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nesia, according to Pliny (5,29), was fifteen miles, according to Artemidorus (ap. Strab., 663), 120 stadia, from Ephesus. Strabo makes it a city of Æolian origin, which is not contradicted by another statement of the same writer, when he makes the Magnetes to have been descended from the Delphians j Occupied the Montes Didymi of Thessaly.—Magnesia was sacked by the Cimmerians during their inroads into Asia Minor. It was afterward held by the Milesians, and was one of the cities assigned, for his support, to Themistocles, by the King of Persia. The modern Ghiuzel-hissar (Beautiful Castle) had been generally thought to occupy the site of the ancient Magnesia. M. Barbie du Bocage, however, in the notes to his translation of Chandler, gave convincing reasons for thinking that Ghuzel-hissar occupied the position of Tralles; but it was not until Mr. Hamilton explored the ruins of Magnesia at Inekbazar, and discovered the remains of the celebrated temple of Diana Leucophryene, that the question could be considered as satisfactorily determined in favour of the latter place. (Leake's Journal, p. 242, seqq.)—II. A city in the northern part of Lydia, southeast of Cumae, and in the immediate vicinity of the Hermus. It lay close to the foot of Mount Sipylus, and hence, for distinction' sake from the other Magnesia, was called “Magnesia near Sipylus” (Mayvnoia Tpoc Xtrö29). Its founder is not known, nor its earlier history. It was first brought into notice by the battle sought in its neighbourhood between Antiochus and the Romans (187 B.C.). It was not a place of much importance under the Roman dominion, as the main road from Pergamus to Sardis passed on one side of it. At the close of the Mithradatic war the Romans gave it its freedom. It was frequently injured by earthquakes, and was one of the twelve cities destroyed by the earthquake in the reign of Tiberius, which that emperor, however, quickly rebuilt. (Tacit., Ann., 2, 47.-Plin., 2, 84.) It became asterward the seat of a bishopric. The modern name is Magnisa. (Tavernier, 1, 7.—Mannert, Geogr., vol. 6, pt. 3, p. 373.)—III. A district of Thessaly. The Greeks gave the name of Magnesia to that narrow portion of Thessaly which is confined between the Peneus and Pagasaan Bay to the north and south, and between the chain of Ossa and the sea on the west and east (Strabo, 441,–Scyl., Peripl., p. 24.—Pliny, 4, 9.) The people of this district were called Magnetes, and appear to have been in possession of it from he remotest period. (Hon., Il., 2, 756. Pind., Pyth., 4, 140–Id, Nem, 5, 50.) They are also universally allowed to have formed part of the Amphic..yonic body. (AEschin., de fals. leg., p. 122.-Pausan., 10, 8.- Harpocrat., s. v. 'Aubuktüovec.). The Magnesians submitted to Xerxes, giving earth and water in token of subjection. (Herod., 7, 132.) Thucydides leads us to suppose they were in his time dependant on the Thessalians (2,10). They passed with the rest of that nation under the dominion of the kings of Macedon who succeeded Alexander, and were declared free by the Romans after the battle of Cynoscephalae. (Polyb., Excerpt., 18, 29, 5–Livy, 33, 32.) Their government was then republican, af. fairs being directed by a general council, and a chief magistrate called Magnetarch. (Liv., 34, 31.-Strab., 9,442.-Xen., Anab., 6, 1.—Cramer's Anc. Greece, vol. 1, p. 419, seqq.)—IV. A city of Magnesia, on the coast, opposite the island of Sciathus. It was conquered by Philip, son of Amyntas. (Cramer's Anc. Greece, vol. 1, p. 427.) MAGo, I. a Carthaginian admiral, who gained a naval victory over Leptines, the commander of Dionysius the elder, off Catana, in which the latter lost 100 vessels, and more than 20,000 men. (Diod. Sic., 14, 90.) Some years after this we find him at the head of a land force, endeavouring to make head against Dionysius in o but, being defeated, he was com5 G

pelled to take shelter in the neighbouring town of Abacaenum. (Diod. Sic., 14, 90.) Being subsequently placed at the head of another expedition into Sicily, he met with equal ill success. (Diod. Suc., 14, 95.) He fell at last in battle against Dionysius, B.C. 383. (Diod. Sic., 15, 15.)—II. Son of the preceding, succeeded him in the command of the Carthaginian fleet B.C. 383. He defeated Dionysius in a great battle, in which the latter lost more than 14,000 men, and compelled him to sue for peace and pay 1000 talents to the Carthaginians. A considerable time after this, he came, at the head of 150 vessels, with 60,000 men, to take possession of Syracuse, which was, according to agreement, delivered up to him by Icetes, excepting the citadel, which was held by the forces of Timoleon. No final advantage, however, accrued to Carthage; for Mago, suspecting treachery on the part of his new ally, and having long wished for a pretence to depart, weighed anchor on a sudden and sailed back to Africa, “shamefully and unaccountably,” says Plutarch, “suffering Sicily to slip out of his hands.” (Plut., Wit. Timol.)