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religion, which lost all its strength and TROOPS, THE ENVOYS all its empire from the moment in METROPOLIS CONSECRATED, IN which Cainbyses violated the sanc VIRTUE OF A LAW, THE PROPYtuaries. overthrew the divinities, and LÆUM TO ISTS, MOST GREAT GODemptied the treasures; each declare DESS, AND TO THE GODS HONOURthat these temples contained the es ED IN THIS SAME TEMPLE, IN THE sence, so to say, of all, from which YEAR OF CESAR XXXI, THE COLemanated all.


LEGŁ OF PRIESTS TO THE EN" M. Denon's researches his observations, and his labours, were stopped by the eagerness of the shech of the listel of the

cornice : but M. De

“ There is another inscription on ihe village to deliver the neighbourhood of the presence of the French:

non was never able to distinguish the as soon as it was day-break he brought characters with the precision necesthe contributions; and the General sary for copying them: these few recalling the troops, M. Denon's ex- Grecian characters, in the midst of so

innumerable Egyptian inscriptions, pedition was terminated. " He had taken the copy of an in- appear extraordinary and contrase

tine. scription, sculptured in fair and large Grecian character, placed, like that

“The following are among the hieof Kûs, on the listels of the right and roglyphics on this temple: a sculpleft of the corona of one of the doors ture in the little temple, which is beof the circumvallation, to the south hind the greater, represents a figure of the temple: here follows the in- that appears to bear a club, on which scription, with the exception of some is a serpent, and which appears ready errors, produced by the destruction of to crush the little Orus, who is sucthe letters:

coured by the emblem of Isis, the

horns of a cow, the measure of the TPIEPAYTOKIATOPEKAIEPOSAOE Nile, signifying the inundation which OrriorAIDEEAETUL::U::: PAL saves the earth from the attempts of POTEPINIOTIAIOTOKTAIOYHTMON Typhon, that is, the wind of the de. OLKAIMAPKOTKANAIOTIIOITOM sert. On the walls of the great temΟΥΕΠΙΣΤΡΑΤΗΓΟΥΤΡΥΦΩΝΟΣΣTP ple, one of the two thousand sculp. ATHTOYNTOLOIATTOTHEMHTPOII tures represents Orus offering an oblaΟΛΕΩΣ :::'ΧΝΟΜΟΥΤΟΠΡΟΠΥΛΟ tion to 'Isis and Osiris, or the earth NIZIAOEAIMET THIKAITOILEIN returning thanks for the benefactions ΝΟΙΣΙΘΕΟΙΣΕΤΟΥΣΛAΚΑΙΣΑΡΟΣΟ of the heavens. On the portico is a ΩΥΘΣΕΒΑΣΤΗΙ. .

sculptured temple with a pediment. “Below is the same inscription, with the general absence of rain in Egypt,

It has been said, that on account of the words separated, and the letters that no pitched roofs hare belonged restituted by persons whom M. Denon has consulted, and the translation The representation of this pedimented

to the architecture of that country: which they have made :

temple is held by a person who is in ΥΠΕΡ ΑΥΤΟΚΡΑΤΟΡΟΣ ΚΑΙΣΑΡΟΣ ΘΕΟΥ

the act of making an offering, this ΥΙΟΥΔΙΟΣ ΕΛΕΥΘΕΡΙΟΥ ΣΩΤΗΡΙΑΣ POT

therefore was a yotive temple, ag EN portaior OKTAоrior HrEMONOE Egyptian temple, as may be judged ΚΑΙ ΜΑΡΚΟΥ ΚΛΩΔΙΟΥ ΠΟΣΤΟΥΜΟΥ ΕΙΙΙ

from its door, and possibly one erect. ΣΤΡΑΤΗΓΟΥ ΤΡΥΦΩΝΟΣ ΣΥΡΑΤΗΤΟΥΝΤΟΣ

ed in a country remote from Egypt. ΟΙ ΑΠΟ ΤΗΣ ΜΗΤΡΟΠΟΛΕΩΣ ΙΕΡΩΣΑΝ ΕΚ

With respect to the fourteen barks, ΝΟΜΟΥ ΤΟ ΠΡΟΠΥΛΟΝ ΙΣΙΔΙ ΕΕΑΙ ΜΕΓΙΣ- bearing fourteen balls or disks, it is ΤΗΙ ΚΑΙ ΤΟΥΣ ΣΥΝΝΑΟΙΣ ΘΕΟΙΣ ΕΤΟΥΣ possible that they signify the lunar

months: the number fourteen was consecrated. On the trieze of the door,

which is under the portico of ApolliEMPEROR CÆSAR, GOD, SON Of nopolismagna, at Edra, there are JUPITER, AUTHOR OF OUR LIBER fourteen divinities ready to ascend TY,

