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speak for themselves. Every reader others, and her restless energies, finding will form his own judgment. Baron no employment abroad, naturally seek for Pelet asks the same questions that vent in domestic commotions. we have done-he thus ventures a “Napoleon, looking down from the vague and undecided reply.
vast height which he had reached, thought
the rest of mankind smaller than they " It may be asked, What impression really were; and this the cause of his will be produced on the reader's mind by downfall. He raised up against himself, the documents I here lay before him? by the mere abuse of power, not only What opinion will be formed of Napoleon sovereigns and whole populations, but and his system of administration, by the even his own country, in which he had observations made by him in the Council nurtured the most dangerous enemies. of State ?' The reply is, that unquestion- “ It is not a little strange, that wbile ably the same opinion which the public conquerors will go every length for glory, have already formed will be thereby con- and do any thing to gain the public applause, firmed. They will recognise in Napoleon's there should lie a thorough contempt of character a mixture of impetuosity and mankind at the bottom of their hearts. It trickery, half French half Italian, but in may happen that too good an opinion of which impetuosity predominated; while the world will prove occasionally fatal to it was modified by such a decided bearing the head of a government, while too low towards absolute power, that it could not an opinion may become equally destructive fail, on the one hand, to deaden all the to his authority. internal energies of his country, and, on “ The true glory of Napoleon consists the other, eventually to rouse foreign na- in his having suppressed anarchy, in havtions into resistance.
ing rallied round him all parties in the “ He stimulated the ambition of every state, in having organised such a powerful class of the community, by the distri- administration, that France, during fifteen bution of an immense number of em- years, submitted to the guidance of bis ployments, promotions, and honorary dis- powerful hand, as if the whole nation tinctions, and thus set agoing an immo- had been but one man; in giving his counderate love of excitement, with a feverish try a code of civil laws more perfect than desire of change, and he kept up these any which it had possessed before ; and propensities by the daily exhibition of in being laborious, indefatigable, and unkings dethroned and dynasties overturned. ceasingly occupied with the cares of goFinally, he rendered the task of his suc. cessors an exceedingly difficult one for a " What might not Napoleon have eflong time to come. For a nation fami- fected, with all these great qualities, had liarised with wars and conquests cau
he employed them for the purpose of gonot really subside into peaceful habits, verning France in peace, and in studying She recalls only the glory, and takes no to bestow upon her a constitution and a count of the cost : she feels, as it were, state of manners calculated to prevent the humiliated, from ceasing to bumiliate recurrence of fresh political tempests !”
PROFESSOR BUTT'S INTRODUCTORY LECTURE.*
We have read this lecture of Mr. connected with the peculiar state and Buit's with much pleasure, and after nature of this science, there are some having perused it carefully, can predict important advantages. It prevents the with confidence, that the public will opinion of any one person from exernot be disappointed in the expectations ci-ing (at least through the medium of which they formed when he was se- the professorship) too great an influJected to fill the office which he now ence on the public mind. The science holds.
is still in its infancy, and is daily unIt is a peculiarity of the professor- dergoing material changes, and receivship of Political Economy, not only ing fresh improvements: Were the in our University, but also, we be- same professor to continue in office lieve, in both the great English during his life, he might not be very Universities, that it can be held by willing to adopt and disseminate those the same person for no longer period improvements. He would probably than five years. In this arrangement, hold to the doctrines which he tirst
An Introductory Lecture delivered before the University of Dublin, in Hilary Term, 1837, by Isaac Butt, Esq., LL.B., Archbishop Whately's Professor of Political Economy. 8vo. William Curry, jun. and Co. Dublin. 1837.
promulgated, and refuse to declare political economy, no doubt, has proved a from the professor's chair, that any peculiar inconvenience; and this clas thing which he taught in preceding comprises within it the individuals best years from the same authoritative posi- adapted by pature for making a coise, tion, was erroneous. He would not especially if it be a senseless one. unnaturally suppose it improbable, that “ It is unfortunately true, that a cerafter having made such an admission, tain kind of popular talent may erist
, his future lectures would be listened to without the possession of very great reswith much reverence. The learned soning powers; and those who have might esteem him more for his candid gained a reputation by the one, are satuconfession of past mistakes, but the rally jealous of a science which unreleatunlearned (and it is to such, that his ingly detects their deficiency in the other. lectures must be principally addressed) You will readily understand why some would consider him merely as a man, persons resent as a most unfair and upwho, in his peculiar profession, had all warrantable interference, the introduction his life gone astray. This fleeting pro
of strict reasoning into subjects which fessorship is therefore not an unwise they are very willing to regard as made establishinent, when the science is ra- by long prescription, the exclusive prother to be investigated than to be perty of the declaimer."—Page 11. taught.