—III. Grandfather of the great Hannibal. He succeeded Mago in the of of the Carthaginian fleet, and made himself conspicuous for the rigid discipline which he introduced. The Carthaginian senate, fearing lest Pyrrhus might quit Italy in order to seize upon Sicily, sent Mago, at the head of 120 vessels, to offer aid to the Romans, in order that the King of Epirus might find sufficient employment for his arms in Italy. The offer, however, was declined. Mago was succeeded by his two sons Hasdrubal and Hamilcar. (Justin, 18, 2, seqq.—Id., 19, 1.)—IV. Son of Hamilcar and brother of Hannibal. He commanded an ambuscade at the battle of Trebia (Liv., 21, 54), and was also present at the battle of Cannae, B.C. 216. , Having been sent to Carthage to carry the news of the latter victory, he is said to have poured out in the vestibule of the senate-house the golden rings obtained from the fingers of the Roman knights who had fallen in the battle. These, when measured, filled, according to the common account, three modii and a half; though Livy, with true national feeling, states that there was another and more correct tradition, which made the rings to have filled not much more than a single modius. (Liv., 23, 12.) The modius contained a little over one gallon, three quarts dry measure. Mago was subsequently sent into Spain, where he was defeated by the Scipios at Iliturgis (Liv., 23, 49), but he afterward joined his forces with those of Asdrubal the son of Gisgo, and defeated and slew Publius Scipio. At a later period, he was himself again defeated along with Hanno, Asdrubal's successor, by Silanus, the i. of Scipio. (Liry, 28, 2.) On fleeing to Gades, he was ordered by the Carthaginian senate to cross over with a fleet to Sicily, and carry succours to Hannibal. He conceived thereupon the bold design of seizing upon Carthago Nova as he sailed along. Failing, however, in this, he was obliged to stop at the Balearic Islands in order to procure new levies. Here he made himself master of the smaller island of the two (the modern Minorca), and fortified and gave his name to the harbour. (Vid. Magonis Portus.) The following summer Mago landed on the coast of Liguria, with 12,000 foot and 200 horse, took Genua by surprise, and made himself master also of the harbour and town of Savo, and was soon at the head of a numerous army, by the junction of a powerful body of Gauls and Ligurians with his forces. Held, however, in check by the consul Cethegus, who prevented him from uniting with Hannibal, he turned his arms in a different direction, and penetrated into Insubria, but he was severely wounded in battle with the Romans: He reached, however, Liguria by an able retreat, and there met an order from the senate at home, requirin him to return immediately to Carthage, %; Incilac

by Scipio. He embarked his troops and set sail, but died of his wound at the island of Sardinia, B.C. 203. (Liv., 30, 18.) Cornelius Nepos differs from other writers as to the manner of his death, and says that he either perished by shipwreck or was murdered by his servants. (Nep., Wit. Hannib., c. 8.)—V. A Carthaginian who wrote a work on agriculture in the Punic tongue, which was translated into Latin by order of the Roman senate. It was in twenty-eight books according to Varro. The latter informs us also, that it was translated into Greek by Cassius Dionysius of Utica, who made twenty books of it; and that it was still farther condensed by Diophanes of Bithynia, who brought it down to six books. (Varro, De R. R., 1, 1.) MAGoN, a river of India falling into the Ganges. According to Mannert, the modern name is the Ramgonga. (Geogr., vol. 5, pt. 1, p. 92.) MAHARBAL, a Carthaginian officer in the army of Hannibal, appointed to carry on the siege of Saguntum when Hannibal marched against the Cretani and Carpetani. (Liv., 21, 12.) After the battle of the Lake Trasymenus in Italy, he was sent in pursuit of the flying Romans, (Liv., 22, 6.) At the battle of Cannae he commanded the cavalry, and strenuously advised Hannibal, after the latter had gained his decisive victory, to march at once upon Rome. (Liv., 22, 51.-Id., 23, 18.) MAIA, daughter of Atlas and Pleione, and the mother of Mercury by Jupiter. She was one of the Pleiades; and the brightest of the number, according to some authorities: others, however, more correctly make Halcyone the most luminous. (Wid. Pleiades, and consult Ideler, Sternnamen, p. 146.) Majorii Nus, Julius Valerius, grandson of the Majorianus who was master of the horse in Illyria during the reign of Theodosius. He distinguished himself early as a brave commander under Aëtius, and at the death of the latter he rose to such distinction that he was elected Emperor of the West in the room of Avitus, whom he compelled to resign the imperial dignity in 457. He was assassinated by Ricimer, one of his generals, after a reign of four years and a half, at Dertona in Liguria. (Pierer, Lez. Univ., vol. 13, p. 98.) MALEA, I. a promontory in the southeastern part of the island of Lesbos, now Cape St. Marie.