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situations. What is principally laid open is the Basilica ; Considerable discussion has arisen concerning the meanand for this, it was necessary to destroy several houses and ing of this declaration, or rather the inference to be drawn two convents. The width of the part now exposed, is from it. It is supposed by some, that the Capitoline and believed to be about half the length of the Basilica. Of Quirinal Hills were originally united, or one and the same the libraries, antiquaries have thought that they distin hill, and that to form his Forum, Trajan cut them asunder, guished some vestiges near the column; but very little of and cleared out a sufficient space between them. the situation has been examined, and nothing of that of “ It has been thought by some," says the Italian geolothe Temple of Trajan, erected afterwards by Hadrian. gist Brocchi, “ that, before the reign of Trajan, the QuiThe remains of some piers were found on the north side of rinal was always connected with the Capitoline Hill; and, the column, and indications of their having been altered in support of this opinion, they adduce the inscription and partly removed, in order, as is imagined, to make room which may be read on the pedestal of the great column, for the access to this temple. Two churches and a palace erected between these two hills in honour of that emperor. are in the way of any further researches in the direction in Those who hold this opinion, consider that the inscription which, if anywhere, the remains of the Temple of Trajan indicates the depth of the cutting made, in order to sepawould probably be found; and independently of this, the rate the one hill from the other, as corresponding to the great extent of the ground required to be excavated in height of the monument itself. We leave it to archæoloorder to display the whole design, and the difficulty and ex- gists to interpret this mutilated inscription at their pleapense of preserving it after it is exposed, deprives one of sure, but in whatever manner it may please them to do so, all hope of seeing it executed. The column still remains it can never be concluded that the capitol was once cona noble monument of the taste and skill of the architect nected with the Quirinal. These two hills were entirely Apollodorus."
distinct from the first ages of Rome, and the fact is so
obvious, that long arguments are not needed for its demonTHE PILLAR OR COLUMN OF TRAJAN.
stration.' TRAJAN'S Pillar is the only structure in his Forum which has survived the accidents of time and fortune. It was erected in the year of our Lord 115, by the senate and people of Rome, to commemorate the victories of Trajan in his two Dacian campaigns. The first of these was un dertaken in the year 101, and lasted three years ; its result was honourable to the Roman arms, as the fierce Dacians were compelled to sue for peace. The second was undertaken in 105, and concluded in the next year; in this, the Dacian king having destroyed himself to avoid capture or defeat, his dominions were subdued by Trajan and annexed to the empire. The column was erected during Trajan's absence in an expedition against the Parthians and Armenians; and although it may have been begun before his departure, it is certain that he never saw it finished, as he died at Seleucia in 117, without returning to Rome. His ashes were brought home and placed in a golden ball at the top of the pillar, “ which was a singular honour," says Dr. Burton, “ on account of the custom which prohibited any burials within the walls." Some accounts place this golden ball in the hand of the statue at the top of the pillar, and others deposit it at the bottom; the testimony of a coin is in favour of the former. The ball itself is said to be still preserved, and to be that which is seen on the milestone upon the balustrade of the modern Capitol.
The height of this pillar, including the statue which formerly surmounted it, is reckoned by ancient writers at one hundred and forty feet. As it at present stands without the statue, its height is one hundred and twenty-eight modern Roman, or one hundred and twenty-four English feet. When this colossal statue was thrown down is not known. The feet were standing in the time of Pope Sixtus the Fifth, and the head was found in the rubbish at the base. The statue of St. Peter now on the summit is eleven feet high, and of gilt bronze; it was put up by Sixtus the Fifth in 1587.
