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small, when it disappears all at once. It | this process is repeated, there will be has been determined by observation that still less water mixed with the alcohol, the drop really does not touch the hot but it can not all be removed by this prostove, but is kept off a certain distance cess. It is in this way also that many of by the steam that is generated just before the essential oils, used in making perit comes in actual contact with the stove. fumes and essences are separated from

In boiling away the water from the water. juice of sugarcane in order to obtain the In gold and silver mining, these presugar, it was found that when this was cious metals are often separated from the done at the high temperature of 212°, a rock and dirt by allowing them to disgreat deal of molasses was formed at the solve in quicksilver or mercury, a metal expense of the sugar, and the only way found in the liquid state. After this the to avoid this was to boil it away at a quicksilver is boiled away, and only the lower temperature. Accordingly as soon gold or silver is left behind. as the facts above mentioned became The nutritious matter contained in known, air pumps were used to draw bones cannot be dissolved in water at away the air, and also the steam as fast 212°, and hence in order to overcome as it was formed, and thus the pressure this difficulty a Frenchman named Papin, from the surface of the juice was so invented a kettle with a tight fitting lid much removed that boiling could take so as to keep the steam in and to increase place at a very low heat, and thus a great the pressure, and thus raise the boiling deal more sugar was produced, and of point to any temperature desired. The course much less molasses.

expansive force of steam is also used as Alcohol boils at a temperature much the motive force in the steam engine. below 212°, and hence if we take any

Quebec. ordinary spirituous liquor we may easily separate the alcohol, by raising it to a heat below the boiling point of water, The mixture of those things by speech, and thus only the alcohol with but little which by nature are divided, is the of the water will pass off as a gas. If I mother of all error.-Hooker.


invent and arrange methods of worship, There is nothing more valuable than imagine and think out doctrines, and truth. Religious truth, or that which re formulate and enforce creeds; but they lates to God, our duty to Him, His laws are of no value as a means of salvation. and purposes, and the means by which God must be approached and served in we may now come to Him and eventually the way which He ordains, or the worbe exalted in His presence, is really ship and service will not be accepted. priceless. To obtain a knowledge of re The first principle of true religion is ligious truth, both young and old should Faith. This is the beginning of rightbe willing to make every exertion and to eousness. It is the very root of the tree offer any sacrifice. There are many sys of life, and its sap runs through all the tems of religion in the world, but only | branches. “Without faith it is impossione can be correct, for the simple reason ble to please God.” And “Whosoever that there is but one God for the inhabi- cometh to God must believe that He is." tants of the earth to worship and obey. Faith, in its simplest sense, is the assent If there were many true Gods to whom of the mind, and its assurance of the mankind owed reverence, there might be existence of things unseen by the natural several true religions. God is the author eye. This is belief. In another sense, or revealer of true religion. Men may | faith is a motive power, a principle of



action. Examination into the secret in the soul of man, and by its force he is springs that prompt us in the common led to call upon the Lord, and by its affairs of life will show that faith moves | light to see his way to repentance and us to exertion and incites us to persever- obedience. ance. It is the assurance we feel of the No man by his own researches can existence or attainment of things unper- find out God. He may, by reason and ceived by the senses, which urges us on reflection, by observing and pondering ward and inspires us with energy. In a upon the wonders of creation, by studyhigher sense, faith is a spiritual force. It ing his own internal and external nature, reaches up to the heavenly spheres. It come to the sure conclusion that there is lays hold upon eternal things. It acts a God, and to a very small extent make upon the grosser elements, and moves an estimate of His character. But withspiritual essences and immortal intelli out the Almighty manifests Himself in gencies. It is in its fulness all powerful. some manner, finite man can never obBy its exercise God made the worlds, tain a knowledge of infinite Deity. The bringing order out of chaos, light out of speculations of human beings concerning darkness, and visible things out of the God are many and various, and a vast invisible, all moved by that spiritual en number of their conclusions inconsistent ergy called faith. By its power Christ and vain. Human learning, no matter stilled the winds and walked upon the how extensive, and human research, no waves, healed the sick and raised the matter how profound, are of necessity dead. Elijah by faith closed the heav- | inadequate alone to the acquisition of a ens, that they rained not, and overcame knowledge of divine things.