—II. A celebrated promontory of the Fo forming the extreme point to the southeast, and separating the Laconic from the Argolic Gulf. Strabo reckons 670 stadia from thence to Taenarus, including the sinuosities of the coast. Cape Malea was considered by the ancients the most dangerous point in the circumnaviation of the peninsula, even as early as the days of #. (Od., 1, 80; 3, 286.) Hence arose the proverbial expression, “After doubling Cape Malea forget your country.” (Strab., 378–Eustath, ad Od., p. 1468.-Compare Herod., 4. o: 4, 53.— Scyl., p. 17.) It is now usually called Cape St. Angelo, but sometimes Cape Mallo. (Cramer's Ancient Greece, vol. 3, p. 196.)—III. A city of Phthiotis. (Vid. Malia.) MALEve NTUM, the ancient name of Beneventum. (Liv., 9, 27.) MALIA, the chief city of the Malienses, in the district of Phthiotis in Thessaly, from which they probably derived their name. (Steph. Byz., s. v. Mažuetc.) It was near the head-waters of the Sinus Maliacus, now the Gulf of Zeitoun. MAli Acus Sinus, a gulf of Thessaly, running up in a northwest direction from the northern shore of Euboea, and on one side of which is the Pass of Thermopylae. It is noticed by several writers of antiquity, such as Herodotus (4, 33), Thucydides (3, 96), and Strabo (432). . It now takes its name from the neighbouring city of Zeitoun. It should be observed that Livy, who often terms it the Maliacus Sinus (27, 30; 31, 46), elsewhere uses the appellation of Ænianum

Sinus (38,5), which he has borrowed from Polybius (10, 42.—Steph. Byz., s. v. Alvia.-Cramer's Anc. Greece, vol. 1, p. 435). MALIENses or Malii, the most southern tribe of Thessaly. They are called by the Attic writers MnAtelo, Melians, but in their own Doric dialect Mažueiç. Scylax, indeed, seems to make a distinction between the Mn2weig and Mažteiç, which is to be sound in no other author. Palmerius (ad Scyl., p. 32) considers the whole passage to be corrupt. The Malians occupied principally the shores of the gulf to which they communicated their name, extending as far as the narrowest part of the Straits of Thermopylae, and to the valley of the Sperchius, a little above its entrance into the sea. (Herod., 7, 198.) They are admitted by AEschines, Pausanias, and Harpocration, in their lists of the Amphictyonic states; which was naturally to be expected, as this celebrated assembly had always been held in their country. The Melians offered earth and water to Xerxes in token of submission. (Herod, 7, 132.) According to Herodotus, their country was chiefly flat : in some parts the plains were extensive, in others narrow, being confined on one side by the Maliac Gulf, and towards the land by the lofty and inaccessible mountains of Trachinia. (Cramer's Anc. Greece, vol. 1, p. 435.) Malli, a people in the southwestern part of India intra Gangem, along the banks of the Hydraotes. (Strabo, 699.) It was in attacking a fortress of the Malli that Alexander was severely wounded. (Plut, Wit. Alex.) The territory of this people would seem in some degree to correspond to the modern province or soobah of Moultan. (Vincent's Voyage of Nearchus, p. 130.) Mallos, a town of Cilicia Campestris, eastward from the river Pyramus; now a small village called Malo. (Mela, 1, 13.-Curt., 3, 7.-Lucan, 3, 225.) MAlthinus, a name occurring in Horace (Serm., 1, 2, 27). It was thought very effeminate among the Romans to appear in public with the tunic carelessly or loosely girded. For this Maecenas was blamed; and the question arises, whether Horace means, under the character of Malthinus, to portray his patron, or whether the reference is merely one of a general nature. Opinions, of course, are divided on this subject. At, first view, it appears hardly probable that the poet would embrace such an opportunity, or adopt such a mode, of censuring his friend and benefactor, one to whom he owed so large a share of his own elevation. And yet, when we take into consideration all the circumstances of the case, the respective characters of the bard and his patron, as well as the sincere and manly nature of the intimacy which existed between them, it would seem as if this very way of attacking the foibles of Mascenas was the result of a genuine friendship, the applying a desperate remedy to a disgraceful failing. But, it will be asked, does not the presence of stulti in the text militate against this idea! We