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was adorned below by gilded rostra or beaks of 240 ships, and every successive tier or story was enriched with a profusion of sculpture, representing various animals, fighting centaurs, and other figures, all of which were gilded; and on the summit were statues of sirens, made hollow, in order that the singers who chanted the funeral dirge might be concealed within them.—III. The Mausoleum of Augustus at Rome was a structure of great magnitude and grandeur, and circular in plan. It stood in the Campus Martius, where remains of it yet exist in the two concentric circles forming the first and second stories of the building, and the vaulted chambers between, which supported the first or lowest terrace. Of these terraces there were three; consequently, four stages in the building, gradually decreasing in diameter, the uppermost of which was crowned with a colossal statue of the emperor. The terraces themselves were planted with trees. From traces of something of the kind that yet remain, it is conjectured that there was originally an advanced portico attached to the building, in the same manner as that of the Pantheon, though considerably smaller in proportion to the rest of the plan, as it could not have been carried up higher than the first stage of the building. According to Hirt's representation of it, in his “Baukunst bei den Alten,” it was a Corinthian hexastyle, advanced one intercolumn before the side-walls connecting it with the circular edifice behind it.—IV. The Mausoleum of Hadrian was also of great magnitude and grandeur, and, like the preceding, circular in plan. f. now converted into the Castle of St. Angelo, in which shape it is familiar to almost every one. This is a work of most massy construction, and originally presented an unbroken circular mass of building, erected upon a larger square basement, lofty in itself, yet of moderate height in proportion to the superstructure, the latter being about twice as high as the former. This nearly solid rotunda, which was originally coated with white marble, had on its summit numerous fine statues, which were broken to pieces and the fragments hurled down by the soldiers of Belisarius upon the Goths, who attempted to take the building by storm. Neither are any remains now left of the uppermost stage of the edifice, which assumed the form of a circular peripteral temple, whose diameter was about one third of the larger circle. According to tradition, its peristyle consisted of the twenty-four beautiful marble Corinthian columns which asterward decorated the Basilica of San Paolo fuori delle Mura (partially destroyed some few years ago by fire, but now nearly restored); and its tholus or dome was surmounted by a colossal pine-apple in bronze, now placed in the gardens of the Vatican. (Encycl. Us. Knowl., vol. 15, p. 21.) MaxENTrus, Marcus Aurelius Valerius, son of Maximianus, the colleague of Dioclesian in the empire, was living in obscurity, when, after his father's abdication, and the elevation of Constantine to the rank of Caesar, he became envious of the latter, and dissatisfied with the neglect which he experienced from Galerius. Accordingly, he stirred up a revolt among the praetorian soldiers at Rome, and was proclaimed emperor A.D. 306. Galerius, who was then in the East, sent orders to Severus Caesar, who had the command of Italy, to march from Mediolanum to Rome with all his forces, and put down the insurrection. In the mean time, Maximianus, who lived in retirement in Campania, came to Rome, and was proclaimed emperor and colleague with his son, A.D. 307. Severus, on arriving with his troops near Rome, was deserted by most of his officers and soldiers, who had formerly served under Maximianus, and were still attached to their old general. Upon this he retired to Ravenna, which he soon after surrendered to Maximianus, on being promised his life and liberty; but
Maximianus put him to death. The latter then proceeded to Gaul, to form an alliance with Constantius, leaving Maxentius at Rome. Galerius soon after arrived in Italy with an army ; but, not finding himself strong enough to attack Maxentius in Rome, and fearing the same fate as that of Severus, he made a precipitate retreat. Maximianus, returning to Rome, reigned for some months together with his son, but afterward quarrelled with him, and took refuge with Galerius, who acknowledged him as emperor. There were then no less than six emperors; Galerius, Maximianus, Constantine, Maxentius, Licinius, and Maximinus Daza. In the following year, A.D. 309, Maxentius was proclaimed consul at Rome, together with his son, M. Aurelius Romulus, who, in the ensuing year, was accidentally drowned in the Tiber. Maxentius possessed Italy and Africa; but Africa revolted, and the soldiers proclaimed as emperor an adventurer of the name of Alexander, who reigned at Carthage for three years. In the year 311, ... tius sent an expedition to Africa, defeated and killed Alexander, and burned Carthage. Proud of his success, for which he enjoyed a triumph, Maxentius made great preparations to attack Constantine, with whom he had till then preserved the appearance of friendship. Constantine moved from Gaul into Italy, advanced to Rome, and defeated Maxentius, who was drowned in attempting to swim his horse across the Tiber, A.D. 312. (Encycl. Us. Knowledge, vol. 15, . 