Hence an the might of Death, passing with his unlettered person enlightened direct from body into the mansions on high. By God, will know more of Deity than the faith Job beheld the coming of the Re most erudite collegian who has not redeemer and Paul ascended to the third ceived this divine illumination. heaven. And by faith men and women Some conception of God is necessary can overcome the influences of earth to proper faith in Him. On this account and time, and rise to communion with | He has, at different periods of the world's angelic beings, and even with God, the history, manifested Himself to chosen highest and holiest of all.

persons, whom He has deputed to bear Man must have faith in God in order witness of His existence and attributes to become exalted into His presence. to others, and declare His will and comNo man knows of himself how to reach mandments. The history of some of that position, nor how to obtain salvation these manifestations and revelations given from sin and its effects, among which are in olden times is recorded in the Bisorrow and pain, and death as the ulti- ble. Those that have been vouchmate. To learn anything in relation to safed to man in the latter times are em these important matters he must be bodied in what is popularly known as taught of God, and faith is therefore ab “Mormonism,” but what should be called solutely necessary in the outset of any the Everlasting Gospel,renewed on earth. attempt to learn of Him. This faith By these we learn that God is the Fa. "comes by hearing,” or in other words ther of the human race. As every seed is developed by testimony. Through in nature bears its own kind, it is reason, the testimony of men divinely appointed able to conclude that man bears some to speak in the name of the Lord, faith is semblance to the Being from whom He awakened in the human heart. It is a sprang. And this idea is confirmed by principle existing in every soul, but in the divine declaration that “God made the condition of fallen humanity is mea man in His own image.” Our Father in surably dormant, until quickened by a Heaven is, then, a personal Being. He divine influence. The word spoken by is a Spirit. But He is also enclothed in inspired men, accompanied by the influ a tabernacle. In other words, He is an ence of the spirit of truth, arouses faith limmortal Spirit dwelling in an immortal



tabernacle. Every faculty and power to ture” are the laws of God, and He is be found in mortal man exists in the ful- consistent with them and those higher ness of its perfection in the person of laws, which pertain to the spiritual Deity. Those glorious qualities which spheres. make so wide a distinction between man The Fatherhood of God is a glorious and the lower animals, are undeveloped truth that must at some time be impressed photographs, or, rather, embryotic du- upon every one of our race. It involves plicates of the perfected attributes of the the brotherhood of man. It is full of Eternal Father.

ennobling and elevating suggestions, and Being an individual, God, in His per- prompts those who are impressed with sonality, cannot be omnipresent. But its majesty to deeds worthy of so exalted by the Holy Spirit, which proceeds from an origin;leads to humility and obedience, His presence and permeates all things and influences all the sons and daughters throughout the immensity of space, He of the Eternal Father to mutual help,

see and know and influence all forbearance, charity and affection, as things. Yet the Being who has power brothers and sisters of a family, whose over all His creations proceeds by law, destiny is connected with the glory and and while giving laws to all His creations dominion and matchless power of the is Himself governed by law and never Almighty framer and governor of the violates the eternal principles of truth, Universe. justice and mercy. The “laws of na

C. W. Penrose.


DEVOTIONAL LITERATURE. "Religentem esse oportet, religiosum nefas." case, each, in a popular sense, would (We ought to be Religious, not Superstitious.) have died "unwept, unhonored and un