answer, by no means, if the term be taken in a softened sense. Bothe regards it here as equivalent merely to “quicumque imprudenter aut inepte agunt,” and this explanation derives support from the following line of Afranius (ap. Isidor., 10, litt. S.): “Ego stultum met eristumo, satuum esse non opinor.” In addition to what is here stated, we may observe, that the very name of Malthinus, as indicating an effeminate person, may contain a covert allusion to Maecenas, whose general habits in this respect were known to all. The word is derived either from the Greek uážtov, or from the old Latin term maltha, equivalent to mollis, and used, according to Nonius, by Lucilius. MAMERTINA, a name of Messana in Sicily. Mamertini.-Martial, 13, ep. 117.-Strab. 7.) MAMERtini, a band of Campanian mercenaries, originally employed in Sicily by Agathocles. After having

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been established for some time at Syracuse, a tumult arose between them and the citizens, in consequence of their being deprived of the right of voting at the election of magistrates, which they had previously enjoyed. The sedition was at last quelled by the interference of some of the elderly and most influential citizens, and the Mamertines agreed to leave Syracuse and return to Italy. Having reached the Sicilian straits, they were hospitably received by the inhabitants of Messana; but, repaying this kindness by the basest ingratitude, they rose upon the Messanians by night, slew the males, took the females to wife, and called the city Mamertina. (Diod. Sic, fragm., lib. 21.) This conduct on the part of the Mamertines led eventually to the first Punic War. (Wid. Punicum Bellum.)—The origin of the name Mamertini is said to have been as follows. It was customary with the Oscan nations of Italy, in time of famine or any other misfortune, to seek to propitiate the favour of the gods by consecrating to them not only all the productions of the earth during a certain year, but also all the male children born during that same space of time. Mamers or Mars being their tutelary deity, they called these children after him when they had attained maturity, and, under the general and customary name of Mamertini, sent them away to seek new abodes. (Wid. Mamertium.) MAmertium, a town of the Bruttii, northeast of Rhegium. It appears to have been originally founded by a band of Campanian mercenaries, who derived their name from Mamers, the Oscan Mars, and are known to have afterward served under Agathocles and other princes of Sicily. (Vid. Mamertini.) Barrio and other native antiquaries have identified this ancient town with the site of Martorana; but this place, which is situated between Nicastro and Cosenza, seems too distant from Locri and Rhegium to accord with Strabo's description. (Strab., 261.) The majority of modern topographers, with Cluverius at their head, place it at Oppido, an episcopal see, situate above Reggio and Gérace, and where old coins appertaining to the Mamertini are said to have been discovered. (Cramer's Anc. Italy, vol. 2, p. 438.) MAMILIA LEx, de limitibus, ordained that there should be an uncultivated space of five feet broad left between farms, and if any dispute happened about this matter, that a single arbiter should be appointed by the praetor to determine it. The law of the twelve tables required three arbiters.-This law was proposed by C. Mamilius Tuninus, A.U.C. 642, who had been consul in 514 A.U.C. (Consult Ernesti, Inder Leg. ad Cic, s. v. Mamilia, Goerenz, ad Cic, de Leg., 1, 21.) MAmurius Verurius, an artificer in the reign of Numa. When the Ancile or sacred shield fell from heaven, the monarch showed it to all the Roman artists, and ordered them to exert all their skill, and make eleven other shields exactly resembling it. All declined the attempt, however, except Mamurius, who was so successful in the imitation, and made the other eleven so like unto it, that not even Numa himself could distinguish the copies from the original. (Wid. Ancile and Salii.) Mamurius asked for no other reward but that his name might be mentioned in the hymn of the Salii, as they bore along these sacred shields in procession. (Plut., Wit. Num.—Ovid, Fast., 3,392.) MaMurra, a native of Formie, of obscure origin. He served under Julius Caesar in Gaul, as Praefectus fabrorum, and rose so high in favour with him, that Caesar permitted him to enrich himself at the expense of the Gauls in any way he was able. Mamurra, in consequence, became possessed of enormous wealth, and returned to Rome with his ill-gotten riches. Here he displayed so little modesty and reserve in the employment of his fortune, as to have been the first Ro