The whole pillar is formed of thirty-three large blocks of marble, of which eight are used in the base, twenty-three in the shaft, one in the capital, and one above it. The diameter of the shaft is eleven feet two inches at the bottom, and ten feet at the top. The base is square, and
ofer measures twenty feet on each side; it is covered with trophies, and at each corner is an eagle holding in his talons
THE PILLAR OR COLUMN OF TRAJAN, a wreath of oak, which extends from the one to the other all round. Inside the pillar is a spiral staircase cut out of The opinion which Brocchi entertains, and which is now the marble blocks, and leading to the summit by one hun- generally entertained, is this,—that Trajan enlarged the dred and eighty-four steps; the light is admitted by forty- valley, which had always existed between the two hills, so as three apertures. On the base is an inscription, which is to render the area of his Forum level and more spacious, perfect except in one small portion, where the letters have and that this operation consisted essentially in lessening been defaced by buildings erected against the pillar in the the steep inclination of the Quirinal, by removing the earth middle ages; and as usual, the antiquaries have eagerly for a distance as high up as corresponded with the capital laid hold of the opportunity to kindle a formidable dispu- of the column, thus obtaining a gentle slope which contation concerning the missing letters. The doubtful part ducted from the mount to his Forum. Dr. Burton remarks, of the inscription is certainly an important one, for it is " that, whatever the true reading of the inscription may be, that which states the object of erecting the column; but enough remains to prove the extraordinary fact, that as all the various readings proposed lead to the same interpre- much soil was cut away to form this Forum as equalled the tation in the end. The tenour of the inscription is this, height of the pillar. It does not, however, follow, that that the senate and people of Rome erected the column to the Quirinal Hill ever extended to the site of the column; Trajan, &c., " for the purpose of declaring of how much of the work which Trajan undertook may have been in a difits height the mount and the place had been deprived by ferent part of the Forum." such great labours."
We have now to describe the most curious and the most
remarkable part of this column, namely, the bas-reliefs | true, but then you should also endeavour sometimes to bring which cover the shaft, running round it in a spiral band, great things into contrast with little spaces. Nothing imwhich makes twenty-two revolutions in passing from the presses the idea of size more strongly; and when again base to the capital. The subjects of these bas-reliefs are the you see the edifice from a larger space, perhaps over the victories of Trajan in his Dacian campaigns. The whole tops of smaller buildings, the imagination carries on the number of figures sculptured is about 2500; the figure of idea of size to all its accompaniments." Trajan himself is repeated more than fifty times. At the lower part of the column the human figures are about two THE MOLE OF HADRIAN, OR CASTLE OF ST. ANGELO. feet in height; as they ascend, and thus become further removed from the eye, their size is increased, till at the top
Turn to the Mole which Hadrian reared on high, of the column they have nearly double the height that they
Imperial mimic of old Egypt's piles,
Colossal copyist of deformity. have below. As a matter of course the height or width of each bend of the spiral increases similarly. These bas- The Moles Hadriani, or Mole of Hadrian, was erected by reliefs are executed with great delicacy and spirit, but they the emperor whose name it bore, to serve for his mausopossess for us a high value of a different kind.
leum; he is thought to have raised it in imitation of “ The Roman dress and manners," says Dr. Burton, Augustus, whose mausoleum stood at a short distance on “may receive considerable light from these bas-reliefs. the opposite, or left bank of the Tiber, and has not yet We find the soldiers constantly carrying their swords on altogether disappeared, although its confused remains are the right side. On a march they are generally bare- surrounded and hidden by modern buildings. Like its headed'; some have no helmets at all; others wear them prototype, the Mole of Hadrian was eircular; it consisted suspended to their right shoulder; each of them carry a of three stories, each considerably smaller in diameter than stick orer the left shoulder, which seems to have been for the one below it, and the whole resting on a square basethe purpose of conveying their provisions. We may observe ment. It is supposed that the first and second stories were a wallet, a vessel for wine, a machine for dressing meat, adorned with columns and statues around their circumfe&c. We know, from other accounts, that they sometimes rence, and that the third was crowned by a cupola, and a carried sixty pounds, and food for seventeen