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On leaving the gallery of ruminating city of its flight being greatly dimianimals, we enter that of birds. The nished by the shortness of its wings, collection comprehends upwards of its ravages, as a bird of prey, suffer a 6000 individuals, belonging to more corresponding decrease. It generally than 2300 different species. There is feeds upon the sloth, and can carry off not so numerous a collection exist- a fawn. There is a fine specimen of ing anywhere else ; and yet it has been this rare bird in the Edinburgh Muformed within these few years ; for at seum. The hawk called pygargus, dethe death of Buffon, there were only serves attention as an object of wor800 species.
ship among the ancient Egyptians, who It is well known that a great num- embalmed it after death. It was ber of birds, especially those remark- brought in the mummy state from able for the beauty of their colours, Egypt, by M. Geoffroy St Hilaire. In have a totally different plumage, ac- the ninth case may be observed the cording to their age, and even some- falco cerulescens, from Sumatra, which times according to the season of the is the smallest of all birds of prey. year. It is owing to this that the same The eleventh and twelfth cases conbird has often been described and tain thirty-four species of owls, or drawn several times under different nocturnal birds of prey. The collecnames. We frequently see ten ortion of parrots and toucans is unrivaltwelve individuals of one species pre- led. There are one hundred and sixty senting the same essential characters, species of the thrush genus. Of the but differing totally in the colours of motacillæ, which include the wrens, their plumage. Thus it is only after wagtails, and smaller warblers, there many researches, and the examination are 172 species. Among these are the of numerous suites of specimens, that nightingale and redbreast. The latter, the different varieties, and the passage which in Britain is a pugnacious, som from one to the other, can be de- litary bird, in some of the French termined. Most of these varieties of provinces assembles in such numerous age, sex, and season, may be observed flocks, that the sky seems covered by in the Parisian collection, which, for them. The golden-crested wren is the the future, will fix the type for many smallest of European birds ; its heart new, or hitherto obscurely described is no bigger than a pea, and weighs bespecies.
tween four and five grains. Of the flyIn this collection there are 120 difa catchers, now divided into several geferent diurnal birds of prey. Among nera, there are 150 species in the Muthese we may remark the lammera seum. The twenty-second case congeyer, or vulture of the Alps, which is tains twenty-seven species of swallow. the largest European bird of prey; it “The first,” says M. Deleuze, “is the measures ten feet between the extend- hirundo apus, or swift, of all birds, best ed tips of the wings. Absurd stories formed for flight; its feet are so short, have been told of its carrying away and its wings so long, that when it is children, and even cattle. This is on the ground, it cannot rise again ; it quite a mistake; for its talons are in therefore passes the greater part of its fact very weak, and, as Temminck ob- life in the air ; and when it has rested serves, faiblement crochus. We read for a short while on a wall, or on the some time ago a repetition of such tales, trees, it falls to recommence its flight." in a Tour through Switzerland, by that We have reason to discredit this. Let ingenious Frenchman, M. Simond. He M. Deleuze catch a swift, place it on probably never saw the bird in quese the ground, and see whether he or it tion. We beg to assure him, for the will rise highest within a given time. satisfaction of his family,“qu'ils man- We back the hirundo apus, or swift. gent sur la place, saus rein emporter “There is a white variety in this case ; dans leur serres, qui ne sont point pro- near it is the h. riparia, (sand marpres à saisir;" it is a wild, solitaryani- tin,) which builds its nest in the banks mal, and inhabits the steepest rocks of by the water side; it does not quit us the Swiss Alps. In the fifth case, we see in the winter, but plunges deep into the falco destructor, or great American the mud, where it remains torpid unharpy, of a size larger than the com- til the return of warm weather.” Is mon eagle ; it is considered as having this a fact, or an imagination ?- There the claws and beak stronger than any are seven hundred individuals of the orber bird ; but the power and veloa linnet and bunting tribes, belonging
to 150 species. Then follow the grosg- in the remotest ages. It is sometimes beaks and cross-bills; of which last eight feet high, lives in herds, in the the European species is remarkable sandy deserts of Africa, and is the for building its nest and hatching in swiftest of all running animals. They January, and for holding its food be- leave their eggs, which weigh three or tween its claws like a parrot. There four pounds, to be hatched by the heat are nine species of Paradise birds, of the sun in the tropical climates ; forming a magnificent series. In the but in colder regions they sit upon them 25th case may be seen, sixty-four spe- like other birds. In the thirty-secies of humming birds, and fifty-three venth case, there are nine species of creepers. In the same case is the bustard, three of which have not yet epimachus of New Guinea, one of the been described ; that of Europe lives rarest and most beautiful birds in the in plains, and uses its wings chiefly to collection. Passing to the twenty-sixth accelerate its course along the ground. case, we may observe thirty-four dif- The male, which is double the size of ferent species of kingfishers; and in the female, is very rare, and is the larthe