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Regner Lodbrog, with such art, that England, in their naval expeditions, when its master had a prospect of vic- depended almost entirely on the aid of tory, the inwoven raven appeared in foreigners. That prince built a ship full fight; but when otherwise, his of 1000 tons, called the Great Harry. wing hung motionless. A similar de- Henry VIII. made still greater adscription is given of the ensign of Si- vances. He established an Admiralty gurd, chief of the island of Orkney, and a Navy Office; and the sea serinto which his mother had so skilfully vice, for the first tiine, became a disworked a raven, that when the ensign tinct and separate profession. He setwas inflated by the winds, it appeared tled also regular pay for the officers to be spreading its wings. The Ang- and seamen. An Adiniral had los. lo-Saxon bishop Adhelm, who lived a-day for pay and subsistence; a Carin 680, describes very particularly the tain, 1s. 6d. ; a Seaman, 5s. a month skilful embroidery of the Saxon wo
wages, and 5s. for subsistence. In men, and exhorts them to the imita- 1512, a fleet of 45 ships was fitted tion of the British nuns.
A number out, the largest vessel of which was of manufactures were formerly brought the Regent, of 1000 tons, and 700 to remarkable perfection in nunneries. men, on which the Admiral's flag was But the English women were particu- hoisted. It is probable, however, that larly extolled for their skill in such part of these were foreign, as we have works, and especially in the making of subsequent accounts which make the gold stuffs. It appears, by a certain navy amount only to 16 or 21 vessels. account, that the holy figures, adorn- In 1548, however, it appears by an ed with silk and gold, on the robe of account in the Archeologia, to have a certain Pope, were English work, consisted of 53 vessels, whose tonnage and "doubtless that of women. This amounted to 11,268, and which conart is likewise called opus plumarium, tained 7731 men, 297 ordnance pieces because the instrument with which of brass, and 1848 of iron. All these they wrought was at first merely cut were stationed at Portsmouth, except out of a quill. Even in 1455 there six at Deptford, and four in Scotland. were found in London a multitude of In 1552, we have a statement of female workers in silk and embroid- the condition of the navy, which is as ery, who presented a petition to King follows: Twenty-four “ in good case Henry IV., stating, that through the to serve; so that they may be groundimportation of silk stuffs out of Italy, ed and caulked once a year, to keep this employment was likely to be lost them tight;" seven “ must be dockto English woinen; and they obtained ed and new dubbed, to search their from that monarch a prohibition a- tree nails for iron;" three “ lie alreagainst the importation of wrought dy dry docked, to be new made at
your Lordships' pleasure ;" one“ dry docked ; not thought worthy of new
making :" four “ thought nieet to be SKETCH of the Rise and PROGRESS of
sold;" six “ not worth keeping ;" the BRITISH Navy *.
“ in Ireland, whose state we know IT was not till the reign of Henry
In the reign of Mary, the navv apVII. that a navy existed in Bri- pears to have greatly declined, though tain. Before that time, the kings of there was only one naval expedition,
in which little loss was sustained : but The materials for this article are
small attention seems to have been chiefly drawn from Derrick's Memoirs paid to it, and ten thousand a year of the Navy. 4to. London, 1806. was thought sufficient for its support.
silks for five years.
She left only 27 vessels, in which tention, however, to this branch of the there served 3565 men, whose main- service, took delight in visiting the tenance cost 32181. 10s.