22.) p Maximisinus I., MARcus WALERíus, a native of Pannonia, born of obscure parents. He served in the Roman armies with distinction, and was named by Dioclesian his colleague in the empire, A.D. 286. The remainder of his life is given under Diocletianus, Constantinus, and Maxentius. He was put to death by Constantine, at Massilia, for having conspired against his life (A.D. 310.)—II. Galerius VALERius, was surnamed Armentarius on account of his having been a herdsman in his youth. The events of his life are narrated under Diocletianus, Constantius, and Constantinus. According to historians, he died A.D. 311, of a loathsome disease, which was considered by his contemporaries and himself as a punishment from heaven for his persecution of the Christians. (Encycl. Us. Knowl., vol. 15, p. 23.) Maximinus, I. Caius Julius WERUs, was originally a Thracian shepherd. He was of gigantic size and great bodily strength, and, having entered the Roman army under Septimius Severus, was rapidly advanced for his bravery. Alexander Severus gave him the command of a new legion raised in Pannonia, at the head of which he followed Alexander in his campaign against the Germans, when, the army being encamped on the banks of the Rhine, he conspired against his sovereign, and induced some of his companions to murder him in his tent, as well as his mother Mammaea, A.D. 235. Maximinus, being proclaimed emperor, named his son, also called Maximinus, Caesar and his colleague in the empire. He continued the war against the Germans, and devastated a large tract of country beyond the Rhine; after which he repaired to Illyricum to fight the Dacians and Sarmatians., . But his cruelty and or. raised enemies against him in various parts of the empire. The province of Africa revolted, and proclaimed Gordianus, who was soon aster acknowledged by the senate and people of Rome, A.D. 237. But Capellianus, governor of Mauritania for Maximinus, defeated Gordianus and his son, who both fell in the struggle, after a nominal reign of little more than a month. Rome was in consternation at the news, expecting the vengeance of Maximinus. The senate proclaimed as emperors Clodius Pupienus Maximus and Decimus Caelius Albinus; but the people in sisted upon a nephew of the younger Gordianus, a boy twelve years of age, being *...* them. Maximus marched out of Rome with troops to oppose Maximinus, who had laid siege to Aquileia. The latter, however, experienced a brave resistance from the f. and people of that city, which excited still more is natural cruelty, and the soldiers, becoming weary of him, mutinied and killed both him and his son, A.D. 238. Maximinus, the father, then 65 years old, was a ferocious soldier and nothing else, and wonderful tales are related of his voracity, and the quantity of food and drink which he swallowed daily. His son is said to have been a handsome but arrogant youth. (Jul. Capitol., Vit. Marim.— Encycl. Us. Knowl., vol. 15, p. 23.)—II. DAIA or Daza, an Illyrian peasant, served in the Roman armies, and was raised by Galerius, who was his relative, to the rank of military tribune, and lastly to the dignity of Caesar, A.D. 303, at the time of the abdication of Dioclesian and Maximian, when he had for his share the government of Syria and Egypt. After the death of Galerius, A.D. 311, Maximinus and Licinius divided his dominions between them, and Maximinus obtained the whole of the Asiatic provinces. Both he and Licinius behaved ungratefully towards the family of Galerius, their common benefactor. Valeria, the daughter of Dioclesian and widow of Galerius, having escaped from Licinius into the dominions of Maximinus, the latter of. fered to marry her, and, on her refusal, banished her, with her mother, to the deserts of Syria. He persecuted the Christians, and made war against the Armenians. A new war having broken out between Licinius and Maximinus, the latter advanced as sar as Adrianopolis, but was defeated, fled into Asia, and died of poison at Tarsus, A.D. 313. (Encycl. Us. Rnowl., vol. 15, p. 24.) Maximus, I. MAGNUs, a native of Spain, who proclaimed himself emperor A.D. 383. The unpopularity of Gratian favoured his usurpation, and he was acknowledged by the troops. Gratian marched against him, but he was defeated, and soon after assassinated. Maximus refused the honours of burial to the remains of Gratian; and, when he had made himself master of Britain, Gaul, and Spain, he sent ambassadors into the East, and demanded of the Emperor Theodosius to acknowledge him as his associate on the throne. Theodosius endeavoured to amuse and delay him, but Maximus resolved to enforce his claim by arms, and, crossing the Alps, made himself master of Italy. Theodosius, however, marched against and besieged him in Aquileia, where he was betrayed by his own soldiers, and put to death, A.D. 383–II. Petronius, a Roman senator, twice consul, and of patrician origin. He caused the Emperor Valentinian III. to be assassinated, and ascended the throne, but was stoned to death, and his body thrown into the Tiber by his own soldiers, A.D. 455, after a reign of only 77 days. (Procop., Bell. Vand.