twenty-seventh, no less than eighty- gest of European birds. After these come four various kinds of pigeon. In the 30 species of plover, and different kinds next division, there is an example of of ibis ; the most brilliant of which, is the wild peacock from Bengal, which the tantalus ruber, from Cayenne and is the origin of our domestic kind; Surinam. There is a fine series of this and to the right of it is another and bird in the Edinburgh Museum, shewdistinct species from Java, the same as ing the singular changes which the that fine specimen lately added to the colours of its feathers undergo, from Edinburgh Museum. The thirtieth the plumage of the young to that of case contains the turkeys. By compa- the adult bird. The 39th case conring the domestic species with the wild tains 50 species of the genera analoone sent by M. Milbert, from the fo- gous to the woodcock (scolopax.) The rests of Virginia, it will be seen that common woodcock, which, in Britain, domestication has deprived them of is a winter bird of passage, in several that metallic lustre which adorns their of the continental countries of Europe plumage in the native state. At the dwells on the mountains during sumbottom of the case is the meleagris mer, and descends into the plains in ocellata, a new species, described by autumn. In the 41st case, there are M. Cuvier. It is one of the most beau- 39th species of heron. Among the tiful birds known ; it comes from the cranes is the agami, or trumpeter, a Bay of Honduras, and is the only South American bird, which is frespecimen in Europe.
quently trained to protect and drive The thirty-second case exhibits a the barn-yard fowls, as dogs do sheep. series of the different varieties of do- There are thirty species of rails in the mestic poultry, and several wild spe- 45th case. By the side of the coots is cies from India and the Moluccas." It a very rare bird, which forms a genus cannot yet be decided from which of by itself, called the sheath-bill, (vathe latter our common barn fowls have ginalis, Lath,) on account of the sinsprung. Probably from more species gular form of its beak. There is nothan one. Temminck is decidedly thing known of the habits of this bird, against the claims of the Jungle Cock which is found in the Malouin Islands, to that honour. The Museum pos- whence it was brought by the natusesses ten species of pheasant, besides ralists attached to M. Freycinet's exthat rare bird the napaul, or horned pedition. Passing over several genera, pheasant from Bengal; of which there we come to the 50th and 51st cases, are several specimens in the Edinburgh which contain the longipennes. Some collection. The numerous family of of these have been met with 600 leagues the grouse, of which they possess fifty from land. The frigate birds are in nine species, entirely fills the thirty- the 53d case. Their wings, which fourth case. Among these is a white measure from 10 to 12 feet, are so quail, shot by Lewis the XVth, and powerful, that they fly to an immense presented by him to Buffon. The distance from land, especially between birds of the two next genera differ from the tropics ; they dart upon flying all other land birds, in being deprived fish, and strike the birds called boobies, of the power of Alight. The first is the to make them quit their prey. The ostrich, (struthio camelus,) celebrated tropic birds occupy the bottom of the case; they keep constantly in the tro. Of crustaceous animals, including pical latitudes, the approach to which the crabs, lobsters, &c. the Museum they announce to sailors. The swans possesses about 600 species belonging and ducks occupy the remaining four to 54 genera. cases of the gallery. The beak of the In regard to the collection of inwild swan is yellow at the base, and sects, we have already mentioned, that black at the extremity; it is a distinct prior to the new organization of the species from the domestic swan, which Museum, it contained very few anihas a red beak. The black swan from mals of that class. These came chiefNew Holland, and that with a black ly from the private cabinet of Reauneck sent from Brazil, by M. St Hil. meur. The great additions made of aire, are remarkable species. Among later years by Olivier, and many other the geese is an Egyptian bird, very scientific travellers, have now rendercommon in Africa. We see it often ed it equal to any in Europe. Inclurepresented on ancient monuments; ding the arachnides, (the spiders, scorit was worshipped for its attachment pions, &c.) it is composed of about to its young, and the Egyptians call- 50,000 specimens belonging to more ed it chenalopar, or fox-goose. The than 20,000 species, remarkable for ornithological department is termina their variety of form, and the wonderted by 78 species of the duck genus, ful instincts by which they are distinand the mergansers.
guished. Insects are equal to birils in The collection of reptiles is unques- the richness and splendour of their cotionably the richest in the world. It lours: They even surpass them in some consists of 1800 individuals belonging respects, particularly in regard to the to more than 500 species. But what phosphoric light which emanates from renders it of incalculable advantage to many species, and while they divide the student is, that it contains almost with them the empire of the air, they all the individuals from which the far exceed them in number, for their plates of Seba were copied ; and that tribes are even more numerous than it was from them that Linnæus com- those of plants. posed his descriptions. Here also are The researches of M. de la Marck on to be found the originals which served conchology have proved, that the chafor the work of M. de Lacépède. Our racters of a shell indicate those of the limits forbid our entering into any animal to which it belongs, as the gefarther detail.