It was observed by . Bulwer Lytton sung.” He who writes his thoughts may that “Authors are the only men we ever hence stand a chance of being underreally do know-the rest of mankind die stood, though if he possess a great and with only the surface of their characters fertile mind, much of his most sacred understood.” Paradoxical as it may ap- self can never be revealed. pear, this affirmation is strikingly true; It follows from this that an author's of the many millions that “tread the biography will be most completely found globe,” only a handful reveal themselves. in his works. The date of his birth and The great mass of mankind drop into death, his native town and his father's their graves unknown. Who would dare prænomen are matters that but little to tell, even a dear friend, the thronging affect the story of the man, as is the case fancies of his brain? Who could reveal of Milton and blind Mæonides; but the the fond desires and aspirations that at dawnings of his mind, its early excursome time come to all? He who should sions, its depth, purity and strength, attempt it would be laughed at for his these are the desiderata which his writpains, and most people are extremely ings alone can supply. Take for exaverse to being ridiculed. Could we ample, Thomas Hood, the witty, the know the exquisite pathos and tender- humorous, the pathetic; and who, with a ness of Charles Dickens had he never particle of discernment, could not write written? Would Byron's gloomy idio his biography from his works? Whims syncracies so startle us, but for his im- and Oddities, The Bridge of Sighs, mortal poems? Should we feel the Song of the Shirt, The Plea of the powers of the “myriad-minded Shaks- | Midsummer Fairies; these writings conpeare,” but for the Tempest, Ham-stitute in themselves the true history of let, King Lear, and those other, his that poet's life. wonderful creations? So far from this An author's literary productions often

dencies were "to destroy all belief in the poem written upon his deathbed, displays that doubt of the past and uncertainty of the future, which during his life he was mind to the genial Addison, than whom

It is cheering to turn from this dark | example of his style: few have written better or more trusting- How fine has the day been, how bright was the Jy in sacred poetry. Of him it is related wick, whom he wished to reclaim from a life of licentiousness and dissipation. "I have sent for you,” said he, “that you may see in what peace a Christian can

He breathed his last on the 17th of June, 1719. The chief characteristics Just such is the Christian; his course he begins, veneration, and admiration of the Divine plainly in the Paraphrase of the Twentythird Psalm, in the hymns commencing “How are thy servants blest, O Lord!” and “When all thy mercies, O my God,”

The following ode is also very fine:
The spacious firmament on high,
With all the blue ethereal sky.
Their great Original proclaim:

9 discover him to be possessed of virtues,

Th' unwearied sun, from day to day, the existence of which his most intimate

Does his Creator's power display, friends had never known. Particularly

And publishes to every land is this apparent in the matter of religious

The work of an Almighty hand. tendencies, whose recipients have fre Soon as the evening shades prevail, quently been ashamed to make them The moon takes up the wondrous tale, known. A few of our most popular

And, nightly to the list'ning earth, writers, however, have exhibited, in por

Repeats the story of her birth: tions of their works, such a spirit of

While all the stars that round her burn, meekness, of utter reliance upon God,

And all the planets in their turn, and such an universal benevolence, as

Confirm the tidings as they roll, the world has too rarely seen.

And spread the truth from pole to pole.
As an example of the first of these,

What though, in solemn silence, all may be mentioned the poet Byron, of

Move round the dark terrestrial ball ? whom it is enough for our purpose to say

What though no real voice, nor sound, that his conception, Cain, is the reflex of

Amid their radiant orbs be found? his own character. Byron was univer

In Reason's ear they all rejoice, sally regarded as an unbeliever, as a

And utter forth a glorious voice; scoffer at others' faith, as one whose ten

Forever singing as they shine,

"The Hand that made us is divine." reality of virtue, and to make all enthu

The sacred hymns of Dr. Isaac Watts siasm and constancy of affection ridicu

will probably last as long as our language. lous." Melodies, has left us some of the most Yet this man, in his Hebrew They arrest attention by their simplicity,

warmth and exquisite imagery. He is exquisite thoughts upon record, and in a

one of the most prolific of religious poets, and is the constant companion of would be complete without some of his productions. The succeeding is a good

A SUMMER EVENING. on a bed of sickness, he sent How lovely and joyful the course that he run,

And there followed some droppings of rain! But now the fair traveler's come to the west, His rays are all gold, and his beauties are best; He paints the sky gay as he sinks to his rest,

And foretells a bright rising again. ,

sins, These qualities are seen very

And melts into tears; then he breaks out and

And travels his heavenly way;
But when he comes nearer to finish his race,
Like a fine setting sun, he looks richer in grace,
And gives a sure hope at the end of his days,

Of rising in brighter array.