—Sidon., Apoll., 1, 23.)—III. Tyrius, a native of Tyre, distinguished for his eloquence, and who obtained some degree of celebrity also as a philosopher of the New-Platonic school. According to Suidas, he lived under Commodus; but, according to Eusebius and Syncellus, under Antoninus Pius. The accounts of these chronologers may be reconciled by supposing that Maximus flourished under Antoninus, and reached the time of Commodus. Joseph Scaliger believed that Maximus was one of the instructors of Marcus Aurelius; and that emperor, in fact, mentions a Maximus among his preceptors; but this individual was Claudius Maximus, as we learn from a passage in Capitolinus. (Wit. Anton. Phil., c. 3.) Although he was frequently at Rome, Maximus Tyrius probably spent the greater part of his time in Greece. We have from him, under the title of Discourses (or Dissertations), Aóyou (or Ata?&#etc), forty-one treatises or essays on various subjects of a philosophical, moral, and literary nature. That he possessed the most captivating powers of elo
quence, sufficiently appears from these elegant productions; but they are of little merit on the score of ideas. They are, for the most part, written upon Platonic principles, but sometimes lean towards scepticism. The following may serve as a specimen of the topics discussed by this writer. Of God, according to Plato's idea.—If we must return Injury for Injury.—How we may distinguish a Friend from a Flatterer.—That an Active is better than a Contemplative Life. (The contrary position is maintained in another discourse.)— That the Farmer we more useful to a State than the Soldier.—Whether the Liberal Arts contribute to Virtue. —Of the End of Philosophy.—That there is no greater Good than a good Man.—Of the Demon of Socrates. —Of the beneficial Effects of adverse Fortune.— Whether the Maladies of the Body or the Mind be more serere.—The best edition of Maximus Tyrius is that of Davis, Lond., 1740, 4to, enriched with some excellent observations by Markland. It had been preceded by a smaller edition in 8vo, Cantab., 1703, also by Davis. The larger edition was reprinted at Leipsic in 1774, in 2 vols. 8vo, under the editorial care of Reiske. (Schöll, Hist. Lit. Gr., vol. 4, p. 286, seqq.) —IV. A native of Ephesus, and philosopher of the New-Platonic school. According to Eunapius (p. 86, seqq.), he was, through the recommendation of his master Ædesius, appointed by Constantius preceptor to Julian. According to the Christian historians, however, he introduced himself to Julian, during his Asiatic expedition, at Nicomedia. By accommodating his predictions to the wishes and hopes of the emperor, and by other parasitical arts, he gained entire possession of his confidence. The courtiers, as usual, followed the example of their master, and Maximus was daily loaded with new honours. He accompanied Julian in his expedition into Persia, and there, by the assistance of divination and flattery, persuaded him that he would rival Alexander in the glory of conquest. The event, however, proved as unfortunate to the philosopher as to the hero ; for, Julian being slain by a wound received in battle, after the short reign of Jovian Maximus fell under the displeasure of the emperors Valentinian and Valens, and, for the imaginary crime of magic, underwent a long course of confinement and suffering, which was not the less truly persecution because they were inflicted upon a pagan. At last Maximus was sent into his native country, and there fell a sacrifice to the cruelty of the proconsul Festus. (Ammian. Marcell., 29, 1.-Socr., Hist. Eccles., 3, 1. – Enfield's History of Philosophy, vol. 2, p. 70, seqq.)—V. An ecclesiastical writer, at first chief secretary to the Emperor Heraclius, and afterward abbot of a monastery at Chrysopolis, near Constantinople. The Greek church has numbered him among the consessors, from his having resisted all the attempts that were made to draw him over to the Monothelites, for which he was banished to Colchis, where he died A.D. 662. Among other works, we have from him a species of Anthology, divided into 71 chapters, and entitled kepúñata Geožoyukå, #rol tkWoyal to diagópov 3162 tow rāv re kaff huāg Kai rāv čupatiev. It differs from the Anthology of Stobaeus in containing selections also from the scriptures and from ecclesiastical writers. The works of Maximus were edited by Combefis, Paris, 1675, 2 vols. fol.—WI. An ecclesiastical writer, a bishop of Turin (Augusta Taurinorum), who died subsequently to 465 A.D. He was one of the most eloquent speakers of the Western Church. Many of his homilies remain.
