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was at leisure from the wars of the Roman people, used to cultivate intimacies and friendships with our countrymen. Whoever he was, that had, in my affliction,2 had any share in the crime of Clodius, wherever he came, whatever trial he underwent, he was (regularly) condemned. In the body of the state, let whatever is noxious be cut off, that the whole may be
2 This refers to the banishment of Cicero, which Clodius procured.
II. Nihil est virtute amabilius. Quam qui adeptus erit, ubicunque erit gentium, a nobis diligetur. Quidquid honestum est, idem est utile. Is, quisquis est, qui moderato et quieto animo est sibique ipse placatus, sapiens est. Qualescunque summi civitatis viri fuerunt, talis civitas fuit ; quaecunque mutatio in principibus exstiterit, eadem in populo sequetur. Hoc periculum vitare oportuit, quomodocunque poteras. Ubicunque parricidium factum est, improbe factum est; quicunque autem fecit, supplicio dignus est. Quodcunque rectum est, certis finibus continetur, quos non transit. “Ubicunque est homo, ibi est beneficii locus. Boni omnem virtutem colunt, quomodocunque appellatur.
IV. THE TENSES OF THE INDICATIVE.
(Exercises, p. 68.)
While our men are too busily collecting all these things, the king himself escapes out of their hands. Alexander, pursuing1 Darius, draws all his forces together from all sides. While the Romans were engaged with these preparations and deliberations, Saguntum was already being besieged with the utmost energy. While the Romans were wasting the time with sending embassies, Hannibal granted a respite of a few days to his soldiers. So long as you either held out by your own resources, or hoped for succours from the Romans, I never made any mention of peace to 2 you. When Hostius fell, immediately the Roman line gave way, and was scattered in flight as far as the ancient gate of the Palatine. He who perceives a thing before it falls under his senses, 3 is said praesagire—that is, to perceive future things beforehand. After
1 Following close on, treading on the heels of._? Before. -_-3 He who perceives, before a thing has been presented.
interest,4 that corrupt imitator of virtue, gained command of eloquence without regard to duty; then wicked men, relying on their genius, began 6 to overthrow cities and undermine the lives of men. As soon as the enemy, having been conquered in battle, recovered from their flight, they immediately sent ambassadors to Caesar (to treat) concerning peace. When the inhabitants of Celaenae saw that the citadel was being invested, they bargained for a truce of sixty days; when they still remained without assistance, they gave themselves up to the king.–Curt. iii. 1. When Alco, the Saguntine, had passed over to Hannibal by night, after he saw that his tears produced no effect, and that Hannibal, as an incensed conqueror, persisted in making severe conditions, he turned deserter instead of ambassador, and remained with the enemy.—Livy, xxi.
4 A sort of interest.-5 Wickedness.-6 Accustomed themselves.
II. In eo proelio septuaginta quatuor de nostris equitibus cadunt. Dionysius, dum opes suas firmare studet, nullius vitae pepercit, quem inimicum duxit. Interim a compluribus civitatibus ad Caesarem legati veniunt, quibus, pacem atque amicitiam petentibus, liberaliter respondit obsidesque ad se adduci jubet.Caesar, Bell. Gall. iv. 18. Dum in his locis Caesar navium parandarum causa moratur, ex magna parte Morinorum ad eum legati venerunt. Ubi hoc Romae nuntiatum est, statim consul cum exercitu profectus est. Themistocles idem fecit, quod, viginti annis ante, Coriolanus apud nos fecerat. Quod ubi Caesar comperit, omnibus rebus confectis, quarum rerum causa traducere exercitum constituerat, se in Galliam recepit pontemque rescidit. Ubi de Caesaris adventu Helvetii certiores facti sunt, legatos ad eum mittunt, nobilissimos civitatis.
III. The Decii saw the flashing swords of the enemy, when they were rushing on their line. They were freed from all fear of wounds by the nobleness and glory of the death. He was called hostis among our ancestors, whom we now call peregrinus (a foreigner). Those who were desirous that their words and actions should be pleasing to the multitude, were considered populares; those, again, who conducted themselves so that their measures should be approved by all the best men, were considered optimates. I used to bid any one propose a subject
