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required as an evidence only of faith, deliberate omissions ; subjecting man and an acknowledgment to God for indeed, in the language of the apostle Tais mercy through Christ; or, with to the Ephesians, to God's wrath and the Arminian, as a condition also of damnation, but leaving these words that mercy. The Scripture referred to be variously interpreted of temto is the sixth verse of the fifth chap- poral evils, and of a natural death, ter of the Epistle to the Galatians, the appointed consequence of Adam's
faith worketh by love.' But whilst sin; or of eternal death, in an excluboth parties allowed good works to sion from the presence of God; or of be necessary, it was surely wise not to a positive and eternal punishment press the point in dispute, when it hereafter, as the reader may decide for could not be decided, without of. himself, upon the words of the Apostle. fence to great numbers of pious and Original sin is indeed likewise good Protestants.
said in every one born into the world, “ Again, whilst one party consi- in unoquoque nascentium, to deserve dered justification as a high state of God's wrath and damnation, how. grace in the subject, and the highest ever the words be interpreted : but degree of favour on the part of God; necessarily to understand this word and the other looked upon it more deserveth, in the sense of an actual correctly to be simply that state of and just desert, would be to neglect reconciliation, upon which, as upon a a more probable and consistent interground-work, man might be enabled pretation : for we learn from the rewith the assitance of the Holy Spi- peated authority of the ablest Prorit, to work out his future salvation; testants, both at home and abroad, this definition, alluding to the words, that the words meritus, mereri, meruit, • By the obedience of one, many and the like, were frequently, and shall be made righteous,' with indeed not unusually adopted in a equal consideration to both parties more lax and less correct sense, which avoids all discussion of their differ- implied no more than the attainences.” p. 16, 17.
ment, or possession of good or evil: The Article of original sin is next a meaning which, with the subtle considered, from the remarks on distinction between merit of condigwhich we extract the following: nity and congruity, had been adopt
“ Moreover, this vitium originis, or ed to avoid the difficulties attending original fault, is said to be truly pec- the strict and proper sense of the catum, damning, and even vow in- term. It must however be confessed, ducing eternal death upon all who that in this one instance there seems are not born again by baptism and to be a designed ambiguity in the the Holy Spirit; whereas our own term, to which all parties had long Article, leaving out the imputation been accustomed to resort. of Adam's sin, and the penalty here " The sum and substance of this attached to it, eternal death, has Article will amount, by the ordinary adopted only the latter meinber of modes of construction, simply to the definition, the corruption of our this: That original, or birth-sin, is nature, which manifests the defect of the fault, or corruption of our narighteousness, and the existence of ture, in consequence of which man is concupiscence: and even this is done far gone from original righteousness, with so cautious a regard not to fix and is of his own nature inclined to the consequences derived from it too evil, so that the flesh lustęth always strictly, that it hath omitted to subo against the spirit, and therefore in ject man, on account of this cor
every one born into the world, it ruption of his nature, of this defect deserves, it meers, or is subject to, God's of original righteousness, or of this wrath and damnation ; that is, to the concupiscence, to eternal death; an
penalties of the first covenant made instance of moderation, which can- with Adam, however they be undernot but have its weight in the con- stood ; that this infection of our nastruction or interpretation of this ture doth remain even in them that Article with every attentive mind; are regenerated, whereby the lust of and the more so, if it be duly ob- the flesh is not subject to the law of served, that in this instance our God; and that though there is no church stands alone of all Protestant condemnation for them that believe churches, and hath alone made these and are baptized, yet, according to the Apostle, concupiscence and Just and obedience of individuals, and hath of itself the nature of sin ; doc- with others, as the first cause of such trines these, which I apprehend, can faith and obedience." P: 25. afford no doubt or difficulty to those “ Conformable with the omission who are disposed to receive the sube of this controverted point, is the tacit ject of their faith from Scripture. rejection of a favourite notion nearly It would, indeed, he at once negli- connected with it, that of a primary gent and unjust not to refer the la- will and determination in God to sare boured accuracy and correctness of some only through Christ; as is the them to the peculiar wisdom of our reference made to the promises of Church; whilst the Reformed abroad, God, as they are generally proposed Lutheran as well as Calvinist, have to us, and the conclusion, that in embarrassed theniselves with the im- Our doings that will is to be fol. putation, or guilt of Adam's sin, with lowed, which we have expressly the want of distinction betwixt the declared to us in the word of God? corruption of our nature and the sin- It cannot be doubted, but that the fulness derived from it, and with the promises generally proposed to us doctrine of eternal punishment to be in Scripture' point to that of St. inflicted upon all not baptized, and John, God so loved the world, that regenerate : whereby the involuntary, he gave his only begotten Son, that depravation of human nature is itself whosoever believeth in him should made fully and truly sin, and put on • not perish, but have everlasting a footing with sins which are actual.” • life.' 'And when it is said, that will p. 18-21.