days; they never statue of Hadrian. Procopius, a writer of the sixth cencarried less than enough for three days. Their shields are tury thus describes it: oblong, with different devices upon them. Their standards "The tomb of the Emperor Hadrian stands without the are of various kinds, such as a hand within a wreath of Porta Aurelia, at about a stone's throw from the walls, and laurel, which was considered a sign of concord. Pictures is undoubtedly well worth seeing; for it is built of Parian also were used, which were portraits of gods or heroes. marble, the square stones (of which the basement is built,) The soldiers wear upon their legs a kind of tight pantaloon, are joined alternately to each other, without the admixture reaching a little below the knee, and not buttoned. The of any cement, and it is divided into four sides, of equal Dacians have loose pantaloons, reaching to the ancle, and dimensions; each is of such a length, that a stone thrown shoes; they also carry curved swords. The Sarmatian from one angle would but just reach the other. In height cavalry, allies of Decebalus, (the Dacian King,) wear plate- it surpasses the walls of the city. There are also statues armour, covering the men and horses. These were called on it of men and horses, finished with wonderful skill out Cataphracti, or Clibanarii; and the words of Ammianus of Parian marble. The inhabitants, a long time ago, exactly answer the representation on the column. Their observing it stand like a tower overlooking the city, carried armour was a covering of thin circular plates, which were out two arms from the walls to the tomb, and, by building adapted to the movements of the body, and drawn over all them into it, so united it, that henceforward it became part their limbs, so that in whatever direction they wished to of the walls, for it has a very lofty appearance like a tower, move, their clothing allowed them free play by the close and overhangs the gate in that quarter.” fitting of its joints.'
Of this magnificent mausoleum, the basement and the “ Some Roman soldiers have also plate-armour, but they first circular story, stripped of all its ornaments, and enare archers. The horses have saddles, or rather cloths, cumbered with an irregular mass of modern buildings, which are fastened by cords round the breast and under the still remain. The spectator should always bear in mind, tail. The Dacian horses are without this covering; and the that, with these exceptions, he sees nothing in the present Germans, or some other allies, have neither saddles nor structure which dates earlier than the beginning of the bridles to their horses. We might observe several other fifteenth century; and that even the circular mass itself has, particulars, such as a bridge of boats over a river, and that since that period, been much changed by the explosion of the boats everywhere are without a rudder, but are guided the powder-magazine in 1497, and the final reparation by an oar fastened with a thong on one side of the stern. which it then underwent. This enormous tower is impoThe wall of the camp has battlements, and the heads of sing from its size, the circumference being 576 feet. the Dacians are stuck upon it. The Dacian women are During the siege of Rome by the Goths under Vitiges, represented burning the Roman prisoners. We may also in 537, the Mole of Hadrian was converted into a temporary see the testudo, formed by soldiers putting their shields fortress, and to this period is to be referred the destruction together in a compact mass over their backs; also, the of the statues which formerly adorned it; the besieged sacrifice called suovetaurilia. Victory is represented as threw them down upon their assailants. When the scheme writing with a pen upon a shield."
of dragging the Tiber for antiquities was carried into exe“ Trajan's column," says Forsyth, " considered as a long cution in 1819, great hopes were entertained that some of historical record, to be read round and round a long convex these statues would be found, but these hopes were dissurface, made perspective impossible. Every perspective appointed. The sanguine supporters of the scheme seem has one fixed point of view, but here are ten thousand. to have forgotten, as Dr. Burton remarks, that marble The eye, like the relievos of the column, must describe a statues, probably of colossal size, could not easily be used spiral round them, widening over the whole piazza; hence, as weapons of offence, unless they were first broken in to be legible, the figures must be lengthened as they rise. pieces. Indeed Procopius says distinctly that they were This license is necessary here, but in architecture it may be so :-" having broken the statues," he tells us, “ which contested against Vitruvius himself."
were of marble, and of great size, they threw down large Concerning the merits of the column, as a whole, we stones made out of their fragments on the heads of the quote the following remarks from the Letters of an enemy." Two statues were, however, found in the ditch Architect.