fourteen empty steps, which terminate BEING GOVERNOR, MARCUS CLAU at an astronomical sign, consisting of DIUS - POSTHUMUS COMMANDANT. an eye on the prow of a vessel in the GENERAL, TRYPHON, AND COM. disk of the moon, sustained by a prop MANDANT - PARTICULAR OF THE terminating in the flower of a lotus,





behind which is a little divinity. The that possibly signifies the earth, which same number of steps, the same num turns on its own axis ; on each ex. ber of divinities, the same sign, and tended hand of this figure is a disk, the same little god, are sculptured on containing the figure of Osiris, or the cach extremity of the ceiling of the sun at the tropics, approaching each portico of Tintyra, and on the steps pole in the progress of the year; and of the stairs, which ascend from the from the figure project rays, bearing platform of the cella to the plat. divisions of the year, and its induform of the portico. In the low-relief ences on the earth; in fact, a sort of of Apollinopolis the figures have their almanack. legs 'engaged; in that of Tintyra “ It is very difficult to conceive the they are alternately the figures of purpose of this little apartment, the men and the figures of women. In the ceilings of the several chambers of picture which occupies one half of the which we have just described : it may ceiling of the third chamber of the have been an oratory, an observatory, apartment, which is on the top of the a sanctuary, or a place of residence: 10 great temple, are three figures of wo. judge froin the subjects with which men, which, in a singular manner, it is sculptured, it might be believed stretch out their arms to reach a little to have been a place of study, sacred figure of Osiris. From the arms, which to astronomy, or, perhaps, it was proceed from the brain, it appears wholly devoted to the sepulture of that the Egyptians had conventional some illustrious personage, decorated signs, by which they expressed certain with the discoveries which resulted things, and to which they made the from the studies of his life. It is enmost sacred laws of nature and of tered by a little door, which opens art subservient; that the state of the into an apartment without a cover, arts among them must not be judged and which has the appearance of an of from their emblematical figures; inclosed court, adorned with the same that they had an art apart, but that it labour as the other parts. Against the was held within limits, and bound to lateral wall of the right chamber is consecrated purposes by rules ex- represented a couched mummy, unceedingly severe; whence it has hap- der which is a long inscription. A pened that their productions of un door from the court enters into the confined genius are so rare, that, be- chamber, on the ceiling, of which is fore the French expedition, it was the planisphere, and which is illuminot known that they existed. On the nated by two large casement winceiling of the chamber parallel to dows. The adjoining chamber is althat which contains the zodiac, is a most entirely dark, recuiving light picture containing the figure of a wo. only by its door, which opens from man of thirty feet in height, and the first chamber.". p.93–101. which possibly represents the year, a To this succeeds an account of conjecture which is supported by the Kefth or Kophtos, commencing with figures on her arms and her body; the following supposition : " Was here is a globe with legs, which may Kopthos the antique name of this signify the course of the earth and town? and have the Kopths taken the revolution of the year; the same their panie from Kopthos, in which globe, passing from the figure of the their zeal assembled them, and insun to another figure, may be the duced them to indure the obstinate earth between day and night ; a bent and disastrous siege in the time of figure in a globe, between a man and the persecution of Diocletian? The a woman, may be that of the earth, different ruins of two temples of high which presents one side to the day, antiquity are here evidently distinwhile it presents the contrary to guishable, as well as those of a Chrise night, and the man and woman 'may tian church, in which the taste and be Osiris and Isis, who superintend execution are certainly less worthy and regulile its movements; but all of remark than the magnificence and this is conjecture; the whole may be richness of the materials employed in something very different: the writ- its construction. The fragments of the ing which is about it, once under- columns and pilasters in porphyry stood, would probably discover the and granite, spread over an immense truth. Beneath the woman is a figure site, attest the opulence and luxury which turns its feet over its head, and of these primitive believers; but the

Vol. I.

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sculpture of the doric friezes, of which away by the wbirlwind; they were some relics remain, prove that art, at obliged to leave the water 'imnethis period, could only impoverish diately; their bodies, soiled and taskthe sumptuosity of the richest mate ed by the dust, were covered with a rials. The whole of these editices, re black mud, whicb forbad them to duced to a few layers of stones above clothe themselves. Illumined only by the ground, are without form, and a rust-coloured and gloomy lighi. incapable of furnishing a single sub- their eyes tortured with spicules. ject for a draught." P. 102, 103. their nostrils filled, their throats una