• in our doings is to be followed, The Article of predestination is the which we have expressly declared last noticed, on which we cite the 'to us in the word of God, it is diffollowing observations.
ficult not to recur to that of St. Pe“ And here my general view of the ter, 'God is not willing that any design of the Articles will receive con- should perish, but that all should siderable confirmation; for whereas come to repentance, and to that of every other confession, which notices St. Paul, who will have all men to predestination and election to life, • be saved.' states it expressly and peremptorily to “ If it be said, that there lies no have taken place in the Divine Coun- presumption against the Calvinistic cils, absolutely and irrespectively, and sense of this Article from any such to have separated persons so favoured, references as these to Scripture, that they might be faithful, not from which the Calvinist has been accusa prescience that they would through tomed to reconcile with his notion of divine grace render themselves faith- election and predestination; I anful; in our Article the question of ab- swer, that evident references to these solute, or respective, predestination passages of Scripture at least form is wholly omitted, the decision of it another difference betwixt the lanis in no degree touched upon, nor is guage of our reformers, and that of it implied in the literal avd obvious any others; and that this taken togesense of any expression employed ther with their forbearance to state therein. For predestination to life, predestination and election as absoas there described, may properly bé lute and irrespective, in which also considered in the same light with they stand alone, cannot but powerevery divine blessing, promised upon fully contribute to refute the opinion, condition; the fulfilinent of the con- that the Articles of our church were dition being foreseen of God, the formed upon strict principles of Calblessing, is predestinated when first vinism; an opinion, to which it was annexed in the divine council to the the attempt of a party to give a public condition." p. 241.
authority in the very reign in which “ The expressions therefore of these Articles were agreed upon, by • predestination to life,' and of “ves- the addition of several new proposi
sels made to honour,' leave the tions, all of which were said to be question of respective and irrespec- either openly asserted, or necessative election 'wholly untouched ; rily deducible from those already auwhilst with some this predestination thorized. The project, however, was will be considered as founded on peremptorily rejected by royal ay. God's prescience of the future faith ihority." p. 26-28.
CLXI. ANIMAL BIOGRAPHY; or, tions with these, the common trash of
Anecdotes of the Lives, Marners, and circulating libraries :-Early impres-
inferior orders of created beings,
would scarcely be known, could we HE following extract from the but teach mankind that the same God to form an idea of the nature of this wing' ordains with it a right to life .work.
and happiness as well as ourselves; " The work, as it at present stands, and that wantonly to deprive it of may, I think, without iin propriety, be these is an offence against his work denominated an Animal Biography:- who formed nothing in vain.-An at To this end, I have omitted nearly tention to nature from childhod every thing that did not bear an il- would also contribute greatly to the lustration to the character of the ani- happiness of mankind in generd, mals; and the reader will also ob- and to that of females in particult, serve, that, to render the anecdotes by enabling them to overcome il of their manners as interesting and those fears and vulgar prejudies as little interrupted as possible, by · which have commonly attached to matter not immediately relative to some of the smaller quadrupeds, and the subject, I have in general con- to the reptile and insect tribes. They fined even the descriptive parts of would then possess no greater repgdimensions, colour, shape, &c. to the nance towards handling a lizard a first ten or twelve lines of the ac. beetle, or a spider, than they noy do count. I have also left entirely un- in that of a bird, or a flower. noticed all such animals as afforded “ It is necessary however to inorm nothing but this kind of description; them, that they must not be confor a sufficient account of these is to tented merely with reading: theprinbe found in almost every authentic cipal use of this is to direct thím to book of natural history extant; but contemplations on the objects hemparticularly in Dr. Shaw's elegant selves, and to induce a taste formore and valuable work on general zoo- minute investigation, but it is from logy. I am well aware, that the this investigation only that they will reader may recognize many of the be enabled to reap the advantages of anecdotes : it is impossible entirely the science, and such advantages as to prevent this; but, in order to books alone do not always bestow.” avoid it as much as possible, I have p. 21, 25. omitted nearly all those that are the Each of the six classes o! the ani. most trite and well known." to vi. mal kingdom are briefly described, as vii,
also the seven orders of the first, or The author immediately after the class of Mammalia. preface gives a list of the principal After a general description of the works that form the foundation of his ape-tribe, a particular account is given volumes.