On the 20th of November, 1752, was

born Thomas Chatterton, And spangled heavens, a shining frame,

"The marvellous boy, The sleepless soul that perished in his pride."

ashamed to avow.

that, being



of his





Other poets had written at an early age: selections oftenest used in divine service Pope, and Cowley, and Byron had com are from his pen. He has nothing finer posed poems when ranging from twelve among the Olney Hymns than the ode to fifteen years old. Chatterton, taught so familiar to us all, “God moves in a to read and write at a charity school, mysterious way.” What follows, on rewhen a mere child eleven years of age, tirement, shows a mind accustomed to wrote as follows:

reflect upon the mercies of the Lord: A HYMN.

Far from the world, O Lord, I flee Almighty Framer of the skies,

From strife and tumult far!
O let our pure devotion rise

From scenes where Satan wages still
Like incense in thy sight!

His most successful war.
Wrapt in impenetrable shade

The calm retreat, the silent shade,
The texture of our souls was made,

With prayer and praise agree;
Till thy command gave light.

And seem by thy sweet bounty made

For those who follow Thee.
The sun of glory gleamed, the ray
Refined the darkness into day,

There, if thy Spirit touch the soul,
And bid the vapors fly:

And grace her mean abode,
Impelled by his eternal love,

Oh, with what peace, and joy, and love, He left his palaces above,

She communes with her God!
To cheer our gloomy sky.

There like the nightingale she pours
How shall we celebrate the day,

Her solitary lays;
When God appeared in mortal clay,

Nor asks a witness of her song,
The mark of worldly scorn.

Nor thirsts for human praise.
When the archangel's heavenly lays

Author and Guardian of my life,
Attempted the Redeemer's praise,

Sweet source of light divine,
And hailed Salvation's morn?

And (all harmonious names in one)
A humble form the Godhead wore,

My Savior, thou art mine! The pains of poverty he bore,

What thanks I owe Thee, and what love, To gaudy pomp unknown:

A boundless, endless store, Though in a human walk he trod,

Shall echo through the realms above
Still was the man Almighty God,

When time shall be no more.
In glory all his own.

Thomas Moore, poet, novelist and biDespised, oppressed, the Godhead hears

ographer; the friend and Aristarchus of The torments of this vale of tears,

Lord Byron, by whom he was called Nor bids his vengeance rise:

“Anacreon Moore,” in reference to his He saw the creatures He had made

amatory publications, has added to the Revile his power, his peace invade.

common stock a few beautiful specimens He saw with Mercy's eyes.

of devotional poetry. The sequent is, Chatterton lived only six years after perhaps, as good as anything in his colwriting the above. To escape starva

lection. The ideas are easily and beaution, he destroyed himself by taking ar

tifully expressed: senic; dying, at the youthful age of sev As down in the sunless retreats of the ocean enteen, the wonder of England. "No Sweet flowers are springing no mortal can see, English poet,” says Campbell, “ever So, deep in my soul the still prayer of devotion, equalled him at the same age.”

Unheard by the world, rises silent to Thee, No one can read the delightful poetry

My God! silent to 'Theeof William Cowper, without lamenting

Pure, warm, silent to Thee. the dark malady with which his mind

As still to the star of its worship, though clouded, was clouded. Learned, devout, of simple

The needle points faithfully o'er the dim sea, and kindly habits, he was the delight of So, dark as I roam, in this wintry world shrouded, all acquaintances. His contributions to

The hope of my spirit turns trembling to Thee, hymnal literature are very numerous,

My God! trembling to Theeand of the highest merit. Many of the

True, fond, trembling to Thee.

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