man that incrusted his entire house with marble. This structure was situate on the Coelian Hill. We have two epigrams of Catullus against him, in which he is severely handled. Horace also alludes to him with sly ridicule in one of his satires (1, 5, 87.) He calls Formine “Mamurrarum urbs,” the city of the Lamian line being here named after a race of whom nothing was known. (Wid. Formine.) MANciNUs, C. Hostilius, a Roman consul, who, though at the head of 30,000 men, was defeated and stripped of his camp by only 4000 Numantines. (Liv., Epit., 55.) The remnant of the Roman army was allowed to retire, upon their making a treaty of peace with the Numantians, but the senate refused to ratify the treaty, and ordered Mancinus to be delivered up to the enemy; but they refused to receive him. Mancinus thereupon returned to Rome, and was reinstated in his rights of a citizen, contrary to the opinion of the tribune P. Rutilius, who asserted that he could not enjoy the right of returning to his country, called by the Romans jus postluminu. (Cic., de Orat.—Compare Cic., de Off., 3, 50.-Flor, 2, 18.-Id., 3, 14.— Well. Paterc., 2, 1.-Duker, ad Flor., l.c.) MANDANE, a daughter of King Astyages, and mother of Cyrus the elder. (Vid. Astyages.) MANDELA, a village in the country of the Sabines, near Horace's farm. The poet alludes to its cold mountain atmosphere. It is now perhaps Bardela. (Horat., Ep., 1, 18, 105.) MANdubii, a people of Celtic Gaul, clients of the AEdui, whose chief city was Alesia, now Alise. Their territory answered to what is now the department de la Côte d'or. (Lemaire, Ind. Geogr., ad Caes., s. v.) MANDURIA, a city of Apulia, nearly half way between Brundisium and Tarentum. It still retains its ancient name. This otherwise obscure town has acquired some interest in history from having witnessed the death of Archidamus, king of Sparta, the son of Agesilaus. He had been summoned by the Tarentimes to aid them against the Messapians and Lucanians, but even his bravery was insufficient to subdue their foes. He fell in the conflict, and his body, as Plutarch relates, remained injo of the enemy, notwithstanding the large offers made by the Tarentines to recover it. This is said to have been the only instance in which a Spartan king was debarred the rites of burial. (Plut., Wit. Agud.—Athen., 12, 9.—Strabo, 280.) Manduria was taken by the Romans in the second Punic war. (Liv., 27, 15.) A curious well is described by Pliny as existing near this town. According to his account, its water always maintained the same level, whatever quantity was added to or taken from it. (Plin., 2, 103.) This phenomenon may still be observed at the present day. (Swinburne's Travels, vol. 1, p. 222.) MANETho (Mávetoo, Mavero, Mavaitav, Maveffan), a celebrated Egyptian writer, a native of Diospolis, who is said to have lived in the time of Ptolemy Philadelphus, at Mende or Heliopolis, and to have been a man of great learning and wisdom. (AElian, de An., 10, 16.) He belonged to the priest-caste, and was himself a priest, and interpreter or recorder of religious usages, and of the sacred, and probably, also, historical writings, with the title of Tepoypauluatevg. . It appears probable, however, that there were more than one individual of this name; and it is therefore doubtful whether all the works which were attributed by ancient writers to Manetho, were in reality written by the Manetho who lived in the reign of Ptolemy Philadelphus. Manetho wrote a history of Egypt (Alyvrriaká) in three books, in which he gave an account of this country from the earliest times to the death of

Darius Codomanus, the last king of Persia. There is every reason for supposing that this was written by the Manetho who lived under Philadelphus. Consid

erable fragments are preserved in the treatise of Josehus against Apion; but still greater portions in the F. §. o: a. .. of the ninth century. The “Chronicles” of Syncellus were principally compiled from the “Chronicles” of Julius Af. ricanus and from Eusebius, both of whom made great use of Manetho's “History.” The work of Africanus is lost; and we only possess a Latin version of that of Eusebius, which was translated out of the Armenian version of the Greek text preserved at Constantinople. Manetho indicates as his principal sources of information certain ancient Egyptian chronicles, and also, if Syncellus has rightly comprehended his meaning, the inscriptions which Thoth, or the first Hermes, had traced, according to him, in the sacred language, on columns. We say, if Syncellus has rightly comprehended him, because it appears that the passage, in which Manetho speaks of the columns of Egypt, has not been taken from his history of Egypt, but from another work of a mystic character, entitled Sothis. The inscriptions just referred to, as having been written in the sacred dialect, Agathodomon, son of the second Hermes, and father of Taut, had translated into the vulgar