of the Oran Otan, and several inThe work is introduced with some stances of its manners are related, observations on the study of nature, which we have observed in works of which are closed with the following common use, and therefore omit: but suitable remarks.
the following curious circumstance " It would be no inconsiderable we trąuscribe for the amusement of improvement to the rising genera- our readers. tion, if natural history could in some « Père Carbasson brought up an measure be introduced to their at- oran otan, which became so fond of tention, in preference to novels and him, that wherever he went it always the usual pernicious books of enter- seemed desirous of accompanying tainment. If they could have re- him: whenever, therefore, he had course to a rational source of amuse- to perform the service of his church, ment, rather than corrupt their he was always under the necessity of hearts and bewilder their imagina- shutting it up in a room. Once,
however, the animal escaped, and or four of the most hardy, and precifollowed the father to the church, pitated them to the bottom. These where, silently mounting on the proofs of his prowess intimidated the sounding board above the pulpit, he rest, and after much noise they lay perfectly still till the sermon com- thought proper to retreat. The conmenced. He then crept to the edge, queror remained till evening, and and overlooking the preacher, imi- then betook himself to a place of fated all his gestures in so grotesque safety. a manner that the whole congrega- “Their conduct towards such of tion was unavoidably caused to their brethren as become captives is laugh. The father, surprised and very remarkable. If one is chained confounded at this ill-timed levity, in their neighbourhood, especially if severely reproved his audience for of the society to which he belonged, their inattention. The reproot' failed they will attempt various means, for in its effect, the congregation still some time, to procure his liberty: laugh, and the preacher, in the but when their efforts prove ineffecwarmth of his zeal, redoubled his vo- tual, and they see him daily submit ziferations and his actions: these the to slavery, they will never again, if pe imitated so exactly, that the he should by any chance escape, reongregation could no longer retain ceive him among them, but will fall demselves, but burst out into a loud upon and beat him away without ad continued laughter. A friend mercy:" p. 78, 79. o the preacher at length stepped up. In the account of the Vampire bat to him, and pointed out the cause of the following instance of its sanguitlis improper conduct; and such was nary habits is given. tle arch: demeanour of bis animal, “ Captain Stedman was, while in tht it was with the utmost difficulty Surinam, attacked during liis sleep by hecould command the muscles of his one of these animals; and as his accontenance, and keep himself ap. count of this incident is somewhat paently serious, while he ordered singular, and tends to elucidate the the servants of the church to take fact, we shall extract it in his own hin away." p. 46, 47.
