Obrazy na stronie

No 1. the largest, to No. 25, the smallest. In are taken out, and the filth washed off them with the manufacture of needles, German and Hun- hot water and soap: they are then wiped in hot garian steel are of most repute. Besides sewing- bran a little nioistened, placed with the needles needles there are, under the denomination of in a round box, suspended in the air hy a cord, needle, the netting and the knitting-needle; the which is kept stirring till the bran and needles glovers' needle, with a triangular point; the be dry. The needles, thus wiped in two or three tambour needle, which is made like a hook, and different brans, are taken out and put into fixed in a handle, the hook being thrust through wooden vessels to have the good separated from the cloth, the thread is caught under the hook, those whose points or eyes have been broken and the needle is drawn back taking the thread either in polishing or wiping : the points are with it.

then all turned the same way, and smoothed with In the making of them, the first thing is to an emery stone turned with a wheel. This pass the steel through a coal fire, and, under a operation finishes them, and there remains nohammer, to bring it out of its square figure into thing but to make them into packets of from a cylindrical one. This done, it is drawn through twenty-five to 100 each. a large hole of a wire-drawing iron, and returned Such was the former method of the manufacture into the fire, and drawn through a second hole of needles ; we shall now give a rather more of the iron smaller than the first; and thus suc- detailed description of the modern, and inncessively, from hole to hole, till it has acquired proved plan:-The wire when drawn to a prothe degree of fineness required for that species of per size, which is ascertained by gages, is made needles ; observing every time it is to be drawn up into coils for package: these coils of wire that it be greased over with lard, to render it are heated to a dull red-heat in a furnace, and more manageable. The steel thus reduced to a suffered to cool gradually, to soften and anneal fine wire, is cut in pieces of the length of the it, with a view of facilitating the working of the needles intended. These pieces, are flattened at steel ; this commences by cutting the wire into one end on the anvil, in order to form the head lengths, which is done by a pair of sheers. The and eye; they are then put into the fire to soften workman, being seated before a bench, takes, them further, and thence taken out and pierced perhaps 100 pieces of wire for fine needles, and at each extreme of the flat part on the anvil, by introduces their ends between the blades, which force of a puncheon of well-tempered steel, he opens with his right hand, and pressing the and laid on a leaden block to bring out, with ends of the wire against a gage, which renders another puncheon, the little piece of steel remain- them all of one length, he cuts them off, and ing in the eye. The corners are then filed off the they drop down into a tin pan placed on a small square of the heads, and a little cavity filed on shelf in front of the bench; the ends of the wire each side of the flat of the head; this done, the are now pressed against the gage and cut off point is formed with a file, and the whole filed again. In this way the wires are cut into the over: they are then laid to heat red-hot on a lengths of the required needles. The second long narrow iron, crooked at one end, in a char- operation is flatting the end for the eye of the coal fire; and, when taken out thence, are thrown needle, which is done by a workman taking into a basin of cold water to harden. On this three or four pieces of the wire between his operation a good deal depends; too much heat finger and thumb, placing them on a small anvil, burns them, and too little leaves them soft; the and striking one blow upon each expands the end medium is learned by experience. When they sufficiently to receive the point of the punch are thus hardened they are laid in an iron shovel which pierces the eye. This the same person on a fire more or less brisk in proportion to the does, before he lays them down, with a small inthickness of the needles; taking care to move

strument fixed on the same block as that to which them from time to time. This serves to temper the anvil is fixed. The end of the needle is them, and to take off their brittleness; great care placed in a small notch in the bed of the instruhere too must be taken of the degree of heat. ment, and is put exactly beneath the punch, and They are then straightened one after another a slight stroke of the hammer punches the eye, with the hammer, the coldness of the water used and at the same time forms the semi-circular in hardening them having twisted the greatest groove near the eye of the needle to bury the part of them.