dialect, and placed among the writings deposited in the sanctuary of a temple. Manetho gives the list of thirty dynasties or successions of kings who reigned in the same city; for thus are we to understand the word dynasty, which, in Manetho, is not synonymous with reigning family. Hence some of his dynasties are composed of several families. The thirty-one lists of Manetho contain the names of 113 kings, who, according to them, reigned in Egypt during the space of 4465 years. As we cannot reconcile this long duration of the Egyptian monarchy with the chronology of the Scriptures, some writers have hence taken occasion to throw discredit on Mametho, and have placed him in the class of fabulous historians. (Compare, in particular, Petav., Doctr. Temp., lib. 9, c. 15.) A circumstance, however, which would seem to claim for this historian some degree of confidence is, that the succession of kings, as given by him, does not by any means correspond to the pretensions of the more ancient priests of Egypt, who enumerated to Herodotus a list of monarchs which would make the duration of the kingdom of Egypt exceed 30,000 years! We know also, from Josephus, that Manetho corrected many things in Herodotus which betrayed a want of exactness. Larcher accuses Manetho of having been a mere flatterer of the Ptolemies. (Hist, d'Herod., vol. 7, p. 323.) But the latter has sound a defender in M. Dubois-Aymé. (Description de l'Egypte, vol. 1, p. 301.) Other and more equitable critics, such as Calvisius, Usher, and Capellus, have endeavoured to reconcile the chronology of Manetho with that of the Scriptures, by rejecting as fabulous merely the first fourteen, fifteen, or sixteen dynasties. Marsham, however, was the first to accomplish this end, and that, too, without retrenching any part of Manetho's catalogue. (Chronicus Canon AEgyptiacus, Hebraicus, Graecus, Lond., 1672, fol.) He has made it appear, that the first seventeen dynasties of Manetho might have reigned simultaneously in different parts of Egypt, and that thus the interval of time between Menes (whom Marsham believes to have been Ham, the son of Noah), and the end of the reign of Amasis, is only 1819 years. Two eat men of the 17th century, Newton and Bossuet, ave approved of the system of Marsham : and yet it would certainly seem to be faulty, in placing, contrary to all probability, the commencement of the Egyptian monarchy immediately after the deluge, and in limiting to 1400 years the period that elapsed between Menes and Sesostris. To remove these inconveniences, Pezron, giving the preference to the chronology of the Septuagint, modified the system of Manetho, by reckoning 2619 years from Menes to Nectanebus, the last king of the 30th dynasty of Manetho. He places Menes 648 years after the deluge, at the epoch

of Debora. Whichever of these systems may be the true one, it would seem that even though the chronology of Manetho presents some difficulties, we ought not for that reason to refuse him all confidence as an historian. As Cambyses had destroyed, or transported into Persia, the ancient documents of Egyptian history, it is more than probable that the priests of Egypt replaced them by new chronicles, in which they must necessarily have committed, without intending it, some very great errors. It is from these erroneous sources that Manetho would appear to have drawn, in good faith, his means of information. It is no easy matter, however, after all, to ascertain the real value of Manetho's “History,” in the form in which it has come down to us. The reader may judge of the use that has been made of it for Egyptian chronology, by referring to Rask's Alte AEgyptische Zeitrechnung (Altona, 1830); to the works of Champollion, Wilkinson's Topography of Thebes, and the other authorities which will be indicated by a reference to these works. (Encycl. Us. Knowl., vol. 14, p. 379.)—Besides this work, Manetho wrote some others, which are lost. These were, 1. 'Ispa Bióżor (“Sacred Book”), treating of Egyptian theology.—2. Bí620; tā; X&bews (“Book of Sothis”), an astronomical, or, rather, astrological work, addressed to Ptolemy Philadelphus.—3. ovatköv Šturoum (“Epitome of Physics”).—4. A poem, in six cantos, which has come down to us under the title of 'Arorexeguaruká, and treats of the influence of the stars. It is evidently the production of a much later age, as Holstensius thought, and as Tyrwhitt has demonstrated. (Compare Heyne, Opusc. Acad., vol. 1, p. 95.) Among the works published by the credulous Nanni, of Witerbo, there is a Latin one ascribed to Manetho, and entitled “De Regibus AEgypti.”