dock-yards and ships, was liberal to Elizabeth, however, applied herself seamen, and in the five years precedactively to the formation of a navy. ing 1623, built ten new veseels. In She soon began to build ships of her the first years of his reign, he spent upown, and encouraged the merchants wards of 50,0001. upon the navy, ebo? to build large trading vessels, which it was afterwards reduced to 30,000/. occasionally were converted into ships The largest ship that had ever come of war. The Queen paid the uimest from the English docks was built by attention to every thing connected him in 1610. She was 1400 tons with this service ; caused timber to be burthen, and carried 6+ guns: and collected for the use of the navy; car- was named the Prince, or Prince ried to an extent before unknown the Royal, manufacture of gun-powder ; augmen- By a report of Commissioners apted the pay of the navy, and invited pointed to examine into the state of over foreigners, so that she justly ac- the navy in 1618, it appears that there quired the glorious title of Restorer of were then only 39 ships or vessels, Naval Power, and Sovereign of the whose tonnage amounted to 14,700 Northern Seas. Yet the numerical tons. Thirteen of these were unseraugmentation does not seem to have viceable. They recommend that the procceded as might have been expect- navy should thenceforth consist only ed. In 1565, the eighth year of her of 30 slips, the tonnage of which, reign, she had only 29 vessels ; and however, was to aniount to 17,260 in 1578, only 24.' By 1588, how- tons. The reasons they assign for this -ever, at the arrival of the famous Ar- limitation are ; 1. This navy will con* mada, they had encreased to 34, with tain 3050 tons more than the navy
of 12,590 tons, and 6279 men.
Queen Elizabeth, when it was greatThe Archeologia contains a coin- est, and flourished most: 2. As great plete list of the Royal Navy, on the a provision of long timber, planks and 230 May 1599, with an account of knees, will be required to supply these the number and species of pieces of 30 ships, as may conveniently be ordnance with which it was mount- got in this time of great building, and ed, under the titles of Cannon, Demi- common devastation of woods in all Cannons, Culverins, Demi-Culverins, places : 3. These 30 ships will require Lakers, Minions, Falcons, Falconets, as many mariners and gunners as this Portpece Halls, Portpece Chambers, kingdom can supply at all times, now Fowler-Halls, Fowler-Chambers, and traffic carrieth away so many, and so Curtalls. The total number of ships far: 4. The common building of great was 42. Queen Elizabeth left at her and warlike ships by merchants to redeath the same number of ships of inforce the navy, when need shall rer 17,055 tons, and with S346 men.- quire, may well contain his Majesty's The expence laid out upon the navy numbers and charge within these was still small. In her reign, it is sta- bounds." ted to have amounted to 30,000l. a. Charles I. was, from the earliest peyear.
riod of his reign, exposed to extreme James I. not undertaking any naval pecuniary embarassments; yet his exexpeditions, and finding the navy left ertions in favour of the navy, amid in such a flourishing state by his pre- all these difficulties, seem to have been decessor, cannot be supposed to have great. The large sums, indeed, which inade very great exertions for its aug he raised on account of ship-money, mentation. He paid considerable at. were among the chief sources of the
discontent excited against him. Yet, angels holding their letters in comthough irregularly levied, they seem partment; all which works are gilded. to have been faithfuliy applied. In over, and no other colour but gold: 1633, the navy contained 50 ships, and black. One tree, or oak, made those toquage amounted to 23,000 four of the principal beams, which was tons. Before the breaking out of the 11 feet, of strong serviceable timber, civil wars, the king built at Wool. in length, 3 feet diameter at the top, wich a ship called the Sovereign of aud 10 feet at the stub or bottom. the Seas, the following description of “ Upon the sternhead a cupid or which is taken from a publication, at child bridling a lion: upon the bulkthat tiine, by Heywood.
liead right forward stand six statues * This famous vessel was built at in sundry postures; these figures reWoolwich, in 1637. She was in present Concilium, Cura, Conamen, length, by the keel, 128 feet, or Vis, Virtus, Victoria. Upon the hathereabout, within some few inches; mers of the water are four figures, her main breadth, 48 feet ; in length, Jupiter, Mars, Neptune, Eolus; on the from the fore end of the beak-head, to stern Victory, in the midst of a fronthe after end of the stern, a prora ad tispiece ; upon the beakhead sitteth puppin, 232 feet; and in height, from King Edgar on horseback trampling the bottom of her keel, to the top of on seven kings." her lanthorn, 76 feet; bore five lan- This vessel is said to have been thorns, the biggest of which would calculated more for magnificence than hold ten persons upright; had three for use ; but being taken down a deck lush decks, a forecastle, half-deck, lower, she became, according to requarter-deck, and round-house. port, one of the best men of war in
“ Her lower tier has 30 ports for the world. In short, it is urged by cannon and demi-cannon.