During M. Denon's stay in Egypt ble to moisten the dust which respihe experienced the effects of the ration forced them to absorb, they Kamseen, or hurricane, of which he lost one another, lost their way, and gives the following description, toge. arrived at their lodgings groping ther with an account of a cloud of their road, and only guided by the locusts which succeeded it. “ M. walls: it was at this moment that Denon had frequently heard mention they felt in the most lively inaeder of the Kamseen, which may be called what must be the misfortune of those the hurricane of Egypt and of the who are overtaken by this phenome. desert, and which is not more terri- non in the desert. ble in its results than in the spectacle “ So accustomed were they in it presents. Half the season in which Egypt to a constant serenity of the it occurs had passed, when, on the heavens, that this transition almost evening of the seventeenth of May, tempted them to accuse Provideace he felt himself as if swooning from a of cruelty. suffocating heat; the motion of the “ The next day the same mass of atmosphere seemed to be suspended. dust proceeded, with the same cis. At the instant in which he went to cumstances, along the desert of Egypt: bathe, as a remedy for this painful it followed the chain of the mour sensation, he was struck, on reaching tains, and when the French thought the bank of the Nile, with a sight of themselves delivered from it, the wese a novel nature: this was a light and terly wind brought it back, and subcolours which he had never before merged them again with this arid witnessed; the sun, without being torrent; the light scarcely pierced concealed, seemed to have been rob- through these opake clouds; all the bed of its rays; duller than the moon, elements seemed to be again disorit emitted only a white and shadow. dered, rain mingled itself with whirls less light; the water appeared mud- of fire, of wind, and of dust; and, at dy, and no longer reflected its rays; this moment, the trees, and all the every thing had changed its aspects other productions of organized na. it was the shore that was luminous ; ture, seemed re-plunged in the hor. the atmosphere was dull, and seemed ror of chaos. opake; a yellow horizon caused the “ If the desert of Libyia had sent trees to appear of a discoloured blue; these whirls of dust, the winds of the the flights of birds flew before the east had produced an inundatioa : clouds; the frighted quadrupeds fled the next day, merchants, who came into the country, and the inhabitants, from the shores of the Red Sea, re. who followed them hallooing, were ported that in the valleys they had unable to recollect them. The wind, found water up to the mid-leg. which elevated the enormous mass, "Two days after this disaster, infos. and which occasioned it to advance, mation was brought that the plain was had not yet reached M. Denon and covered with birds, which travelled in his friends; they thought that enter- close phalanxes, and descended ing the water, which was still calm, from the east to the west; from a would be a means of avoiding the distance they actually saw the fields mass of dust which was coming from seem to move, or at least that a the south-west; but scarcely had they torrent seemed to roli along the plain entered the river when ii suddenly in the direction mentioned Beliefswelled as if it would have left its ing that it was foreign birds who were bed, the waves passed over their on their passage in great numbers, heads, the earth nioved from under they hastened to xamine them ; but, their feet, their clothes fled with the instead of birds, they found a cloud of strand, which appeared to be carried locusts, who only skimmed aloog the

and, stopping at every blade of corn, legs, and the softened spring of his o devour it, and then flying to a fleshy foot, renders his trot more resh prey. In a season when the corn gentle, and yet as rapid as that of 3 delicate, this is a true plague : as the swistest horse." P: 112, 113. neagre, as active, and as rigorous The author observes in another is the Bedüins, they are equally a place, that the swiftness of the droyroduction of the desert: it would medary is such, that he himself rode je interesting to discover how they one at the rate of a league in less ive and re-produce in a region thus than a quarter of an hour. irid. It was, perhaps, the rain which We meet with the following aciad fallen in the valleys that had count of the ichneumon in this vowatched them, and produced this lume. " What is said of the antipamigration, as certain winds give thy of the ichneumon to the crocobirth to gnats. The wind having dile, and of its not only eating its changed to a direction contrary to eggs, but, when the mouth of the latthat of their flight, they returned ter is open, leaping into its throat into the desert. They are of a rose and devouring its intestines, is one of colour, speckled with black, wild, the ridiculous fables of which the strong, and difficultly caught.” crocodile is the subject. These two p. 103-106.

animals never have any occasion to M. Denon made a journey to Kos. quarrel; they do not' inhabit the seir, on the banks of the Red Sea, same shallows: there are no crocoand gives us the following account of diles in Lower Egypt; there are no the camel, which, slow as he is in his ichneumons in Upper. action, “in rising, lifts his hind legs «« The ichneumon, known also une with the greatest suddenness, as soon der the name of the rat of Pharaoh, as his rider is on bis saddle, throws is of the family of the mangoustes: he him first forward, then backward, and generally dwells among the reeds, it is not till after his fourth motion, and attects marshes near villages, when he is completely on his legs, from which he steals chickens and that he who mounts him finds him eggs: I have seen ichneumons of the self upright: no one sat out the first size of an otter, and with the same shock'; each laughed at his neigh- coat." p. 151, 152. bour; a second attempt was made, • Many descriptions of the remains and we departed.” p. 112.