of the fortress in the early part of the seventeenth century, " It may be said that one column of this sort is very but whether they belonged to the collection which ornamuch like another, and that there is very little room for mented the mausoleum is unknown. the merit of the architect; but if you were to go two It is probable that the mausoleum haa been used as a or three times to the column of Antoninus, and return place of defence before the attack of Vitiges, perhaps to that of Trajan, you would feel the great superiority during Alaric's invasion. It afterwards fell into the hands of the latter, though it might puzzle you not a little to of Totila, and the garrison which held it after his death, find out in what that superiority consisted. This magni- rendered it a very strong fortress, surrounding it with ficent column must always have been conspicuous as it is walls, which they connected with those of the city. It was now, rising above the Basilica and all the buildings of the surrendered by the Goths in 553, during Justinian's reign, Forum ; but the pedestal could hardly be seen, except from and during the period of the Exarchate it was held for the the confined little court in which it stood. This apparent Greek emperors. Luitprand, a writer of the tenth century, disproportion is one of the secrets of effect in architecture. thus describes its appearance in his time: You show large and lofty edifices from large spaces it is " In the entrance to the city of Rome there is a fortifi.
cation of astonishing workmanship and astonishing strength; 1 of the castle, and according to his own account, made sad in front of the gate is a bridge of great consequence over havoc among the Imperialists. Indeed, he tells us plainly, the Tiber, which is the first in going in or out of Rome; that but for him the castle would have been taken when nor is there any other way of passing, except over this the city fell. After killing the Constable, he and a combridge, but this cannot be done except by leave of those panion contrived to make their way to the gate of the who guard the fortress. The fortress itself is of so great a castle: “When we arrived at the gate above mentioned," height, that a church, which is built at the top of it, in he says, “part of the enemy had already entered Rome, honour of the Archangel Michael, chief of the heavenly and we had them at our heels. The castellan having host, is called the Church of St. Angelo in the Heavens. thought proper to let down the portcullis, there was just There is still a figure of an angel upon the top; but a room enough made for us four to enter. No sooner had we writer of the sixteenth century speaks of it as a thing entered than the Captain Pallone de Medici pressed me which had existed, but did not exist in his days.
into the service because I belonged to the Pope's household, In the severe contests, of which Rome was continually and forced me to leave Alessandro very much against my the theatre, between the popes, the antipopes, the barons, will. At this very juncture Pope Clement had entered the and the people, the Mole of Hadrian figures conspicuously. castle of St. Angelo by the long gallery from St. Peter's, The first pope who obtained possession of it was John the for he did not choose to quit the Vatican sooner, never once Twelfth, who filled the papal chair in the middle of the dreaming that the eneniy would storm the city. As soon tenth century. Succeeding popes and antipopes at times as I found myself within the castle walls I went up to held it securely, and at times were driven out of it by the some pieces of artillery which a bombardier named Giuliano, turbulent barons and citizens. Its importance, as an a Florentine, had under his direction. This Giuliano engine for overawing a rebellious people, did not escape the standing upon one of the battlements, saw his house discernment of the pontiffs ; neither did it escape the obser- pillaged, and his wife and children cruelly used: fearing vation of the people themselves, who deliberately declared to shoot any of his friends, he did not venture to fire the guns, by a public decree, that when they should obtain possession but throwing the match upon the ground made a piteous of it, they would uproot it from its very foundations. In lamentation, tearing his hair, and uttering the most doleful 1378 this decree was near being carried into effect; the cries, His example was followed by several other gunners, partisans of Pope Urban the Sixth, having taken it from which vexed me to such a degree, that I took one of the those of the Antipope Clement, in spite of the garrison matches, and getting some people to assist me who had not which the French cardinals, who opposed Urban's election, the same passions to disturb them, I directed the fire of the had placed there, proceeded as far as they could in the artillery and falcons where I saw occasion, and killed a work of destruction, and contrived to disfigure the structure considerable number of the enemy. If I had not taken and reduce it to its present shapeless mass. They stripped this step, the party which entered Rome that morning, off the marbles, and destroyed the form of the square base would have proceeded directly to the castle; and it might ment, and were only stopped from further mischief by the possibly have been a very easy matter for them to have strength and solidity of the building.