thread. The notch which receives the needle The next process is the polishing them. To is made in a piece of steel which fits into a dovedo this they take 12,000 or 15,000 needles, and tail notch in the bed of the instrument, so that range them in little heaps against each other on it can be changed for a larger or smaller, corresa piece of new buckram sprinkled with emery- pondent 10 the size of the needles to be pierced. dust. The needles thus disposed, emery dust is The workman holds the needles in the same thrown over them, which is again sprinkled with manner as he did for fatting; and, placing them oil of olives ; at last the whole is inade up into one by one successively in the notch in the beda roll, well bound at both ends. This roll is piece, pierces them by striking a single blow of then laid on a polishing table, and over it a thick his hammer on the end of a slider; the slider is plank loaded with stones, which two men work immediately returned by a spring. He now backwards and forwards a day and a half, or two places the next needle under the punch, and, days, successively, by which means the roll thus when they are all pierced in the same manner, continually agitated by the weight and motion of he rolls them over by moving his thumb, so as the plank over it, the needles withipside being to turn them all half round, and bring them uprubbed against each other with oil and emery, wards the opposite side to that which was are insensibly polished. After polishing they pierced ; this being done, he repeats the punch

ing on the other side with a view to finish, and two needles in this operation ; one with a sharp clear the eye, and to form the groove which there point for perforating the coats of the eye,

and is in all needles. They are now rounded at the another with a more obtuse point for depressing cye-end to take off the roughness, which is done or couching the opaque crystalline lens ; bur in an instant by applying them to a guindstone. care should be taken in the use of any of these,

The next process is hardening and tempering: that they be first well polished with cloth or leathe first is done by placing a great number toge- ther before they are applied to the eye. ther upon a piece of iron bent up at the ends Mr. Warner observes that the blade of the and sides that they may not roll off, and, intro- couching needle should be at least a third part ducing them into a small furnace: when they larger than those generally used upon this occabecome of a red heat they are taken out, and sion, as great advantages will be found in the sudvenly plunged into a vessel of cold water; depressing of the cataract by the increased this renders them very hard. Some manufac- breadth of the blade of that instrument. The turers make use of oil, or tallow, or other ingredi- handle, also, if made somewhat shorter than ents instead of water, which substances are usual, will enable the operator to perform with supposed to improve the process. The needles greater steadiness than he can do with a largethus hardened are returned to the furnace with handled instrument. It is to be observed that the oil upon them, and remain there till the oil needles of silver pierce more easily in stitching intlames, when they are withdrawn, and again arteries after an amputation than those made of cooled in cold water. This second process steel. tempers them : at first they were quite hard, and We shall close this short article with an acsu brittle as to break with the slightest touch; count of a patent invention for the manufacture the tempering takes off the brittleness, but leaves of needles of all sorts by Mr. William Bell of them hard enough to take a good point. When Walsal, which we shall give in his own words. they are hardened in water, according to the old 'The method by which I make needles, bodkins, method, the heat for tempering them can only fish-hooks, kniiting-pins, netting-needles, and be guessed at, or estimaied by experience, but sail-needles, is by castins them with steel or the fanning of the oil is a much more certain me- common fusible iron, called pig or cast iron, thod. The needles are now examined, and many into moulds or Hasks made with fine sand. Or, of them will be found crooked by hardenins, otherwise, I make stocks or moulds of iron or which are discovered by rolling them over as steel, or any other composition capable of being they lie in rows on a board, and such are select- made into moulds, on which stocks or moulds I ed and made straight by a blow in the notch in sink, engrave, or stamp, impressions of the said the anvil. Being thus straightened they require articles. Into these I pour my melted iron or to be pointed, which is done by a large grind- steel (I prefer for my purpose sand casting), and stone turned by a miil, either of water or steam. prepare my iron or steel as follows: I melt it in In this operation the worhman, sitting astride a pot or crucible, in small quantities about the before the stone on a block shaped like a saddle, weight of twelve pounds (and upwards to twenty takes up twenty or thirty needles, laid side by pounds), the more conveniently to divest it of side across a small wooden roller, covered with its heterogeneous particles, and to purify it from soft leather; another similar ruler being laid over its earthy or sulphureous qualities. When the the needles to contine them. The workman holds iron has attained a proper heat, I take charcoalthe rulers in his hands, and thus, presenting the dust mixed with lime or common salt, which I ends of the needles to the grindstone, points throw into tlie pot of melted iron ; and, by frethem with great dexterity. After pointing they quently stirring it with an iron rod, I bring to are to be polished in the manner already de- the surface of the iron a scoria which I frequentscribed. The points are next tinished and ren- ly skim off, and thus bring my iron into a refined dered perfectly sharp, by grinding them upon a I then pour it into the mould before dewooden wheel covered with emery, being held scribed. The articles being thus formed are cain the same manner as for the first grinding. pable of being softened, hardened, or tempered They are then cleaned and packed up in certain in the usual way by which needles, bodkins, numbers according to their sizes. A great num- fish-hooks, knitting-vecdles, netting-needles, and ber of the small packets are made into larger sail-needles lave heretofore been manufactured: parcels, wrapped in scveral thicknesses of paper therefore the principal merit of my invention is and coverings of bladder aud packing-cloth, in in casting them instead of makin; them in the which state they are sent to market.

