of his at once the fruit and the reward of country, and of shewing to mankind, maternal piety,
that there is a prouder honour, which It was at this period, accordingly, the virtues of the individual can atthat all the leading principles of his tain, than all that hereditary titles can mind were formed; that he acquired bestow. But, most of all, he felt the that early love of God, which is the ambition that belongs to evangelical parent of virtue, as well as of devo- virtue ; the ambition of walking evertion ; that he felt that alliance be- thy of the hopes to which he was cal. tween his revealed laws and the pre- led; and of demonstrating to the cepts of his own uncorrupted mind, world, that the faith of the christian which constitutes the liberty of reli- may be united with every thing that gion; and that, from the cool shade is dignified in public conduct, or ami. of youthful contemplation, he looked able in private manners. Such were forward upon life, not only as the the lofty ends, which, in the race of theatre of time, but as the school of time, it was his ambition to accomimmortality. It was from this high plish, and which, by the grace of God, discipline, that, in the years of inex- he did accomplish. perience, no illusions of the world, The race which he ran, my brethand no seductions of example, were ren, was not in secret. It was in the ever able to detain him amid the sor- midst of all the dangers, and of all did scenes of youthful dissipation, and the duties of social life : for many that although his early years were years the world have been spectators passed in that dark age of our coun- of it; and there is scarcely one of us, try, when infidelity was fashionable, of any age or condition, who has not and when the guilty hand of genius marked it in some of its aspects. I was shaking all the foundations of hu- dare then to say, that in all this long man faith and hope, no vanity of time, and that, in a period of our youth, and no authority of age, ever country, when neither talents nor virinduced him to let go one principle of tues were infrequent among us, there his religious faith, or to relax one was no person of our age who has so spring of the ambition of virtue. fully united in himself, the same as
When from this scene of prepara- semblage of the most estimable qualition he entered upon the various due ties of our nature : the same firmness ties, which his ink und uation in of piety, with the same tenderness of life prescribed to him, he entered up- charity; the same ardour of public on them with the same views, and the spirit, with the same disdain of indivi
dual interest; the same activity in bu- could be encouraged, wherever merit siness, with the same generosity in its could be exalted, or melancholy could conduct; the same independence to be relieved. But, in the scenes of wards the powerful, and the same hu- wretchedness and distress, where the manity towards the lowly; the same widow and the fatherless were found, dignity in public life, with the same and where they lay who had none to gentleness in private society. In some helfi them, it assumed then a higher asof these qualities of mind, he was in- pect, and wore a more majestic form. ferior to few; in others, he was equal On this magnificent subject I will not to many; but, in the union and com- speak; because something of it is bination of the whole, he was superior known to us all; and because there is to all. There was a balance and pro- a voice yet to reach us, which will tell portion among the attributes of his us, what is now known only to God. mind, which made them all harmo- I will say only, that there is scarcely nize together; and there was some- an abode of human misery in this thing in his nature, which seemed al- great city, which his pity has not ways superior even to the very virtues reached ; that there are few of as, he was called to exercise. The minds whom duty has called to visit the of most men are distinguished only by scenes of wretchedness, who have not particular qualities : and when we say found his known, or his unknown that they are learned, or generous, or steps to precede us ; that no vulgar active, we give them all the praise of boundaries, of faith, or country, or their character. In him, on the con- climate, limited the boundless humanitrary, there seemed always some great- ty of his mind : that, even in an age er substance, as it were, to which these of benevolence, the charities of the qualities belonged; some higher prin- proudest and greatest among us, sunk ciple, from which they flowed at his before his ; that there is scarcely a obedience, and by which they became, province of our land, which has not not the measures of his character, but known his protection, or his benignithe occasional instruments of his will. ty; and that the noblest records which