stormed it, as they would have met with no obstruction The fortress remained dismantled till 1392, when the two from the artillery. I continued to fire away, which made Romani said to Pope Boniface the Ninth, “ If you wish some cardinals and gentlemen bless me and extol my actito maintain the dominion of Rome, fortify the Castle of St. vity to the skies. Emboldened by this I used my útmost Angelo." He followed their advice, and the event is thus exertions : let it suflice that it was I who preserved the significantly recorded by a great Roman antiquary. “ Pope castle that morning, and by whose means the other bomBoniface the Ninthi first fortified the Mole of Hadrian, and bardiers began to resume their duty; and so I continued established the dominion of the Roman Pontiffs.” The to act the whole day." people foresaw and felt the fatal consequences. They peti Cellini was then posted by the Pope's desire with five tioned Innocent the Seventh, the successor of Boniface, to great guns in the highest part of the castle ; “ I obeyed his restore to them “ their liberty, the capitol, the Milvian orders," he says, " with alacrity, and had better success Bridge, and the Mole of Hadrian." They even seized, for than if I had been following my own business.” Of the a moment, the first three; in an attack on the mole they marvellous skill with which he performed the duties of were repulsed by the pontifical troops, and completely this new station, Cellini has left us an accurate account, routed in the gardens of Nero, in the Vatican. The popes embellished in his characteristic manner with various had now no longer to fight for this fortress with the people, anecdotes more amusing, as Mr. Roscoe, (from whose for the future they only fought for it with one another. spirited translation of the Memoirs we have quoted,) says
The castle underwent many alterations and additions at than credible. the hands of succeeding pontiffs. Alexander the Sixth “ There passed not a day," he says, " that I did not kill constructed the brickwork on the summit, and also the some of the army without the castle. One day, amongst bastion; to him likewise is to be attributed the secret com others, the pope happened to walk upon the round rampart, munication with the Vatican. His additions to the works when he saw in the public walks a Spanish colonel, enabled the castle to withstand the siege of the Imperialists whom he knew by certain tokens; and understanding that under Charles the Fifth, and it was at last surrendered, he had formerly been in his service, said something connot taken by assault. Paul the Third and Paul the Fourth cerning him, all the while observing him attentively. I, also did much towards ornamenting and strengthening it; who was above the battery, and knew nothing of the but the great engineer was Urban the Eighth, who occu matter, but saw a man who was employed in getting the pied the pontifical throne from 1623 to 1644; he added a ramparts repaired, and who stood with a spear in his hand, mound, a ditch, a bastion, and a hundred pieces of cannon, dressed in rose colour, began to deliberate how I should lay thereby making it appear, as a Roman antiquary quaintly him llat. I took iny swivel, which was almost equal to a observes, that his bees (the arms of his family, the demi-culverine, turned it round, and charging it with a good Barberini,) not only gave honey, but had stings for the quantity of fine and coarse powder mixed, aimed it at him fight."
exactly; though he was at so great a distance that it The most interesting event in the history of this castle, could not be expected any effort of art should make such is the siege of it by the Imperialists in 1527, when they pieces carry so far, I fired off the gun, and hit the man in were led by Charles de Bourbon, (commonly called the red exactly in the middle. He had arrogantly placed his Constable de Bourbon, as he was Constable of France,) on sword before him in a sort of Spanish bravado, but the bis celebrated expedition for the plunder of Rome. He ball of my piece hit against his sword, and the man was arrived before the walls of that city on the 5th of May; seen severed in two pieces. The pope, who did not dream and on the following morning at daybreak commenced of any such thing, was highly delighted and surprised at the assault. He was himself the first io mount the walls, what ho saw, as well because he thought it impossible that and he was also the first who fell; Benvenuto Cellini, such a piece could carry so far, as by reason he could not the sculptor, tells us, in his amusing memoirs, that it was conceive how the man could be cut into two pieces. Upon he who fired the fatal shot, but there is of course a great this he sent for me, and made an inquiry into the whole uncertainty upon the point. The city was captured and affair. I told him the art I had used to fire in that manner; exposed to ravages greater, perhaps, than it had ever suf- but as for the man being split into two pieces, neither hé fered in its decline, from the barbarian Goths and Vandals nor I was able to account for it. So falling upon my as we style them. Pope Clement the Seventh withdrew to knees I entreated his holiness to absolve me from the guilt the Castle of St. Angelo, where he sustained a siege in of homicide, as likewise from other crimes which I had company with thirteen cardinals.