usual way.' Surgeons' needles are generally made crooked, Needles are said to have been first made in and their points triangular; however, they are England by a native of India in 1545, but the of different forms and sizes, and bear different art was lost at his death ; it was, however, reconames, according to the purposes they are useit vored by Christopher Greening in 1560, who for. The larvest are needles for amputation ; was setiled with his three children, Elizabeth, the next needles for wounds; the finest needles Jolim, and Thomas, by Mr. Damar, ancestor of for utures. They have others very short and the present lord Milion, at Long Crendon in flat for tendons; others still shorter, and the eye Bucks, where the manufactory has been carried placed in the middle, for tying together of vessels, on from that time to the present period. &c. Needles for couching cataracts are of various NEEDLE, DIPPING. See DuPPING Needls, hinds; all of which have a small, broail, and ('OMPASS, ELECTRO-MAGNETISM, &c. sharp point or longue, and some with a sulcus NEEDLE-FISII. See SYNGMATICS. at the point. Surgeons have sometimes used Needles, sharp pointed rocks, north of the


Isle of Wight. They are situated at the west NEGAPATAM, a town and citadel of Tanend of the island, which is an acute point of jore, once the capital of the Dutch possessions high land, from which they have been disjoined on the Coromandel coast. It stands at the by the washing of the sea. There were of these mouth of a river, capable of receiving vessels lofty wbite rocks formerly three, but about four- which draw little water ; but there is a bar over teen years ago the tallest of them, called Lot's which the surf breaks with great violence in bad Wik, which rose 120 above low water mark, weather. South-east of the town, at the distance and in its shape resembled a needle, being of five miles, there is a shoal above five miles in undermined by the constant efforts of the waves, length, having from three to six fathoms water totally disappeared.

in it. The anchoring place is opposite the Needle's Eye, a subterranean passage on the town, about three miles from shore, where there coast of Banffshire, 150 yards long from sea to is very little current. Negapatam was a small sea, but through which a man can with diffi- village, first fortified and improved by the Porculty creep. At the north end of it is a cave tuguese. It was taken from them by the Dutch twenty feet high, thirty broad, and 150 long, in 1660, who strengthened its fortifications, and containing a space of 90,000 cubic feet. The established a mint here. By degrees its trade whole is supported by immense columns of increased, and the town was resorted to by rock, is exceedingly grand, and has a surprising merchants from all parts of the world. In 1781 effect on the spectator, after creeping through it was captured by the British; and, at the ratithe narrow passage.

fication of the peace in 1783, was formally NEELGUR, a town of the province of Orissa, ceded; since which the fortifications have been Hindostan, in the district of Cuttoch. It gives neglected, and much of the trade transferred to name to a range of hills which extend west from other places. North of the town stands a large Midnapore.

pagoda, or Hindoo temple, on which is erected NEES E, v. n. Goth. nesa, the nose. Dan. a flag-staff, which in clear weather may be seen nyse ; Belg. neisen. To sneeze; to discharge at six or seven leagues distance. Long. 79° 55* flatulencies by the nose.

E., lat. 10° 43' N. He went up and stretched himself upon him; and NEGARA, a town of the island of Borneo, the child neesed seven times and opened his eyes. and capital of the kingdom of Banjar Massim,

2 Kings iv. 35.

situated on the east side of a large river which By his neesings a light doth shine, and his eyes runs into the sea : 100 miles from the sea, and are like the eye-lids of the morning. Job xli. 18.

sixty north from the town of Banjor Massim. NE Exent Regno, in law, is a writ to re- NEGA'TION, n. s. Fr. negation ; Lat. strain a person from going out of the kingdom

NEGʻATIVE, adj. & n. s. negatio. Denial ; dewithout the king's license. It may be directed