MazâcA. Wid. Caesarea ad Argaeum.
MAzicz, a people of Sarmatia, in the vicinity of the Palus Maeotis. (Plin., 6, 7.)
Mazices, a people of Mauritania Caesariensis, also called, by some writers, Mazyes, and Machmes. (Steph. Byz., s. v.–Ammian. Marcell., 29, 25.Suet., Ner., c. 31.)
Meitze, a people in the north of Britain, near the Vallum Severi. They are the same with the Maeatae. Medea, daughter of Æétes, king of Colchis, and famed for her skill in sorcery and enchantment. When Jason came to Colchis in quest of the golden fleece, she aided him in obtaining it, and then fled with him in the Argo to Greece. (Wid. Argonautas.) Here she displayed her magic skill in the case of AEson, whom she restored from the decrepitude of age to the bloom of early youth. In order to effect this change, she is said by the poets to have drawn off all the blood from his veins, and then to have filled them with the juices of certain herbs. This sudden renovation of the parent of Jason so wrought upon the daughters of Pelias, that they entreated Medea to perform the same act for their aged father. The Colchian princess eagerly availed herself of this opportunity to avenge the wrongs which Pelias had done to Jason, and, in order to pique still more the curiosity of his daughters, she is said to have cut to pieces an old ram, and then, boiling the parts in a caldron, to have caused a oung lamb to come forth from it. The daughters of elias thereupon slew their father, and boiled his flesh in a caldron; but Medea refused to perform the requisite ceremonies; and, in order to avoid the punishment she had a right to expect for this cruel deed, fled with Jason to Corinth.—According to another account, however, Medea did not restore Æson to youth, he having been driven by Pelias, before the return of Jason, to the act of self-destruction. (Vid. AEson.)—After residing for some time at Corinth, Medea found herself deserted by Jason, who espoused the daughter of Creon, the Corinthian king. Taking, thereupon, summary vengeance on her rival, and having destroyed her two sons whom she had by Jason (vid. Jason), Medea mounted a chariot drawn by winged serpents and fled to Athens, where she had by King Ægeus a son named Medus. Being detected, however, in an attempt to destroy Theseus (vid. Theseus), she fled from Athens with her son. Medus conquered several barbarous tribes, and also, say the poets, the country which he named Media after soft. and he finally sell in battle with the Indians. Medea, returning unknown to Colchis, found that her father Æetes had been robbed of his throne by her brother Perses. She restored him, and deprived the usurper of life.—Neither Jason nor Medea can be well regarded as a real historical personage. (Compare remarks at the close of the article Jason.) Whether the former, whose name is nearly identical with Iasion, Iasios, Iasos, is merely a personification of the Ionian race ('Iáoves), or, in reference to a myth to be noticed in the sequel, signifies the healing, atoning god or hero, may be doubted. Medea, however, seems to be plainly only another form of Juno, and to have been separated from her in a way of which many instances occur in ancient legends. She is the counselling (ujóoc) goddess; and in the history of Jason we find Juno always acting in this capacity towards him, who, as Homer says, “was very dear to her” (Od., 12, 72); an obscure hint, perhaps, of the love of Jason and Medea. Medea, also, always acts a friendly part; and it seems highly probable that the atrocities related of her are pure fictions of the Attic dramatists. (Müller, Orchom, p. 68.) . The bringing of Jason and Medea to Corinth seems also to indicate a connexion between the latter and Juno, who was worshipped there under the title of Acraea, and the graves of the children of Medea were in the temple of this goddess. It was an annual custom at Corinth, that seven youths and as many maidens, children of the most distinguished citizens, clad in black, with their hair shorn, should go to this temple, and, singing mournful hymns, offer sacrifices to appease the deity. The cause assigned for this rite was as follows. , Medea reigned at Corinth; but the people, disdaining to be governed by an enchantress, conspired against her,