1 The meaning is, that hostis formerly meant a foreigner.
on which he wished to hear (me speak); on this I would discourse, either sitting or walking up and down. Cleanthes used to bid his hearers imagine to themselves a representation of Pleasure,2 seated on a throne, in beautiful attire and with regal ornaments, and the Virtues attending as handmaidens, with nothing else to do but to serve Pleasure. The ancient Germans devoted themselves to the chase. So long as the state was ruled by those to whom she had intrusted herself, I bestowed on her all my care and thought. So long as the government of the Roman people was maintained by benefits, not by injuries, wars were wont to be waged either in behalf of their allies or for their own supremacy; the issues of the wars were either merciful or (if severe) necessary. The senate was the harbour and refuge of kings, peoples, tribes. Moreover, our magistrates and generals sought to derive the highest praise from this alone, if they defended the provinces and allies by justice and fidelity. Therefore, that might more truly be called the protectorate than the empire of the world. We had 3 even previously been gradually departing from this habit and mode of acting; but after the victory of Sulla we lost it entirely. 2 Pleasure painted in a picture.—3 According to the analogy of Gram., $ 331,
Duae urbes potentissimae, quae huic imperio minitabantur, Carthago et Numantia, ab eodem Scipione deletae sunt. Zopyrus profitebatur se naturam cujusque ex forma perspicere. Socrates percunctando atque interrogando elicere solebat eorum opiniones, quibuscum disserebat. Dionysius vivebat cum fugitivis, cum facinorosis, cum barbaris. Neminem, qui aut libertate dignus esset aut vellet? omnino liber esse, sibi amicum arbitrabatur. Demosthenes illo susurro delectari se dicebat aquam ferentis mulierculae insusurrantisque alteri : Hic est ille Demosthenes. Dum per patentia loca ducebatur agmen, hostis non apparuit; ubi rursus silvae intratae, tum postremos adorti, cum magno pavore omnium, septingentos milites occiderunt, sex signa ademere. Praedones cum Baccho in Asiam navigabant; malos atque remos in angues convertit. Tarquinius se ad urbem muro cingendam comparabat, quum bellum Sabinum incepto intervenit. Quum Caesar in hibernis esset, crebri nuntii ad eum perferebantur. Socrates censebat animum esse immortalem.
1 For the subjunctive, see Gram., $ 360.
I name nobody; wherefore, no one can be angry with me, unless he is willing first to confess concerning himself. He who can converse with himself will not require the conversation of another. In my opinion (at least), no one can be an orator, crowned with the highest honour, unless he has acquired the knowledge of all great subjects and arts. If we endow with fluency men who are destitute of integrity and wisdom, we shall not make them orators indeed, but give arms, as it were, to madmen. He will be eloquent who can adapt his speech to whatever is right. When he has settled this, then he will say everything as it ought to be said. When I have created, nourished, matured, as I have commenced (to do), this orator, whom I am now imagining, I shall deliver him up to Lucius Crassus, to be clothed and adorned. I consider it unlawful for me to desert the city, so long at least as I am able to hope. If our consciencel is a witness to us of good designs and actions through our whole life, we shall live without any fear, with the greatest honour. He will be called foolish who is a source of gain to his neighbour, of loss to himself. If you write anything to me, I shall act so as you give me to understand 2 that you wish (me to act); but if you do not write, I shall still attend, with the greatest diligence, to all things that I shall consider advantageous for you. I am going to send private letter-carriers in a few days. I at least shall perform 3 my duty to the state and to the commander. If you know, says Carneades, that an asp is lying hid in any place, and that some one, whose death will be4 a source of gain to you, is wishing to sit down above it, you will act wickedly if you do not warn him not to sit down.-Cic. de Fin. ii. 18.
VI. Morati melius erimus, quum didicerimus, quae natura desideret. Catulum audiens sic judicare soleo, quidquid aut addideris aut mutaveris aut detraxeris, vitiosius et deterius futurum. Contemno magnitudinem doloris, a qua me brevitas temporis vindicabit ante paene, quam venerit. Consequemur hoc, si cavebimus. Quo pluribus profecerimus, eo plures habebimus amicos. Totam rem, quantum potero, explicabo. A nobis, quum paulum otii nacti erimus, uberiores litteras exspectato. Caesar de hae re in senatu, idibus Martiis, acturus erat. Populone jura erepturi atque tribuniciam potestatem eversuri estis ?
THE SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD.
I. THE HYPOTHETICAL SUBJUNCTIVE.
(Exercises, p. 72.)
I neither know well enough, nor, if I knew, should I venture to say. If there is anything I noble at all, assuredly nothing is more so than consistency, both in the whole life and in individual actions; and this you would not be able to preserve, if, imitating the nature of others, you should lose sight of your own. If a good man had the power, that, if he but snapped his fingers, his name might be introduced into the wills of the wealthy, he would not use this power, not even if he were certain that no one (at all) would suspect it. If one who had deposited money in your hands should make war on our country, would you return the deposit? I should think not: for (if you did) you would be acting against the state, which ought to be most dear to us. If any one had left a sword with you, in his sound mind, and should ask it back, being mad, it would be a sin to restore it-a duty not to restore it. Since all speech consists of matter and words, the words cannot have a basis if you withdraw the matter, and the matter cannot be made clear? if you remove the words. As, if every member of the body should imagine 3 that it could be in a good condition if it should transfer to itself the health of the member next it, it would necessarily follow 4 that the whole body should be weakened, and should perish: so, if every one of us should grasp at5 the advantages of others, and tear whatever he can from others,6 for the sake of his own profit, the society and fellowship of men must necessarily be overthrown.7
i Quidquam is here used because the meaning is, that nothing is noble if this is not.—2 The matter cannot have light.-_3 Should have this notion, that it should think that it could be well.-4 It would be necessary.-5 Should tear to himself. 46 Should withdraw what he can from every one. For the subjunctive possit, see Gram., $ 361.47 It is necessary that the society, &c. be overthrown.