the royalists, in answer to the remon" Middle tier, 30 ports for culverins strance of 1641, that "a sure proof and demi ditto.
that the King had formed no design “Third tier, 26 ports for other ord- for enslaving his people is, that the nance.
chief object of his government has “ Forecastle, 12 ports.
been to raise a naval, not a military “ Two half decks have 13 or 14 force." ports more within board, for murder- The Commonwealth forms a splening pieces, besides 10 pieces of chace. did period in our naval annals; much ordnance forward, and 10 right aft, owing, however, to the respectable and many loop-holes in the cabins for state in which the navy had been musquet shot. She had eleven an- previously placed. In 1652, the fleet chors, one of 4,400 pounds weight. consisted of 102 vessels. Only three She was of the burthen of 1637 tons. of these carried 60 guns; still the She was built by Peter Pott, Esq. English vessels were superior in size under the direction of his father to the Dutch, and were much indebte Captain Phineas Pott, one of the ed to this circumstance for their supeprincipal officers of the Navy.- riority. About the end of this year, She had two galleries besides, all of the pay of the sailors was raised from most curious carved work, and all the 19s. to 24s. per month. The Protecsides of the ship carved with trophies tor, instead of reducing his navy at of artillery and types of honour, as the conclusion of the war in 1654, well belonging to sea as land, with ordered all the ships to be repaired symbols appertaining to navigation; and new ones built. He procured an also their two sacred majesties’ badges annual grant of 400,000/. for the naof honour; arms, with their several vy, and at his death, in 1656, left it as follows: 157 ships, mounting 4390 The thick fogs which are here guns, and manned by 21,910 men. more prevalent than in any other part Five of these vessels were above 60 of the Atlantic, exhibit a singular guns, and four between 50 and 60. phenomenon, and may be presumed The largest mounted 110 guns-We to owe their origin to the stream have thus traced the state of the Roy- from the gulph of Mexico, the disal Navy down to the Restoration. charge of waters incessantly accumu(To be continued.)
laing there by the pressure of the trade winds.
The cod-fish, whose abundance in Description of NEWFOUNDLAND, with these latitudes has afforded for a series
an account of the Cod-Fishery care of years an essential object of comried on upon its banks.
mercial enterprize, is esteemed much From Herriot's Travels in Canada.
more delicate than that found in the N arriving at the banks of New- northern seas of Europe, altho' inferi
foundland, a number of vessels, or to it in whiteness. The length of stationed at various distances, and this fish usually exceeds not three feet, seemingly at anchor, occurred to our and the conformation of its organs is view. These we soon understood to such as to render it indifferent with be engaged in the Cod-fishery. They regard to the selection of its aliment. are, in general, from eighty to one The voracity of its appetite prompts hundred and fifty tons burden, fitted it indiscriminately to swallow every out from several places in England, substance which it is capable of gorparticularly from the western counties, ging; and even glass and iron have and from the islands of Jersey and been found in the stomach of this fish, Guernsey. There are, besides, ves- which, by inverting itself, has the sels belonging to the fishermen who power of becoming disburthened of winter in Newfoundland, and at the its indigestible contents. settlements on the neighbouring parts The fishermen arrange themselves of the continent.