There is much force in the manner But it has this disadvantage, that it in which Mr. Butt exposes that unde. places the discrepancies between the fined feeling which leads many to dreat professors of the same science in a that the result of their investigation in most prominent point of view, so that political economy, or in any other to the malicious, each professor seeins science, may lead to results unfavorable to do little more than to demolish the to religion. He not only proves the fabric raised by his predecessor, and on unreasonableness of this feeling, but its ruins to erect a fragile superstruc- states and proves a proposition which ture, the subversion of which may it directly contradicts, viz. that " there afford occupation and triumph to his is no moral obligation upon a rational successor. Thus our lectures may ap- creature to abstain from employing his pear to afford no progressive instruc- faculties in any investigation to which tion, but to be “ never ending, still be they are adapted.” ginning, fighting still, and still destroy- We may, however, remark, that er: ing."
clusive attention to any one seience For this sarcasm, however, Mr. has a tendency to weaken the impresButt's lecture affords no real ground. sion which religious truths leave on He is careful to have the foundation the mind. But when this occurs, is sound, but he does not, therefore, re- ought to be attributed rather to the ject all that has been said before. He neglect of religion which is culpable, selects, and in our opinion, with consi- than to the study which but for that derable judgment, the most correct effect would not have led to any fatal and consistent opinions and definitions result, nor incurred any blame. What of the modern economists, to which he human study is more calculated than adds value, by the clearness of his ex- anatomy to demonstrate the infinite planations, and strength, by the com
power and wisdom and goodness of pactness of his arguments. In other God, and to fill us with reverence and cases he boldly takes an original view gratitude for their effects so wonderfully of the subject, lays down his position displayed in our composition and yet with a clearness which cannot be mis- too exclusive attention to that science taken, and supports it with reasoning, has frequently led to atheism. In his which, in strength and closeness, is study of the creature, man forgot the scarcely inferior to mathematical de- creator ; he became at last so accustomed monstration. We shall endeavour to to the wonderful mechanism of the give the public a faint outline of his human frame, that the prospective arIntroductory Lecture.
rangements of divine wisdom appeared Mr. Butt commences with a few to be natural and necessary coinbinastriking observations on the hostility tions. Thus, a tooth formed to tear which some bear to this science, and meat, or a claw to procure it, appeared gives a very ingenious analysis of its
to infer a stomach fitted to digest it
, by source ; and ascribes it principally to the same kind of necessity that leads three causes, on one (the last) of which
us to mathematical conclusions, and he makes the following just remarks: seemed to require neither a creator not “ There is a class of persons, to whom
Still the study of anatomy is
no less useful and necessary, and such between productive and unproductive examples should teach us, not that we labour ; and in our opinion, he excels ought to dread any study as dangerous, them far in the clearness with which but that we ought to pursue it in a he refutes the arguments by which proper spirit.
it was supported, and explains the Mr. Butt next alludes briefly to the nature and origin of the mistake which opinion which many entertain, that led to the distinction. By defining political economy is a selfish, heartless production to be the creation of utility, science, which, “ in the sternness of its he abolishes this error for ever. paradoxical conclusions, contradicts not We extract the following passage as only the maxims of common sense, and an excellent illustration of the importhe lessons of experience, but every tance of Mr. Butt's definition, and at generous emotion, and every charitable the same time, a fair specimen of his sympathy of the heart.” He trusts to style : the increasing influence of truth to
“ You will bear in mind, that any credispel this illusion, without the necessity of any particular analysis of its ation of utility is production. i have cause. We fear, however, that this ill already called your attention to the trans.