and resolved to put her children (seven of each sex) to death. The children fled to the temple of Juno, but were pursued and slain at the altar. The anger of heaven was manifested by a plague, and, by the advice of an oracle, the expiatory rite just mentioned was instituted. (Parmeniscus, ap. Schol. ad Eurip., Med., 9, 275–Pausan., 2, 3, 7.) It was even said that the Corinthians, by a bribe of five talents, induced Euripides to lay the guilt of the murder of her children on Medea herself. (Schol, l.c.) There was also a tradition that Medea resided at Corinth, and that she caused a famine to cease by sacrificing to Ceres and the Lemnian nymphs, and that Jupiter made love to her, but she would not hearken to his suit, fearing the anger of Juno, who therefore rewarded her by making her children immortal; a thing she had vainly attempted to do herself, by hiding them in the temple of the goddess, whose priestess she probably was in this myth. (Schol. ad Pind., Ol., 13, 74.—Pausan., 2, 3, 11.) It is also remarkable, that the only place besides Corinth in which there were legends of Medea was Corcyra, an island which had been colonized by the Corinthians. AEetes himself was, according to Eumelus (ap. Schol, ad Pind., l. c.), the son of Helius and Antiope, and born at Ephyra or Corinth, which his sire #". to him ; but |. committed it to the charge of Bunus, and went to Colchis. It would thus appear, that the whole myth of Æetes and Medea is derived from the worship of the Sun and Juno at Corinth, (Keightley's Mythology, p. 310, seqq.) Media, a country of Upper Asia, the boundaries of which are difficult to determine, as they differed at various times. In the time of Strabo, it was divided into Great Media and Atropatene. Great Media, which is a high table-land, is said by all ancient writers to have had a good climate and a fertile soil; an account which is fully confirmed by modern travellers. It was separated on the west and southwest from the low country, watered by the Tigris and Euphrates, by a range of mountains known to the ancients under the name of Zagros and Parachoatras. Xenophon, however, appears to include in Media all the country between the Tigris and Mount Zagrus. (Anab., 2, 4, 27.) On the east it was bounded by a desert and the Caspian Mountains (the modern Elburz range), and on the north and northwest by the Cadusii, Atropatene, and the Matieni, thus answering, for the most part, to the modern Irak Ajemi. Atropatene, on the other hand, which corresponds to the modern Azerbijan, extended as far north as the Araxes (now Aras). It was much less fertile than Great Media, and does not appear to have been included in the Media of Herodotus. It derived its name from Atropates, who successfully opposed the Macedonians, and established an independent monarchy, which continued till the time of Strabo, notwithstanding its proximity to the Armenian and Parthian dominions. The principal town of Great Media was Agbatana or Ecbatana, the summer residence of the Persian kings. (Wid. Ecbatana.) In Great Media also was the Nisaean plain, celebrated for its breed of horses, which were considered in ancient times the best in Asia. Arrian informs us, that there were 50,000 horses reared in this plain in the time of Alexander, and that there were formerly as many as 150,000. (Herod., 3, 106.—Id., 7,40.—Arrian, }. Al.., 7, 13.-Strabo, 525.-Ammian. Marcell., 23, 6.) The mountainous country in the southwestern part of Great Media was inhabited by several warlike tribes, who maintained their independence against the Persian monarchy. Strabo mentions four tribes in particular; the Mardi, bordering on the northwest of Persis; the Uxii and Elymaei, east of Susiana; and the Cossaei, south of Great Media. The King of Persia was obliged to pass through the country of the latter whenever he visited Ecbatana, and could only obtain a free passage by the payment of a * sum of money. The Cossaei were defeated by Alexander, but they never appear to have been completely subdued by the Macedonians.—According to Herodotus (1, 101), the Medes were originally divided into six tribes, the Busa, Paretaceni, Struchates, Arizanti, Budii, and Magi. They were originally called Arii (Herod., 7, 62); which word appears to contain the same root as Ar-taei, the ancient name of the Persians. (Herod., 7, 61.) It is not improbable that this name was originally applied to most of the Indo-Germanic nations. Tacitus speaks of the Arii as one of the most powerful of the German tribes (Germ., 43); and India proper is called in the most ancient Sanscrit works, Arrya-varta, “holy land.” The same name was retained in the province of Ariana, and is still employed in the East as the proper name of Persia, namely, Iran. (Vid. Aria.)—Media originally formed part of the Assyrian empire, but its history as an independent kingdom is given so differently by Herodotus and Ctesias, as to render it probable that the narrative of Ctesias must refer to a different dynasty in Eastern Asia. Ctesias makes the Median monarchy last 282 years; and, as Media was conquered by Cyrus about B.C. 560, it follows that the Median monarchy would commence, according to his account, about B.C. 842. Herodotus, on the contrary, assigns to the Median monarchy a period of 128 years, which, including the 28 years during which the Scythians had possession of the country, would place the commencement of the Median monarchy B.C. 716. The founder of this monarchy was Arbaces, according to Ctesias, who reckons eight kings from him to Astyages. According to the account of Herodotus, however, there were four kings of Media: 1. Dejoces, who reigned B.C. 716–657. –2. Phraortes, B.C. 657–635, greatly extended the Median empire, subdued the Persians and many other nations, but fell in an expedition against the Assyrians of Ninus (Nineveh).