of the ancient buildings of Egypt, On his journey he observes, “I and the hieroglyphical representahad dreaded the rolling gait of the tions which are still visible, are given camel, and the vivacity of the drome in the course of this work, but they dary had made me apprehensive of are too long for us to transcribe. being thrown over his head; but I The appendix contains illustrations was soon undeceived ; once on the of the map of Egypt, and of the saddle, nothing more is necessary plan of Alexandria, a short account of than to yield to the motion, and it is the country, and the measurement of presently found to be the best possi- the pillar of Pompey, with the means ble mounting for a long journey, and used for that purpose. so much the more so as it requires no attention, except when a new direction is to be taken, and this occurs but seldom in the desert, and in CXLI. Paley's NATURAL THEO. the march of a caravan. The cainel stumbles little, and falls never, unless

(Conclu led from page 552.) where there is water. The dromedaries are among cainels what grey

HAPTER XIII. Peculiar organihounds are among dogs; they serve zations. only for the saddle; they have a ring In this chapter the author gives inabulated between their nostrils, some curious descriptions from nathough which is passed a pack. tural history, particularizing the thread, which serves as a bridle for tough, strong, tendinous substance, stopping him, turning him, or causing braced from the head to the middle him to kneel down when his rider is of the back in large quadrupeds, desirous of descending. The pace of which is called by the butchers pax. the dromedary is quick. The width wax, the office of which is to assist of the angles formed by his long in supporting the weight of the head.



It is a mechanical provision, of which the mouth, it is so constituted, as, ir this is the undispuied use; and it is its inoffensive and quiesceat state, DE sufficient, and not more ihan suff- to interfere with the animal's ordinary cient, for the purpose which it has office of receiving its food.". 4. 263 to execute. The head of an ox or a The author then proceeds to the bore is a heavy weight, acting at the bag of the opossum, and the structure end of a long lever, (consequently of the class of certain birds, z. with a great purchase) and in a di- “ the middle claw of the beron and rection nearly perpendicular to the cormorant, which is toothed an joints of the supporting neck. From potched like a saw. These birds are such a force, so advantageously ap. great fishers, and these notches assist plied, the bones of the neck would them in holding their slippery prey." be in constant danger of dislocation, p. 267. if they were not fortified by this strong The stomach of the camel, the tape.' No such organ is found in the tongue of the woodpecker, and the human subject, because, from the tusks of the babyrouessa, or india erect position of the head, (the pres. hog, are noticed in succession. The sure of it acting nearly in the direc- last named animal has “ two bet tion of the spine) the junction of the teeth more than half a yard long, vertebræ appears to be sufficiently growing upwards, and, which is the secure without it. The care of the singularity, from the upper jaw. These Creator is seen where it is wanted. instruments are not wanted for deThis cautionary expedient is limited fence; that service being provided o quadrupeds.” p. 260, 261. for by two tusks issuing from the

The second instance is “ The oil under jaw, and resembling those of with which birds piune their feathers, the common boar. Nor does this and the organ by which it is gene. animal use them for defence. They rated; it is a specific provision for might seem therefore to be both a the winged creation. On each side superfuity, and an incumbrance. of the ruip of birds is observed a But observe the event. The animal small nipple, yielding upon pressure bitches one of these bent upper teeth a butler like substance, which the upon the branch of a tree, and thea bird extracts by pinching the pap suifers its whole body to swing from with its bill. With this oil or oint it. This is its manner of taking rement, thus procured, the bird dresses pose, and of consulting for its safety. its coat, and repeats the action as It continues the whole night suspendoften as its own sensations teach it that ed by its tooth, both easy in its posit is in any part wanted, or as the ex ture, and secure, being out of the cretion may be sufficient for the ex reach of animals which hunt it for pence.p. 261.

prey," p. 271. The air bladder of a fish is next Chap. XIV. Prospective contrinoticed, and the fang of a viper is thus described. “It is a perforated The subject of this chapter is thus tooth, loose at the root; in its quiet defined. The providing of things state lying down flat u; on the jaw, beforehand, which are not to be used but furnished with a muscle, which, until a considerable time afterwards. with a jerk, and by the pluck as it The human teeth, the milk of the were of a string, suddenly erects it. female parent, the eye, which is of Under the tooth, close to its root, no use at the time it is formed, and and communicating with the perfo- the lungs, are the instances by which ration, lies a small bag containing the the subject is illustrated. venom. When the fang is raised, the Chap. XV. Relations. closing of the jaw presses its root The author recurs to his original against the bag underneath; and the simile of the watch, and shews the force of this compression sends out correspondence of the different paris the fluid, and will considerable im to each other, and then proceeds to petus, through the tube in the middle describe the animal economy, noof the tooth.

ticing, “ ]. There are, what, in one " What more unequivocal or ef. form or other, belong to all ani. fectual apparatus could be devised mals, the parts and powers which for the double purpose of at once successively act upon their food. indicting the wound and injecting Compare this action with the process the poison? Yet, though lodged in of a manufactory. In man and qua


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