fer of commodities from a place where opinion of political economy has received no sniall countenance from the they are not useful to the place where conduct of the English poor-law com
they are. This is a very important kind
of production, and one in which, at this missioners. The alteration lately made
moment, multitudes of labourers are enin the law was generally thought to be gaged all over the world. But this is a at best a measure of necessary harsh- species of production which, except in its ness, but it became almost intolerable very great operations, we are inclined to when administered by certain ultra- overlook. The bringing of coals from economists, who seemed to feel very the depths of the pits at Whitehaven to little repugnance to stilling every gene- your grate, is certainly a very great crerous feeling of the soul, in obedience ation of utility. All persons would say to the dictates of a hard-hearted philo- at once, that the raising of these coals to sophy, which pronounced to willing the mouth of the pit was production ; but disciples, that it was essential to the some, perhaps, might stop here without prosperity of England that her inhabi- the slightest reason, and not concede that tants should be starved, and by no the conveyiug of them another stage of means should be permitted to increase their journey, that across the sea, was and multiply. To the English labourer productive; but I see no distinction bethose commissioners appeared to be tween the nature of one and the other, sent on earth to fulfil the prophecy of or between either of them and the carting St. Paul, “ In the latter times some of them from the quay to the coal cellar. shall depart from the faith, giving heed But if they ended their travels even here, to seducing spirits, and to doctrines of they might just as well have remained devils, speaking lies in hypocrisy, one hundred fathoms under Whitehaven; having their consciences seared with a
and the act of your servant, when he
carries them from the cellar to the grate, hot iron, forbidding to marry, and commanding to abstain from meats."-1
is just as much an act of production, and Tim. iv.
the same in kind, as the labour of the
miners, or the services of the crew of the Mr. Butt is happy in the manner in which he exhibits the phenomena collier, or the drivers of the coal dray." — which political economy is called
Pages 60, 61. upon to investigate, and which are Those who regard production as the 80 familiar, and of such constant creation of value, cannot clearly apply occurrence, that, until atten- their definition to Mr. Butt's example. tion is particularly directed to them, How does the useful act of bringing they appear to require no investiga- coals to the fire improve their value, tion. He next defines and explains i.e. their power of procuring other comsome of the principal terms in the modities in exchange. In general, science, such as “wealth,” “utility," those who take value into their notion
value," “ production,” and gives his of production, are apt to regard all reasons for adopting or rejecting the labour as unproductive, where a further divisions and definitions laid down by exchange is not necessary after that other writers.
labour has been performed. We think We were pleased to find that he the definition given by Mr. Butt, thereconcurs with the most judicious econo- fore, possesses the advantage of exmists in rejecting the old distinction plaining, with ease, cases which, on
the common definition, must occasion With the above trifling exception, the greatest perplexity, at the same we concur in every proposition of Mr. time that it is more conformable to the Butt's, and feel assured that his lectures common idca attached to the word. will do much to settle the science on a
We have, however, very strong firmer and surer basis. He possesses, doubts whether he is equally correct in an eminent degree, those qualities in excluding the idea of value from his which are essential to an improver of definition of wealth. It leads to many the science. He evidently has a very questions which it will be difficult to accurate comprehension of the meas
We must rank wealth under ing and consequences of every propathe category of quantity. How is this sition which he lays down, that seems quantity to be measured? As an article to promise that he will be bold without of wealth, which is a leg of mutton rashness, and that he will be original or a valuable diamond ring to be es- without falling into paradox. His teemed the greater quantity ? We style is uncommonly clear and forcible, must not refer to their relative scar- and well suited to philosophical inves. cities to remove the difficulty intro- tigations. His reasoning is close and duced by Mr. Buit's definition, for he powerful, and as abstract as the octasupports his definition principally by sion requires, or perhaps would admit
, this argument, that it does not ever without impairing its perspicuityinvolve the consideration of the scar- Many of his propositions are stated in city or abundance of
article. such a manner, as to make them equally Besides, if the scarcity or value of capable of being applied to other subany commodity must be taken into jects, so that his lectures are instructive consideration in order to estimate its beyond the truths of political economy quantity as an article of wealtb, it will contained in them. follow that all the wealth in the world, sarcastic humour frequently appears, wbich possess no value, are not equal to which, while it amuses the reader, a single pin, and therefore it was unne- serves to expose still more clearly the cessary to alter the established defini- errors which it encounters, and almost tion to include such commodities within places them in the rank of those practical it. We see no advantage to be gained absurdities which so often form amusbythe change. Referring to Mr. Butt’s ing anecdotes. We leave his lecture admirably accurate definition of Polic with regret, and an anxiety that we may tical Economy, page 40, we would ask, be shortly called to notice some larger is human agency any way concerned in work on the same subject by the same the production or distribution of those ar- author. ticles of wealth which possess no value ?
A lively and
GALLERY OF ILLUSTRIOUS IRISHMEN.NO. VIII.
Richard B. Sheridan filled so promi- his idea thus formed does not attain to pent a place in the public eye, and has much truth of resemblance, he will at left an impression so combined and least satisfy himself. Far different is striking, that it is not an easy task to his office who has to contrast, to select sati«fy the expectation of the multitude and generalize a vast and copious detail by an adequate sketch of his life. We into a small compass, so as to presen say a sketch, because it is in this the to all, that which every man is disposed diiticulty lies. To detail the particulars to find for himsell. He has to deal of a lite at length, is comparatively with preconceptions, in which a more easy. Where all is preserved, the deliberate view of the subject will find reader may be safely left to the estic much to correct.