nus of a quadruped is indicated by its The collection of fishes is also the teeth. Prior to this observation, shells most complete that anywhere exists were of little interest in zoology, as of that class of animals. It compre- the animals to which they belonged hends about 5000 specimens belonging were not thought of, and they were to more than 2200 species. It offers the collected chiefly as objects of an ornaelements of the classification which mental nature. The distinction beM. Cuvier has established in his Règ- tween terrestrial, river, and sea shells, né Animal, the type of the ichthyolo- and the comparison of those belonging gical memoirs which he has inserted to living subjects with those in a fosin the Annals—the far greater part of sil state in different strata of the earth, the fishes which M. de Lacépède has have also led philosophers to decide described or figured in his great work upon the origin of different forma-and almost all the known genera. tions. In consequence chiefly of the Of each species, it possesses generally numerous researches and the classifione preserved in spirits of wine, which cation of M. de la Marck, conchology affords the facility of examining its has become not only an important interior organization in case of neces- branch of zoology, but also one of the sity. The greater number of those principal bases of geological science. which are dried, have been covered The first shells in the cabinet were with a varnish which has revived the brought by Tournefort from the Lecolours; and they appear almost as vant, and presented by him to Louis brilliant, as they were some hours af- XV. When Buffon had the superinter being taken out of the water. tendance of the Garden, he obtained This collection has been newly arran- permission to have them deposited ged according to the method of Cu- there. Adanson presented those which vier, and all the species have been he had collected in Senegal-the speticketed with the greatest exactness. cimens which came from the cabinet of Reaumeur were likewise added, and, ving in peace, usefully occupied, consince the new organization, the travel- tented with their lot, attached to the ling naturalists have enriched it by place of their abode, and priding themnumerous collections from all quarters selves in its prosperity ; strangers to of the globe. In addition to the shells, professional rivalry and political disthere is a large assemblage of radiated sensions, and grateful at once to the animals, corals, sponges, &c.
government which supports, and the We shall terminate this summary administration which directs them. by a reflection of our amiable author's, May their joint efforts continue to be which will not fail to gratify those to guided by the same spirit of unanimiwhom the spectacle of social harmony ty, and those enlightened views, which and domestic felicity is not less inte have hitherto pervaded them ; and resting, than that of Nature. How every liberal mind will rejoice in apdelightful, amid the agitation of a plying to them the dying words of great city, to behold an establishment, Father Paul to the sacred institutions in which are united fifty famílies, li- of his country,-“Estote perpetuæ!"*
• In order to complete the history of this establishment, we shall here mention some additions which have been made to the Museum since the main body of the work, of part of which we have presented the preceding abridgment, was sent to press. M. Leschenault de la Tour, and M. Auguste de Saint Hilaie, returned a few months ago : Among the mammifera brought by the former, is the bear of the Mountains of the Gates, two apes of Ceylon, the paradoxurus typus, which was wanting in the cabinet, and also some fishes and reptiles of the Isle of Bourbon. The latter, who for six years had been travelling throughout Brazil and the settlements of Paraguay, from the 12th to the 34th degree, has taken notes upon all the animals, and has brought home one of the most considerable and curious collections, both of botany and zoology, that ever arrived at the Museum. The following is an extract from a report, by the professors to the Academy of Sciences :-“ The collection contains, Ist, 129 individuals of the mammifera, forming 48 species, of which 13 were not in the Museum.-20, 2500 birds, forming 451 species, of which 156 were not in the Museum. The greater number of these make us better acquainted with the birds described by Azzara.-3d, 21 reptiles.-4th, About 16,000 well preserved insects, of which M. Latreille judges there are 800 unknown.-5th, An herbal, composed of about 30,000 specimens, forming nearly 7000 species of plants in good preservation, two-thirds of which M. Desfontaines judges to be new, and which will furnish new genera, and perhaps new families.” M. Duvaucel, who continues his researches in India, has just sent home the skeleton of a very large elephant, a gangetic dolphin, more than six feet long, and a great number of birds, amongst which 43 species are unknown to the cabinet. From the same quarter a collection of fishes is ere long expected, amounting to 500 species, and 2000 individuals. From M. Leseur, have been received the greater number of the fishes and mollusca described by him in the Journal of Sciences of Philadelphia ; and M. Milbert has transmitted several unknown fishes from the lakes of the United States. Lastly, M. Dussumier, on his return from India, presented a gazelle of Bassora, a species of dolphin, and 28 species of birds not in the cabinet.