committed in that castle in the service of the church. The During the siege Benvenuto Cellini directed the artillery | pope lifting up his hands, and making the sign of the cross
over me, said that he blessed me, and gave me absolution upper apartments, which present little worthy of notice, are
As a fortress the castle of St. Angelo is now almost
sky-rockets, expanding in their flight in the form of a sheaf The castle of St. Angelo received the appellation which of corn. I had seen an explosion of fifteen thousand at it now bears in the pontificate of Gregory the Great, who, once in the gardens of Peterhoff; but they did not produce in crossing the bridge of St. Angelo as he went to offer up the twentieth part of the effect of this one-fifth of their prayers for the deliverance of the Romans from a pestilence number, thus skilfully managed, and shooting upwards with which they were afflicted, beheld, according to the story, from the summit of the grand castle of St. Angelo. A on the summit of the Moles Hadriani, the figure of an angel beautiful cross-fire of all sorts of fire-works ensues, and the sheathing a sword. In commemoration of this vision, the scene terminates with another flight of three thousand skybrazen statue which still crowns the castle was erected, and rockets, similar to that with which it commenced. This the building, as already stated, received the name by which certainly is the grandest exhibition of the kind that I have it has since been distinguished. It has been long used as a ever seen. The windows facing the castle, on the other public prison, and contains about four hundred wretched side of the Tiber, are in great request on these occasions, criminals, who have been sentenced to the galleys. The land let at high prices.
LONDON: Published by JOHN WILLIAM PARKER, WEST STRAND; and sold by all Booksellers.
THE SHORES OF THE Lower LAKE—THE TOWN OF | importance to the general effect of the scene, from
KILLARNEY—THE CASTLE AND GAP OF Dunlou. the striking contrast it offers to the mountains, and
To the southward this flat commences where the scenery, upon the borders of the body of water com
hills adjoining the peninsula of Mucruss terminate posing the two lower lakes,Turk Lake and Lower that is to say, at Castle Lough Bay, as that great Lake, as they are respectively called. Its southern inlet is called which lies to the north of Mucruss and western shores are bounded by the lofty moun- peninsula, and forms the south-eastern corner of the tains which for so remarkable a feature of the Lower Lake. Near the head of the bay formerly county of Kerry, and which comprise among them the stood the old fortress of Castle Lough on an insulated most elevated summits in all Ireland. Very different rock; it was a place of strength at least for its size, is the scenery on the other sides. The northern but was so completely demolished by the Parliamenshore is bounded by hills of moderate height sloping tary army under Ludlow, (whose capture of Ross gradually down to the water's edge. The part also Castle we recorded in a former number*,) that not a of the eastern shore, lying contiguous to the northern, trace of it can be discovered, except a few fragments is bounded by similar bills; as is likewise that part of walls scarcely discernible from the rocks on which of it which lies contiguous to the mountains of the they stand. The name of Castle Lough is at present southern shore. But throughout the remaining or given to a private demesne. middle portion of the eastern side, the hills recede
As far as the river Flesk, which enters the lake considerably, so that for the space of about two miles, opposite the southern end of Ross Island, the flat a low and level tract intervenes between them and forms a part of the demesne of Cahernane, an exthe lake, instead of their coming down close to its tensive and well-wooded place, described as interesting waters. This level ground, in itself the least in- and possessing many advantages, notwithstanding teresting part of the shores of Killarney, becomes of
• See Saturday Magazine, Vol. Xt., p. 195. VOL. XI"