NEGʻATIVELY, adv. scription or argument to the sheriff to make the party find surety that by denial, absence, exclusion, or exception : nehe will not depart the realm, and on refusal, to gative is denying; not positive; having the commit him to prison; or it may be directed to power to deny or withhold ; a proposition or parthe party himself; and if he then goes he may ticle of denial : negatively follows the senses of be fined. And this writ is granted on a suit the adjective. being commenced against a man in the chancery, The fathers draw arguments from the Scriptures when the plaintiff fears the defendant will fly to negatively, in reproof of that which is evil; Scripsome other country, and thereby avoid the just- tures teach it noi, avoid it therefore. Hooker. ice and equity of the court; which has been Denying me any power of a negative voice as king, sometimes practised; and, when thus granted, they are not ashamed to seek to deprive me of the lithe party must give bonds to the master of the berty of using my reason with a good conscience. rolls, in the penalty of £1000, or some other

King Charles. large sum, for yielding obedience to it; or

A purer substance is defined, satisfy the court, by answer, affidavit, or other

But by an heap of negatives combined ;

Ask what a spirit is, you'll hear them cry, wise, that he has no design of leaving the king

It hath no matter, no mortality.

Cleavelund. dom, and give security.

It may be proved in the way of negation, that NEFA'RIOUS, adj. Lat. nefarius. Wicked; they came not from Europe, as having no remainder abominable.

of the arts, learning and civilities of it. Heylyn. The most nefarious bastards, are they whom the To this I shall suggest something by way of answer law stiles incestuous bastards, which are begotten be- both negatively and positively. tween ascendants and descendants, and between col. When I asked him whether he had not drank at lateral, as far as the divine prohibition extends. all? he answered negatively.

Boyle. Ayliffe's Parergon. Consider the necessary connection that is beNEFASTI Dies, in Roman antiquity, an tween the negative and positive part of our duty.

Tillotson. appellation given to those days wherein it was not allowed to administer justice or hold courts. Of negatives we have far the least certainty ; they They were so called, because, non fari licebat, are usually hardest, and many times impossible to be the prætor was not allowed to pronounce the proved. three solemn words or formulas of the law, do,

The former being as the root and stock, the latter

as the fruits and flowers of the duty: unto which dico, addico, I give, I appoint, I adjudge. These days were distinguished in the calendar may be reduced the correspondent negations, or abby the leiter N. for nefastus; or N. P. nefastus in respect to the same objects.

sence of bad judgments, affections, and deportments, primo, when the day was only nefastus in the

There is another way of denying Christ with our forenoon, or first part. The days of a mixed mouths which is negative, when we do not acknowkind were called intercisi




ledge and confess him.



I shall show what this image of God in man is, mined in algebraic computations: and fis negatively, by showing wherein it does not consist ; the proper use of the rules concerning the e and positively, by showing wherein it does. Id.

without which the operation could not procOur assertions and negations should be yea and Because a quantity to be subtracted is nie nay, for whatsoever is more than these is sin.

produced in composition by any repeated z

Rogers. Chance signifies, that all events called casual, tion of a positive, or repeated subtraction among inanimate bodies, are mechanically and negative, a negative square number is a naturally produced according to the determinate produced by composition from the root. Be figures, textures, and motions of those bodies, with 7 – 1, or the square root of a negative, iar this only negation, tlrat those inanimate bodies are

an imaginary quantity; and, in resolutior, not conscious of their own operations.


mark or character of the impossible cases Negation is the absence of that which does not na- problem, unless it is compensated by a turally belong to the thing we are speaking of, or imaginary symbol or supposition, when which has no right, obligation, or necessity to be whole expression may have a real significa present with it; as when we say a stone is inanimate

, Thus 1 tv – 1, and 1 – V – 1 taken or blind, or deaf. The use of the negative sign is attended with se solation of a problem impossible, in some ca NEGATIVE SIGN, in algebra. See Algebra. parately, are imaginary, but their sum is a

the conditions that separately would render veral consequences that at first sight are admitted destroy each others effect when conjoined with difficulty, and has sometimes given occasion the pursuit of general conclusions, and of se to notions that seem to have no real foundation forms representing them, expressions of tids i This sign implies that the real value of the must sometimes arise where the imaginar quantity represented by the letter to which it is bol is compensated in a

manner that is : prefixed is to be subtracted; and it serves, with always so obvious. By proper subsutat