He will have 10 mate of his own judgment. And if meet the prepossessions of
party • There are two methods of representing character ; by the actual detail of words and cireumstances, or by the tracing of moral and intellectual workings
. The first is the most easy and popular, but it requires amplitude and abundance. The second is dificult and at best liable to question ; yet it has at least the advantage of brevity. There is a third very common method ; portraiture, much used among the writers of the last century, by the mere enumeration of mental features. But this presupposes knowledge in the reader, and, at best, is mostly empirical.
ing—the jealous pride of kindred; and much; but was little endowed with he must, if he performs his duty, dis- the more philosophical properties of cover moral peculiarities, which shall analysis or discursive reason. All at first view seem more refined than these remarks are to be illustrated in just. Such has been the peculiar the whole of his history, without any nicety of the effort we have taken undue refinement ; for we have aimed upon us, in aiming to trace to their not to anatomise character, but to presource the peculiar features of Sheri- sent a faithful and obvious likeness. dan.
We may now proceed with From these dispositions the intelligent much less precision or care.
There reader will trace with ease the oppoare four distinct stages in his career ; site courses of his conduct. His amthe history of his early life-his dra- bition conquered his indolence, and matic successes—his parliamentary life this in turn combined with his love of and the melancholy down-hill course pleasure, to subdue his prudence. His of his latter days. Each of these sensitive jealousy caused injustice and offers the occasion which our brief alienation, which his generosity and space requires, to present distinctly, kindliness of nature stilĩ rectified and the different aspects in which his cha- reconciled. Regardless of money, exracter may be viewed. But let us here cept as a means of present gratification, observe that the relative interest of he was as willing to pay as to spend; these is very different. We have but improvidence led hiin to contract laboured to be distinct on the first, engagements beyond his means. An because, if utility be regarded, it is anecdote is related by one of his biomost important. The second we shall graphers (we think Dr. Watkins) very continue with brevity, in compliance illustrative of his indolence. He with the taste of the hour; yet, dis had been so severely handled in a libel tinctly, for it is as a dramatic writer on the subject of his affair with Mr. alone that Sheridan can obtain a place Mathews, in some pamphlet or obin the memory of the next generation. scure provincial paper, that he resolved His wit has lost its flavour, in the thou- upon a reply. But, thinking it fair to sandth repetitions ; his social fascina- give the same publicity to the attack tion can only be conceived by those as to his defence, he sent the libel to who have felt it ; his virtues and fail- Mr. Woodfall's well-known journai, ings lose themselves in the common requesting its insertion, and promising features of humanity ; the triumphs of his reply in a few days. It was insertthe social hour are transient. The ed in the Public Advertiser; Sheridan's orator's memory, too, must rest on what versatility was, however, in the mean has been preserved of his eloquence. time, caught away into the whirl of As an orator we
rate him some fresh excitement, and the reply at the highest, unless by lowering the became a needful but unattractive task. praise of eloquence. As a statesman Day after day past in procrastinating Sheridan had no pretension ; and he intentions ; Ňr. Woodfall made rewho would represent in a life, the his- peated and urgent applications for the tory of that eventful period in which meditated reply, and was as constantly he lived, must weigh' his powers for assured that it should be ready on the the delineation of the mind of Burke. following day. But days grew into But it is as a dramatist that Sheridan weeks until the time was past when it must take his place among the illustri- could appear to any purpose, ous of every age.
We may regard the period at which As we have in our first part taken we are now arrived, as the happiest of some pains to trace with accuracy the Sheridan's life. Adorned by the most moral' features of his character, we flattering successes ; blessed in the obmust, before we proceed, recall to the ject of his affections ; cheered on by reader's mind the sum of our infe- the acclamations of the world, and ac
knowledged by the companionship of He was by nature intelligent and the great and the good. His affecvivacious, social and generous, aspiring tions were not yet impaired by the and sensitive, indolent and a lover of dissipations of life : he had not yet pleasure. He had keen observation, been diverted from the course which and ready sagacity, a lively sense of was native to his genius ; hope, ever the characteristic and humorous, and the companion of youthful ambition, a clear sound understanding. Of ima- opened before him a career in which gination he bad little ; of fancy he might not unreasonably look for