In this discipline of his mind, there this city can leave to posterity, conwas one quality alone, to which he tain, at the same time, the records of imposed no limits. You know, my his wisdom, his labours, and his benebrethren, that it was the quality of volence. CHARITY; not that feeble and hypo- The character, however, of a chriscritical spirit, with which men often tian, like that of the leader of his saldeceive the world and themselves ; but vation, can only be made perfect by sufthat high and holy spirit, which is fering. During the course of this long learnt from the gospel; that charity and beneficent life, it pleased God to which is the end of the commandment; leave him to his common share in the that charity which is kindled by once sorrows of mortality He had to looking firinly at the Author of good, know, at different times, the anguish and which then returns to the world of disease, and all the weakness of into be its minister and dispenser. It firmity. He had to follow to the was the habit that was fitted to the grave many of the friends of his youth, original character of his mind; and he and of bis manhood; to sce his chilwore it with the grace of a thing that dren taken from him, in the hour was natural, and with the ease of a when they met his love, and looked thing that was habitual. It accompa- up for his instruction ; and, as life was nied him into every scene of business, declining, and the snows of or of pleasure ; wherever happiness falling upon his head, to lose the kincould be given, wherever modesty dred mind that had so long been the
partner of his feelings, and of his vir- tions of heaven were borne ; the ge! tues. Amid all these scenes, the cha- nuine resignation with which he preracter of his mind was the same ; and, pared himself either to live, or to die; in the deep convictions of his heart, the ardent devotion with which, in there was a faith which was able to the hours of struggle and of suffermeet distress, and resist misfortune.- ance, he walked humbly with his God; He was affliciel, but not subdued. He and the unavated zeal with which he knew that affiictions rise not from the employed the temporary cessations of dust; that there are ends they serve, allliction, in every labour in which he which one day the faithful mind will could yet do justice, or shew mercy anknow ; and that around the childhood to meil. I wish rather to remember, of humanity, there are yet the Ever- that while the last trial was approaclilasting arms. These, indeed, are the ing, and ere the silver cord was loosed common, and the blessed convictions for
of heaven granted of the pious ; but in him, amid such to the prayers of his family, one partscenes, there was something more:- ing gleam of tranquillity and repose; There was, in his sorrows, no selfish- that a ray, as of celestial light, came ness, no ostentatious pride of suffering, to irradiate the closing scene ; and no abandonment of the business of that, in his last hours, he seemed to life, for the indulgence of solitary have conquered the infirmities of morgrief. In the midst of his misfortunes, tality, and to have experienced the his time, his advice, his exertions, were earnest of eternal peace. still at the command of all who need. ed them : while he gave way to the sensibility of his private nature, he Evidence collected at Bristol on the lošt nothing of the perseverance of his
subject of the SLAVE TRADE. duty; and there was no hour of calamity, in which he was incapable of From Clarkson's History of the Abolition of
the Slave Trade. happiness, when he could be the author, or the minister, of happiness to AMONG the persons whom I found others.
out at Bristol, and from whom It was in this manner, withdrawing I derived assistance, were Dr Camplin, himself gradually from the love, but and the celebrated Dean Tucker. The not from the duties, of mortality, and former was my warm defender; for feeling the call of a higher being, as
the West-Indian and African merthe ties of the present were dissolving, chants, as soon as they discovered my that life led on to its final scene; to errand, began to calumniate me. The that scene which has been ended since Dean, though in a very advanced age, we last met in this house, and which felt himself much interested in my many of us will forget only with the pursuit. He had long moved in the last remembrances of our being. Up- political world himself, and was desiron this subject I dare not expatiate; ons of hearing of what was going forI dare not remember the lengthened ward that was new in it, but particusufferings with which it pleased hea- larly about so desirable a measure as ven to try his last days; the vicissi- that of the abolition of the Slavefudes of hope and fear, which the trade *. He introduced me to the prayers of this place have so long ex
Custompressed ; and which have been expressed in many a midnight prayer the Disputes between Great Britain and
* Dean Tucker, in his Reflections or from those who had none else to help them. I dare still less to remember severe censure on the British planters
Ireland, pablished in 1785, had passed a the fortitude with which the visita- for the inhuman treatment of their slavesa