. the positive sign, to keep in view what elements however, the expression may be transfzi. or parts enter into the composition of quantities, into another, wherein

each particular tere and in what manner, whether as increments or have a real signification as well as the w decrements (that is, whether by addition or subtraction), which is of the greatest use in this art. briefly discovered by the use of this ma

expression. The theorems that are some In consequence of this it serves to express a quantity of an opposite quality to the positive, operation, or some other way; and, thouzy s

may be demonstrated without it by the issa as a line in a contrary position ; a motion with an opposite direction; or a centrifugal force in symbols are of some use in the compati opposition to gravity; and thus often saves the be said to depend upon arts of this kind. I

by the method of Auxions, its evidence au trouble of distinguishing, and demonstrating

ALGEBRA. separately, the various cases of proportions, and

NEGELSTADT, a sniall town of Pres preserves their analogy in view. But as the proportions of lines depend on their magnitude Saxony, in Thuringia, ten miles south

Muhlhausen. Population 800. only, without regard to their position, and motions and forces are said to be equal, or un- Psalms, as Psalm lxvii. It signifies stre

NEGINOTH, a term prefixed to some equal, in any given ratio, without regard to their instruments of music, to be played on top directions; and in general the proportion of quantity relates to their magnitude

only, without singers, or women musicians; and the title determining whether they are to be considered those psalms where this word is found me as increments or decrements ; so there is no

thus translated : A psalm of David 19 ground to imagine any other proportion of — 6 master of music, who presides ofer the stra

instruments. and + a (or of — 1 and + 1) than of the real magnitudes of the quantities represented by b

NEGLECT, v. a. & n. s. Latin nestes and il, whether these quantities are, in any par


To omit care ticular case, to be added or subtracted. It is NEGLECT'FULLY, adv. the same thing to subtract a decrement, as to


less scorn; dei add an equal increment, or to subtract — b from

NEGLECT'IVE, adj. a -- b, as to add + b to it; and, because multi

NEG'LIGENCE, n. s. plying a quantity by a negative number implies

NEG'LIGENT, adj. only a repeated subtraction of it, the multiply


adv. this kind, or an * ing — b by — n, is subtracting — b as often as stance of such treatment; the adjective and ał there are units in n; and is therefore equivalent verb corresponding : neglection is the states to adding + b so many times, or the same as being negligent : neglective, inattentive to : neg adding + nb. But if we infer from this that i ligence, habit of carelessness or neglect ; also s: is to

- nas - b to n b, according to the rule instance of such conduct : negligent, careles that unit is to one of the factors as the other heedless; scornful; sometimes taking of before factor is to the product, there is no ground to

the object. imagine that there is any mystery in this, or any My sons, be not now negligent ; for the Lord other meaning than that the real magnitude re- hath chosen you to stand before him. presented by 1, n, b, and n b are proportional. For that rule relates only to the magnitude of If he neglect to hear them, tell it unto the chardi. the factors and product, without determining whether any factor, or the product, is to be added We have been negligent in not hearing his voice. or subtracted. But this likewise must be deter

ly; treat with her

postpone : 23

substantive i means treatment

2 Chron. ixis. II.

Bar. I.





I have been long a sleeper ; but I trust

ranges of buildings for cinnamon store-houses My absence doth neglect no great design,

and barracks. Many Dutch families reside in Which by my presence might have been concluded.

the town; its other inhabitants are persons from

Shakspeure. different parts of the east. The women, though I have perceived a most faint neglect of late, which dark, are said to be very handsome. The viciI have rather blamed as my own jealous curiosity, nity produces cinnamon and rice in abundance; than as a very pretence or purpose of unkindness.

and the gardens are well stocked with vegetables.

Id. King Lear. Sleeping neglection doth betray to loss

It was taken by the British in 1796. Long. 79° The conquests of our scarce cold

49' E., lat. 7° 19' N.

NEGOʻCIATE, v. a. Fr. negocier, of Lat. She let it drop by negligence,

Negocta'tion, n. s. > negotium. To have And, to th' advantage, I being here, took't up. Nego'ctator.

amicable intercourse Nd.

respecting public or private business: a negociaInsects have voluntary motion, and therefore tion is a parley or treaty relating to such busiimagination; and whereas some of the ancients

ness : negociator he who conducts it. have said that their motion is indeterminate, and their imagination indefinite, it is negligently ob

Have you any commission from your lord to negoserved: for ants go right forwards to their hills, and ciate with my face?