—The fragments of Manetho have been collected by Joseph Scaliger, and published in his treatise “De Emendatione Temporum.” (Schöll, Hist. Lit. Gr., vol. 3, p. 215, seqq.) The 'ArroreWeGuaruká were first edited by Gronovius, Lugd. Bat., 1608, 4to. There is a later edition, by Axtius and Rigler, Colon., 1832, 8vo. In Ruperti's and Schlichthorst's “Neues Magazin fur Schullehrer,” Götting., 1793 (vol. 2, pt. 1, p. 90, seqq.), there is a dissertation of Ziegler's on the 'AroTeaeguaraká, in which he undertakes to show that this poem was written after the time of Augustus. (Hoffmann, Ler. Bibliogr., vol. 3, p. 76.) MANILIA LEx, I. by Manilius the tribune, A.U.C. 687, for conferring on Pompey the charge of the war against Mithradates. Its passage was supported by Cicero, who was then praetor, and also by Julius Caesar, but from different views. (Wid. Pompeius.)—II. Another, by the same, that freedmen might vote in all the tribes, whereas formerly they voted in some one of the four city tribes only. This law, however, did not pass. (Cic., pro Muraen., 23.-Ernesti, Ind. Loz., s. v.) MANILius, I. Marcus or Caius, a Latin poet, known only by his poem entitled Astronomica, in five books. The manuscripts do not agree about the name of this poet; some of them calling him Manlius, others Mallius. Bentley believed him to have been born in Asia. Two reasons led him to entertain this opinion; the strange construction which appears in some of the verses of Manilius, and the improbability that, at the period when this poet appeared, the Romans paid any great attention to the phenomena of the heavens and the lessons of astrology. It is true, the fourth book of the poem contains two verses (the 41st and 776th) in which Manilius speaks of Rome as his city; but these two lines are boldly declared by the great English critic to be interpolated. He endeavours to make it appear that the author of the Astronomica is neither the astrologer Manilius of whom Pliny speaks (35, 17), nor the mathematician of the same name, of whom, on another occasion, he makes mention (36, 10). Bentley believes that the poet is to be placed in the age of Augustus; but he has no other ground for this belief than the observation which he has made, that Manilius never uses the genitive termination ii (auxilii, ingenii, imperii, &c.), but the contracted form in i (auxili, ingeni), which marks a writer of the Augustan age. Propertius among the poets first used the form in ti. —The poem of Manilius is unfinished. The five books which are extant treat principally of the fixed stars; but the poet promises, in many parts of his work, to give an account of the planets. The language is in many instances marked by great purity, many poetic beauties appear, and the whole betrays no inconsiderable degree of talent in managing a subject of so dry and forbidding a nature. It appears from many parts of the work that Manilius was a stanch adherent of the Stoic philosophy. The best editions are, that of Bentley, Lond., 1739, 4to, and that of Stoeber, Argent., 1767, 8vo. (Schöll, Lit. Romaine, vol. 1, p. 276.)—II. An epigrammatic poet, one of whose epigrams is cited by Varro. (Anth. Lat., vol. 1, p. 673.)—III. Manius, a Roman consul, A.U.C. 605. He left a work an the Civil Law, and another entitled Manilii Monumenta. (Schöll, Lit. Rom., vol. 1, p. 182.) MANLius, the name of one of the most illustrious patrician gentes of Rome. Those most worthy of notice are: I. Marcus Manlius Capitolinus, who was consul B.C. 390 (Liv., 5, 31), and was the means of preserving the Capitol when it was nearly taken by the Gauls (Liv., 5, 47), from which exploit he received the surname of Capitolinus. He afterward became a warm supporter of the popular party against his own order, and particularly jo. himself by the liberality with which he assisted those who were in debt. He publicly sold one of his most valuable estates, and declared that, as long as he had a single pound, he would not allow any Roman to be carried into bondage for debt. In consequence of his opposition to the patrician order, he was accused of aiming at kingly power. The circumstances attending his trial and death are involved in much obscurity. It would appear that he was accused before the centuries and acquitted; and that afterward, seeing that the patrician order were bent on his destruction, he seized upon the Capitol and prepared to defend it by arms. In consequence P. Camillus, his personal enemy, was appointed dictator, and the curiae (i.e., the patrician assembly) condemned him to death. According to Livy, who implies that Manlius did not take up arms, he was thrown down from the Tarpeian rock by the tribunes; but Niebuhr supposes, from a fragment of Dio Cassius (lib. 31), compared with the narrative of Zonaras (7, 24), that he was treacherously pushed down from the rock by a slave, who had been hired for that purpose by the patrician party. (Rom. Hist, vol. 2, p. 610, seq., Eng. transl.) The house which Manlius had occupied was razed to the ground; and the Manlian gens resolved that none of its patrician members should again bear the name of Marcus. . Manlius was put to death B.C. 381.