-3. Cyaxares, B.C. 635–595, completely organized the military sorce of the empire, and extended its boundaries as far west as the Halys. In an expedition against Nineveh, he was defeated by the Scythians, who had made an irruption into Southern Asia, and was deprived of his kingdom for 28 years. Aster the expulsion of the Scythians, he took Nineveh, and subdued the Assyrian empire, with the exception of the Babylonian district (Babvāoving uoipm!).-4. Astyages, B.C. 595-560, who was dethroned by his grandson Cyrus, and Media reduced to a Persian province. The history of the rise of the Persian monarchy is related differently by Xenophon, who also makes a fifth Median king, Cyaxares II., succeed Astyages.—The Medes revolted during the reign of Darius II., the father of the younger Cyrus, about B.C. 408, but were again subdued. (Herod., 1, 130.— Men., Hist. Gr., 1, 2, 19.) They do not appear, after this time, to have made any farther attempt at recovering their independence. On the downfall of the Persian empire they formed a part of the kingdom of the Seleucidae, and were subsequently subject to the Parthians. (Encycl. Us. Knowl., vol. 15, p. 54.) MediolāNUM, I. a city of Cisalpine Gaul, among the Insubres, now Milan. According to Livy (5,34), it was founded by the Insubres, and called by them Mediolanum, from a place of the same name among the AEdui in Gaul. (Compare Pliny, 3, 17–Ptol., p. 63.) This city is named for the first time in history by Polybius (2, 34), in his account of the Gallic wars. The capture of it by Cn. Scipio and Marcellus was followed by the submission of the Insubres themselves. (Oros., 4, 13.-Plut., Wit. Marcell.) It was situate on a small river, now the Olona, in a beautiful plain between the Ticinus or Tesino, and the Addua or Adda. In the vicinity of this city, to the west, D'Anville and others locate the Raudii Campi, where Marius defeated the Cimbri; but Mannert places them near Verona. In Strabo's time, Mediolanum was con
sidered a most flourishing city. (Strabo, 213.—Compare Tacit., Hist., 1, 70.-Suet., Aug., c. 20–Plin., Ep., 4, 13.) But its splendour seems to have been greatest in the time of Ausonius, who flourished towards the end of the fourth century, and who assigns it the rank of the sixth city in the Roman empire. Procopius, who wrote a century and a half later, speaks of Mediolanum as one of the first cities of the west, and as inferior only to Rome in population and extent. (Rer. Got., 2, 8.) In it was also established the gold and silver coinage of the north of Italy. At a later period, the frequent inroads of the barbarians of the north compelled the emperors to select, as a place of arms, some city nearer the scene of action than Rome was. The choice fell on Mediolanum. Here, too, Maximian resigned the imperial diadem (Eutrop, 9, 27), and the famous St. Ambrose established the see of a bishopric. . Although subsequently plundered by Attila (Jornandes, c. 42), it soon revived, and under Odoacer became the imperial residence. In its vicinity was fought the battle which put Theodoric, king of the Ostrogoths, in possession of Italy, and Mediolanum under this prince became second only to Rome. (Procop., Rer. Got., 2, 8.) It met with its downfall, however, when, having sided with Belisarius, and having been besieged by the Goths and Burgundians, it was taken by the latter, and 300,000 of the inhabitants, according to Procopius, were put to the sword (2, 21). It never, after this severe blow, regained its former eminence, although in the middle ages it became a flourishing and opulent place of trade. (Mannert, Geogr., vol. 9, pt. 1, p. 167, seqq.—Cramer's Anc. Italy, vol. 1, p. 51.)—II. A town of the Gugerni in Germania Inferior, corresponding, as is thought by Cluver and Cellarius, to the present village of Moyland.—III. A city in Moesia Superior. (Cod. Theod, l. 8, de jur. fisc.)—IV. A town of the Ordovices in Britain, near the present town of Ellesmeere. MedioMatrici, a people of Gallia Belgica on the Mosella or Moselle. The Treviri were their neighbours on the north. Their chief town was Divodurum, afterward Mediomatrici, now Metz. They were a powerful nation previous to their reduction by the Romans, and their territory corresponded to what is now le pays Messin. (Caes., B. G., 4, 10.