Shakspeare. bees know the way to their hives.

Oil is slow, smooth, and solid ; so are Spaniards Bacon's Natural History.

observed to be in their motion: Though it be a quesI wanted not probabilities sufficient to raise jea- tion yet unresolved, whether their affected gravity lousies in any king's heart, not wholly stupid, and and slowness in their negotiations have tended more neglective of the public peace.

Howard. King Charles.

to their prejudice or advantage ? it is a vain tempting of God to cast ourselves upon have many reasons to persuade, they strive to use

It is a common error in negotiating ; whereas men an inmediate provision, with neglect of common

Bp. Hall,

them all at once, which weakeneth them. Age breeds neglect in all, and actions

A steward to embezzle those goods he undertakes Remote in time, like objects remote in place,

to manage ; an embassador to betray his prince for are not beheld at half their greatness. Denham.

whom he should negociate ; are crimes that double This my long suffering and my day of grace

their malignity from the quality of the actors. Those who neglat and scorn shall never taste.

Decay of Piety. Milton.

They that receive the talents to negotiate with, did Of all our elder plays,

all of them except one make profit of them. This and Philaster have the loudest fame; Great are their faults, and glorious is their fame.

They ceased not from all worldly labor and negoti

White. In both our English genius is exprest, Lofty and bold, but negligently drest. Waller.

I can discover none of those intercourses and nego

tiations, unless that Luther negotiated with a black Rescue my poor remains from vile neglect,


Atterbury. With virgin honors let my herse be deck’t,

Those who have defended the proceedings of our And decent erblem. In comely figures ranged my jewels shone,

negotiators at Gertruydenburg, dwell much upon Or negligenily placed for thee alone.

their zeal in endeavouring to work the French up to Id.

their demands; but say nothing to justify those deIf the father caress them when they do well, and mands.

Swift. show a cold and neglectful countenance to them upon

As soon as this correspondence was concluded, doirgill, it will make them sensible of the difference. the rupture of the negociation was made known in

Locke on Education.

England by a declaration, which, while any sense of Though the Romans had no great genius for trade, honor remains in the English nation, may always be yet they were not entirely neglec:ful of it.

recollected with pride and satisfaction. Canning. Arbuthnot on Coins.

NEGRAIS Isle, an island of the Birman Let stubborn pride possess thee long, And he thou negligent of fame;

empire, with an excellent harbour, situated at the With every muse to grace thy song,

western mouth of the Irrawaddy River. The westMay'st thou despise a poet's name.

ern point is called Cape Negrais, and is known

Buiti's Miscellanies. by a temple of Boodh erected on it. This island Her daughters see her great zeal for religion ; but was occupied by the British so early as the year then they see an equal earnestness for all sorts of 1697, and it was supposed that it would comtinery. They see she is not negligent of her devotion ; mand the whole of the Pegue trade, and form a but then they see her more careful to preserve her

secure harbour for ships during the monsoons ; complexion. Despondency has never so far prevailed as to de. but, the former idea proving fallacious, the settle

ment was withdrawn. In 1757, Alompra, the press me to neglect. Johnson. Preface to Dictionary.

Birman emperor, formally ceded the island to There are certain forms and etiquettes in life, the English, who, in consequence took posseswhich, though the neglect of them does not amount sion of it in August of that year; but in October to the commission of a crime, or the violation of a 1759 the place was suddenly attacked, and all duty, are yet so established by custom, as to pss into the British who could not effect their escape statutes, equally acknowledged and almost equally were put to death. Since that period the Birbinding to individuals, with the laws of the land, or mans will not permit any ships to pass up the the precepts of morality.


Bassein branch of the river. Cape Negrais, the NEGOMBO, a large town on the west coast south-west point of this island, is in long. 94° of Ceylon, and well situated for inland trade, 14' E., lat. 16° 1' N. particularly with Columbo, by a branch of the

NEGRO, n. s. Span, and Ital. negro; Fr. Mullivaddy River. It has a fort, and three negre of Lat. niger, black. A black man



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