language from his narrative. I canI the accounts of the habits and • not here (says he) forbear relating mamers of monkies we notice the a singular circumstance respecting folloving:
• myself, viz. that on waking about “Monkies are generally peaceable four o'clock one morning in my enough among each other. In ex- • hammock, I was extremely alarmed tensie, solitary, and fertile places, "at finding myself weltering in conherds of different species sometimes * gealed blood, and without feeling chatter together, but without disturb- any pain whatever. Having started ance, or any confusion of the race. ups and rung for the surgeon, with When, however, adventurous strag. a'fire-brand in one hand, and all glers seem desirous of seeking their over besmeared with gore; to which, fortunes in places where another herd if added, my pale face, short hair, is in possession, these immediately and tattered apparel, he might well unite to sustain their rights. M. de • ask the question, Maisonpré, and six other Europeans, were witnesses to a singular conten
Be thou a spirit of health, or goblin damn'd, tion of this nature in the enclosures
Bring with thee airs of heavill, or blasts
from hell? of the pagodas of Cheringam. A large and strong nonkey hac stolen in, but The mystery, however, was, that I was soon discovered. At the first had been bilten by the Vampire, or cry of alarm many of the males Spectre of Guiana, which is also united, and ran to attack the strang- called the Flying-dog of New Spain, er. He, thorgh much their superior in and by the Spaniards Perro-volador; size and strength, saw his danger, and this is no oiber than a bat, of a flew to attain the top of a pyramid, monstrous size, that sucks the blood eleven stories high, whither he was from inen and cattle while they are instantly followed; but when arrived fast asleep, even sometimes till they at the summit of the building, which • die ; and as the manner in which terminated in a small round dome, he 'they proceed is truly wonderful, i placed himself firmly, and taking ad- shall endeavour to give a distinct vantage of his situation, seized three * account of it. – Knowing, by in
stinct, that the person they intend laths; and, when he has thus pre
to attack is in a sound slumber, they 'pared it, he embraces as much of 'generally alight near the feet, where, it as he can in his monstrous jaws, · while the creature continues fan- and twists it round with as inuch • ning with his enormous wings, 'ease as an ox would do a root of · which keeps one cool, he bites a celery, or any such pot-herb or
piece out of the tip of the great toe, “garden-stuff".". p. 112. so very small indeed, that the head A very long description is given of • of a pin could scarcely be received the habits and manners of that inte• into the wound, which is conse- resting animal, the elephant, exem• quently not painful; yet through plified in a number of anecdotes,
this orifice he continues to suck the from which we present the following • blood, until he is obliged to dis- to our readers.
gorge. He then begins again, and “ A soldier at Pondicherry was ac• Thus continues sucking and disgorg- customed to give a certain quantity • ing till he is scarcely able to fly, and of arrack to one of these animals, • the sufferer has often been known every time he got his pay; and having éto sleep from time into eternity. one day intoxicated himself, and be
Cattle they generally bite in the ing pursued by the guard, wlio wanted • ear, but always in places where the to put him in prison; he took refuge • blood flows spontaneously. Hav- under the elephant, and there fell
ing applied tobacco ashes as the fast asleep. The guard in vain at• best remedy, and washed the gore tempted to drag him from this asy
from myself and my bammock, I Jum, for the elephant defended him • observed several small heaps of con- with its trunk. Next day the soldier 'gealed blood all round the place having recovered from his intoxica• where I had lain, upon the ground; tion, was in dreadful apprehensions
on examining which, the surgeon when he found himself under the judged that I had lost at least belly of this enormous animal. The • twelve or fourteen ounces during elephant, which unquestionably per'the night'.” p. 93, 16.
This is ex
ceived his terror, relieved his fears tracted from the Narrative of an Ex- by immediately caressing him with its pedition to Surinam.
trunk.” p. 145. The sagacity of the rhinoceros is “ An incident to which M. le Baron exemplified in the following descrip- de Lawriston was a witness, during tion of the manner in which it obtains one of the late wars in the east, fornis its food.
another trait of the sensibility of the “ Mr. Bruce's description of the elephant. This gentleman, from his manners of the two-horned rhinoce- zeal, and some other circunstance, ros, is highly worthy of notice. He was induced to go to Laknaor, the informs us, that, besides the trees, capital of the Soubah, or viceroyalty • capable of most resistance, there of that name, at a time when an epi‘are, in the vast forests within the demic distemper was making the • rains, trees of a softer consistence, greatest ravages amongst the inhabi' and of a very succulent quality, tants. The principal road to the pa· which seem to be destined for his lace gate was covered with the sick • principal food. For the purpose of and dying, extended on the ground
gaining the highest branches of at the very moment when the nabob • these, his upper lip is capable of ab-olutely must pass. It appeared • being lengthened out so as to in- iinpossible for his elephant to do * crease his power of laying hold otherwise than tread upon and crush < with it, in the same manner as the many of these poor wretches in his · elephant does with his trunk. With passage, unless the press would stop • this lip, and the assistance of his till the way would be cleared; but he
tongue, he pulls down the upper was in haste, and such tenderness • branches, which have most leaves, would be unbecoming in a personage - and these he devours first; having of his importance. The elephant, • stripped the tree of its branches, he however, without appearing to slack< does not therefore abandon it, but, en his pace, and without having re. , • placing his snout as low in the trunk ceived any command for that pur. - as he finds his horns will enter, he pose, assisted thein with bis trunk, • rips up the body of the tree, and removed some, set others on their • reduces it to thin pieces like so inany feet, and stepped over the rest with