—Plin., 4, 17. —Tacit., Ann., 1, 63.−1d., Hist., 4, 70.) Meditkr RANEUM MARE (or Midland Sea), the Mediterranean, a sea between the Straits of Gibraltar to the west and the Dardanelles and Syria to the east. It was anciently called “The Sea,” or “The Great Sea," by the Jews. The Greeks, on the other hand, do not seem to have had any general name for it. Herodotus calls it “this sea” (1, 185); and Strabo, “the sea within the columns,” that is, within the Straits of Gibraltar (Strab., 491). Mela calls the whole sea “mare nostrum,” “our sea,” and observes that different parts had their several names. Pliny appears to have no general appellation for it. The term Mediterranean is not applied to this sea by any classical Latin writer, but, instead of Mediterraneum, they use internum, or else, with Mela, call it nostrum. We will return to this subject at the close of the article.—The Mediterranean is comprised between the parallels of 30° 15' and 45° 50', and the meridians of 5° 30' W. and 36° 10' E. The distance from Gibraltar to the farthest shore of Syria is 2000 miles, and the narrowest part from Sicily to Africa is 79 miles across. Including the islands, it occupies an area of 734,000 square miles. On the shores of this sea have been transacted the most important events in the history of mankind, and its character seems to mark it as the theatre best adapted to the complete and rapid civilization of the race. From the great diversity of soil and productions, under a varied and favourable climate, the colonists, from whatever points they first proceeded, would soon acquire those different habits under which their
several energies and capabilities would be developed. The comparative shortness of the distances of the several places, rendering navigation easy and pleasant in small and imperfect vessels, would, by facilitating intercourse from an early period, tend to diffuse and promote civilization; while commerce, by bringing together men of different habits, manners, and languages, and thus circulating practical information, would supply the materials for the persection of the arts and sciences.—The navigation of the Mediterranean must no doubt be of very early date. The story of Minos destroying pirates (Thucyd., 1, 4) takes for granted the fact, that there must have been merchant vessels carrying something worth plundering from the earliest recorded period. If, with Strabo, we allow the accuracy of Homer's descriptions, it by no means follows that the Greeks knew everything that could have been known to every other nation at that time; and the stories told of the jealousy with which the Phoenicians and Carthaginians guarded their discoveries, prove at least that geographical knowledge was not common property: and with o: to these very nations, the knowledge which the Greeks could have had of them, among other barbarians, must have been inferior to that which we possess in the minute accuracy of the Scriptures alone. The story of Utica having been established 130 years before Carthage, proves a regular communication between this place and Syria, a distance of upward of 1200 miles; and we may conclude that occasional voyages of that enterprising people had already extended the bounds of knowledge far beyond these limits. If the precise time of the discovery of places, lying, as it were, in the thoroughfare of this sea, is so uncertain, the history of the places in the deep bays of the northern shores must be still more obscure : we shall therefore give at once a slight sketch of the geography of this sea from Strabo, who wrote in the first century of our era.-The stadium adopted by Strabo was that of Eratosthenes, 700 stadia making 1° of latitude or longitude on the equator, or 60 nautical miles; hence a stadium is 0.0857 of a nautical mile, the mile being about 6082 feet. The Mediterranean was divided into three basins: the first comprised the sea between the Columns of Hercules and Sicily; the second, between Sicily and Rhodes; the third, between Rhodes and the shores of Syria. Strabo supposed that the parallel of latitude of 364° passed through the Sacred Promontory (Cape St. Vincent) between the Pillars of Hercules, dividing this part of the Mediterranean in the middle of its breadth, which was believed by navigators to be 5000 stadia, or 428} nautical miles, from the Gulf of Lyons to the shores of Africa, but which measures only 330. The sea here, however, lies altogether to the north of this parallel; and hence, as the configuration of the European shores seems to have been tolerably good, the coast of Africa must have been proportionably distorted. This parallel was carried through the straits of Sicily, Rhodes, and the Gulf of Issus, now the Gulf