—II. Titus Manlius Capitolinus Torquatus, was son of L. Manlius surnamed Imperiosus, who was dictator B.C. 361. When his father Lucius was accused by the tribune Pomponius, on account of his cruelty towards the soldiers under his command, and also for keeping his son Titus among his slaves in the country, Titus is said to have obtained admittance to the house of Pomponius shortly before the trial, and to have compelled him, under fear of death, to swear that he would drop the prosecution against his father. This instance of filial affection is said to have operated so strongly in his favour, that he was appointed in the same year, B.C. 359, one of the military tribunes. (Liv., 7, 4, seq.—Cic., de Off., 3, 31.) In the fol

lowing year Manlius distinguished himself by slaying, in single combat, a Gaul of gigantic size, on the banks of the Anio. In consequence of his taking a chain (torques) from the dead body of his opponent, he received the surname of Torquatus. (Liv., 7, 10.) Manlius filled the office of dictator twice, and in both instances before he had been elected consul: once in order to conduct the war against the Caerites, B.C. 351 ; and the second time in order to preside at the comitia for the election of consuls, B.C. 346. (Liv., 7, 19, seqq.). Manlius was consul at least three times, (Cic., de Off., 3, 31.) In his third consulship he defeated the Latins, who had formed a powerful confederacy against the Romans. In this same campaign he put his own son to death for having engaged in single combat with one of the enemy contrary to his orders. (Liv., 8, 5, seqq.)—III. Titus Manlius Torquatus, was consul B.C. 235, and obtained a triumph on account of his conquests in Sardinia. (Well. Paterc., 2, 38.-Eutrop., 3, 3.) In his second consulship, B.C. 224, he conquered the Gauls. (Polyb., 2, 31.) He opposed the ransom of the prisoners who had been taken at the battle of Cannae. (Liv., 22, 60.) In B.C. 215 he defeated the Carthaginians in Sardinia (Liv., 23, 34, seqq.), and in 212 was an unsuccessful candidate for the office of Pontifex Maximus. (Liv., 25, 5.) In 211 he was again elected consul, but declined the honour on account of the weakness of his eyes. (Liv., 26, 22.) In 208 he was appointed dictator in order to hold the comitia. (Liv., 27, 33.) The temple of Janus was closed during the first consulship of Manlius. (Liv., 1, 19.-Vell. Paterc., 2, 38.)—IV. Cneius Manlius Vulso, was consul B.C. 189, and appointed to the command of the war against the Gauls in Galatia, whom he entirely subdued. An account of this war is given by Livy (38,12, seqq.) and Polybius (22, 16, seqq.). After remaining in Asia the following year as proconsul, he led his army home through Thrace, where he was attacked by the inhabitants in a narrow defile, and plundered of part of his booty. He obtained a triumph B.C. 186, though not without some difficulty. (Liv., 39, 6.-Encycl. Us, Knowl., vol. 14, p. 385, seq.) MANNUs, the son of the German god Tuiston, of whom that nation believed themselves descendants. (Tacit., G., 2.) The god Tuiston evidently marks the stem-name of the Germans (Tuistones, Teutones, Deutschen), and from him comes forth the Man of the race, i.e., the Teutonic race itself. (Compare Mannert, Geschichte der alten Deutschen, p. 2.) MANTINEA, one of the most ancient and celebrated cities of Arcadia, said to have been founded by Mantineus, son of Lycaon. It was situate near the centre of the eastern sontier, at the foot of Mount Artemisius, on the banks of the little river Ophis (Pausan., 8, 8), and was at first composed of four or five hamlets; but these were afterward collected into one city (Xen., Hist. Gr., 5, 2, 6, seqq.—Strab., 337), which became the largest and most populous in Arcadia previous to the sounding of Megalopolis. (Polyb., 2, 56.) The Mantineans had early acquired celebrity for the wisdom of their political institutions (Polyb., 6, 43, 1), and when the Cyreneans were distracted by factions, they were advised by an oracle to apply to that people for an arbiter to settle their differences. Their request was granted, and accordingly Demonax, one of the principal citizens of Mantinea, was sent to remodel their overnment. (Herod., 4, 161.) The Mantineans ought at Thermopylae, but arrived too late to share in the victory of Platasa, a circumstance which, according to Herodotus (9, 77), produced so much vexation, that upon their return home they banished their commanders. In the Peloponnesian war they espoused the Lacedæmonian cause; but having taken offence at the conclusion of the treaty between that people and the Athenians after the battle of Amphipolis,#;" were in

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