THE CONFESSIONS OF A FOOTMAN.
66 I've done the state some service." Mr Editor,
his Majesty's dominions. I will not SEEING that the world, through the occupy your time, sir, (for time I know medium of the Press, is rapidly be- is precious,) with complaining of the coming acquainted with the miseries nick-names bestowed upon us by both of all classes ; that drunkards, hypo- high and low ; of our being « Bone chondriacs, water-drinkers, and opi- polishers” with one party, “ Piebald um-chewers, are alike received with rascals" with another, and “ Bipeds," sympathy and commiseration ; I take (as I once heard a gentleman of peculeave shortly to address you upon the liar fancy express himself) —" Bipeds grievances of footmen; a set of men, I bedizened with lace," with a third ; aldo believe, more universally persecuted though, if we do polish bones, what is than any other body of artists within that but an argument against the cruel
ty of our masters, who allow us no tall enough for a trumpeter. Indeed, meat ? And for lace, Heaven knows there was a corporal of militia, as it we reap little advantage from that! was, that wanted to enlist me for a for, now-a-days, they make it almost drum-boy, and declared that the fife entirely of worsted! And, as for the was every way a prettier instrument livery-is it our fault that every de- than the trumpet. But I disliked the mi fortune driving fiddler will clothe uniform of infantry soldiers ; and, per. his kidnapped charity boy in a coat of haps, it was my fate to be first a counmany colours ? or what is such a coat try barber, and afterwards a London but a symbol, and usually, God help servant ; at all events, I resisted the us! too true a one, of the snubbings temptation of Corporal Stock's “ seand bodily inflictions, which said cha- ven guineas," and took my first degree rity boy is to suffer
in life with Mr Latherbrush, hair. And here, Mr Editor, I cannot help dresser of Birmingham. thinking, that the players and play “ From Indus to the Pole !”. writers of modern times help very much to delude the public, as to the condition Mr Latherbrush was a tradesman, of us servants. People of all ranks go who lived in the great square of Birto the theatre; and scarcely a new mingham, called “ The Bull Ring," play, or an after-piece, ever comes out and stood, as the folks said, in his now, but we find some footman in it, business, “something betwixt and be set up quite upon equal terms with his tween;" that was, between the avowmaster-represented to be as well ed tonsor of the canaille, Mr Snickchin, maintained, and often better dressed; and Frizzlewig, in New Street, who advised with, and rewarded, and treated used to dress the gentry. He wrote quite with familiarity. And the spec- up a motto over his door, which a tators, I do believe, many of them, sit schoolmaster gave him,looking sometimes at this roinance, un- “ Qui facere assuerat, til they fancy that what they have seen
Candida de nigris,” is a true picture of life, and that every with “ Perfumery from Paris," on one man who stands behind a carriage has side the window, and “ Walk in and the better of him that rides in it; be Shaved," on the other. He kept a while, in truth, Mr Editor, a footman chair in the open shop for the once-agets no more by the frippery that he week customers; had a little back parwears than a soldier, (as my tall bro. lour, with a fire in it, for the three-day ther in the 10th hussars used to say,) people; and took his penny for shathan a house soldier does by the fea- ving, with “ Thankye,” when twother and sheep-skin, with which he is pence was not forthcoming. loaded ; the dragoon having, indeed, atM y father apprenticed me to Mr one point, the worst of the compari. Latherbrush, in all the usual forms; son ; viz. that a good deal of his fop- and sixpence was paid down, as the pery is paid for out of his own pocket. nominal premium, for which I was to
But my wish is to reason with the learn the art of removing people's world about its treatment of serving- beards, without at the same time dismen—(pray, don't ever call them placing their noses ; the real “ consi“ Flunkies" any more, Mr Editor !) deration" of my indenture being, howand so, instead of wasting time upon ever, that I should wash the shaving grievances in the beginning, which cloths, and boil the potatoes ; sweep will be more than sufficiently illustra- the shop, and light the fires ; scour the ted in the close of my narrative, I saucepans, and make our beds; for Mr should rather tell you, at once, how it Latherbrush, who was a widower, happened that I joined the “ party- kept no female domestic. coloured” society. In sooth, Mr Edi- I entered upon these avocations with tor, my being a footman is a matter of a gay heart and ready hand; for I had accident. I began the world in quite read in an old volume of Gil Blas, a different lineas a barber's appren- which I borrowed from Corporal Stock, tice in Birmingham. When I was a of so many strange adventures, and lad I had always an ear for music; strokes of luck befalling barbers, that and was within an inch of becoming á I looked upon even the initiated of soldier like my brother, for I should the calling as a protected class of behave gone to India, to a certainty, if ings; the “ maguetic strap,” duly the serjeant of horse had thought ine wielded, seeming more potent to me