of Scanderoon. In consequence of the above supposition, he placed Massilia (Marseille) to the southward instead of the northward of Byzantium. He supposed Sardinia and Corsica to lie northwest and southeast instead of north and south, and made the distance of Sardinia from the coast of Africa 2400 stadia, or 206 miles instead of 100, which is the true distance. From the Columns of Hercules to the Straits of Sicily he considers to be 12,000 stadia, or 1028 miles: it is only about 800. From Pachynum (Cape Passaro) to the western extremity of Crete he reckoned 4500 stadia, or 386 miles; it measures 400; and he supposed the length of Crete 2000 stadia, or 171 miles, the true length being 140. He supposed that a line drawn through Byzantium, the middle of the Propontis, the Hellespont, and along the capes of the coast of Asia Minor, "; coincide with the meridian: this error 5
placed Byzantium too far to the north, and not sar enough to the east. From Alexandrea to the east end of Crete he considered 3000 stadia, or 257 miles: it measures about 290. From Alexandrea to Rhodes he made 3600 stadia, or 308 miles: it measures 320.—Many of the latitudes given by Strabo are very near, that is, within 10"; those of Massilia and Byzantium excepted, the former being 3° 43' too little, and the latter 2° 16' too much. #. longitudes, which were all at that time referred to the Sacred Promontory as the first meridian, and the extreme western point, as was believed, of the known world, are without exception too small ; that of Carthage, the nearest to the truth, being 1°9', and Alexandrea, the most erroneous, 6° 40' too small. (Encycl. Useful Knowl., vol. 15, p. 59, seqq.)—The Mediterranean Sea afforded a very frequent topic of consideration to the ancient writers. Democritus, Diogenes, and others, maintained that its waters kept constantly decreasing, and would eventually all disappear. Aristotle (Meteor., 2, 3) held to the opinion, that the Mediterranean had at one time covered a large part of Asrica and Egypt, and had extended inland as far as the temple of Jupiter Ammon. This doctrine was maintained also by Xanthus the Lydian, Strabo, and Eratosthenes. The ancients appear to have been led to this conclusion by observing in various parts of Africa and Egypt manifest traces and indications of the sea. They found here shells, pebbles evidently rounded or worn smooth by the action of water, incrustations of salt, and many salt lakes. Some of these appearances were particularly frequent on the route through the desert to the temple of Ammon. (Herod., 2, 12. – Plut., de Is... et Os. – Strab., 809.-Mela, 1, 6.- Solin., 26. – Seidel., ad Eratosth., fragm., p. 28.) The ancient writers maintained, that the temple and oracle of Ammon never could have become so famous if the only approach to them had always been over vast and dangerous deserts. They insisted that the Oases had all originally been islands in the earlier and more widely extended Mediterranean. In this remote period, according to them, there existed as yet no communication between the Pontus Euxinus and Mediterranean Sea (vid. Lectonia), nor between the latter and the Atlantic. The isthmus connecting Arabia with Egypt was under water, and Eratosthenes believed that Menelaus had sailed over this narrow passage, which is now the Isthmus of Suez. When the waters of the Euxine forced a passage into the Mediterranean (vid. Cyaneae), the great influx of water opened another outlet for itself through what were called by the ancients the Pillars of Hercules, Spain and Africa having been previously joined. In this tremendous convulsion the ancient land of Lectonia is thought to have been inundated, and to have sunk in the sea, leaving merely the islands of the Archipelago, its mountain-tops, to attest its former existence. According to Diodorus Siculus (5, 47), the inhabitants of Samothrace had a tradition that a great part of their island, as well as of Asia, was ravaged and laid under water by this inundation, and that, in fishing near their island, fragments of temples and other buildings were frequently rescued from the waves. (Compare Diod. Sic., 5, 82.- Strab., 85Plat., de Leg., 3, p. 677, Opp., ed. Bip., vol. 8, p. 106.—Plin., 2, 80-Philon., de Mund. non corrupt., p. 959. — Lyell's Principles of Geology, vol. 1, p. 25, seqq.)—Before bringing the present article to a close, it may not be amiss to enter more fully into one part of the subject, on which we merely touched at the commencement, the different appellations, namely, which have been given to this sea. , Herodotus, as we have already remarked, calls it “this sea,” Tāvée riv 3áAaaaav (4,39.—Compare Aristot., Meteor., 2, 2.—Appian, Schweigh. ad Praef., c. 1.-Wesseling, ad Diod. Sic., 4, 18). Polybius, # “...” (3, 9