along the side of the vessel, each perThe Great Bank, which is about son being provided with lines and forty leagues distant from the island, hooks. is an enormous mountain formed be- When a fish is caught, its tongue is neath the surface of the sea. Its ex- immediately cut out, and it is deliverient is about an hundred and sixty ed to a person, in whose hands it haleagues, and its breadth about sixty, ving undergone a certain degree of the extremities terminating in points. preparation, is dropped through a On the eastern side, towards the cen- hatchway between decks, where part tre, a kind of bay is formed, called the of the back bone is taken out, and Ditch. The depth of water varies the cod is thrown, in this state, much throughout the whole, being in through a second hatchway into the some situations sixty, in others only hold, to be salted. When a quantity five fathoms. During the hottest of fish, sufficient to fill one of the vesweather the fish do not frequent ei- sels, is caught and salted, she sails ther the great or the aller banks, from the banks to the island, where, but retire to the deep waters. It has discharging her cargo, she returns to been remarked by many people, that her station, and in the course of the on approaching the banks the noise of season thus renews four or five differthe billows of the ocean become more ent freights. shrill and loud, an effect which is pro- The cod-fish is dried on the island, bably produced by the shallowness of and larger vessels arrive from Eng. the waters.
land, to convey it from thence to the
European markets. In packing the then; two thousand fishing shallops, fish in bulk, in the hold of the vessel, of twenty thousand tons, and twenty much care and attention are requisite; thousand men, are in times of tranand the greatest precautions are used quillity usually employed every year in loading, to preserve them from ex- in this fishery. About six hundred pozure to the moisture of the atmos- thousand quintals of fish are annually phere, by spreading sails and cloths taken, which, upon an average of seover the boats in which they are ven years, are worth, at the island, contained, and over those fish already fifteen shillings per quintal. These, in the vessel, if the smallest degree with the other amounts, consisting of of dampness in the air be observable. salmon, cod-oil, seal-oil, and furs, exA person denominated culler, or in- ceed, annually, half a million sterling. spector, attends the loading of each Of twenty thousand men from Great vessel, in order to see that no fish Britain and Ireland employed in that which is not perfectly cured, be in- fishery, eight thousand necessarily troduced into the cargo, which other- continued, when their country was wise might soon become damaged. not at war, on the island all the win.
The price of fish cured at New- ter. Several thousand still remain foundland is generally fifteen shil- there during that season, and are oclings the quintal, and it neats in Eu- cupied in repairing or building boats rope about twenty shillings. The and small vessels, or in erecting the expence of its freight to the coast of scaffolds for drying, fish. These are Spain is two shillings and sixpence, not properly sea-faring men, and are and to Leghorn three shillings the distinguished by the denomination of quintal.
planters. The dried fish, sent to the West Newfoundland extends in the form Indies, is packed in casks, and is infe- of a triangle, about a hundred leagues rior in quality to that carried to Eu- from east to west, and a hundred and rope. The fish which is salted with- twenty - five from north to south ; out being dried, is termed Core-fish, being situated between forty-six and or green cod. A vessel with twelve fifty-two degrees of north latitude.men, from the middle of April to John Gabato, a Venetian, was its first July, must catch, salt, and bring into discoverer, under the patronage of port, ten thousand fish, otherwise the king Henry the seventh of England. owners will be excluded froin all Noadvantage was derived from thence, claim to the established bounty. The until the lapse of a period of near forsame crew, however, usually procures ty years. Cape Race, and Cape Ray, during the season more than double are the two promontories which pre-. that quantity:
sent themselves to mariners sailing for The merchants of England who the river Saint Lawrence. Eighteen are concerned in these fisheries, sup- laagues to the westward of the first ply the fishermen upon credit with appears Cape Saint Mary, which forms every article of which they may be in the entrance of the bay of Placentia want, and are repaid at the fall of the towards the east. This bay is sixteen year with the produce of their industry. leagues in breadth, and twenty in depth. Several hundred thousand pounds are Towards its head is the harbour, cathus annually advanced, in specula- pable of containing in safety one huntion, on an object of commerce, before dred and fifty vessels, and defended by it is extracted from the bosom of the a fort called Saint Louis. The French
were the first Europeans who freAbout four hundred ships, amount- quented this situation. Between Plaing to thirty-six thousand tons bur, çentia and Cape Ray, the western October 1808.