Obrazy na stronie

44. curvo dignoscere rectum,] 'falsehood.' 48. non responsura lacertis.] Not destined to match the strength of Augustus. (See S. ii. 7. 85, n.) In the first engagement at Philippi (A. U. c. 712), Brutus defeated the forces of Augustus, and got possession of his camp, while M. Antonius on the other hand defeated Cassius, who destroyed himself. But twenty days afterwards a second engagement went against Brutus, and he likewise put an end to himself. Brutus attached to his cause the young Romans studying at Athens, and the battles and wanderings he led them through are related by Plutarch in his Life (c. 24, sqq.).

'Curvum' is used here like 'pravum,' for

51. Et laris et fundi,] Laris' is equivalent to domus.' As to the difference between 'domus' and 'fundus,' see S. ii. 5. 108, n. Horace's patrimony was forfeited because he was of the republican party. He says nothing of the scribe's place which Suetonius says he bought (with what means does not appear), nor does he mention how he got his pardon and permission to return to Rome. He only says he was driven by poverty to write verses, which therefore he first wrote for fame, that is, to bring himself into the notice of those who were able to relieve his wants, as Mæcenas did. It is impossible to tell what he wrote at first. It is probable that he suppressed much of his early poetry.

53. Quae poterunt unquam] The 'cicuta,' Kάvetov, hemlock, was used as an antifebrile medicine. Horace asks what amount of 'cicuta' would be sufficient to cool his veins, if he were so feverishly bent upon writing as to do so when he could live without it.

60. Ille Bioneis sermonibus] _ _Bion was born on the Borysthenes, and was hence called Borysthenites. He flourished about the middle of the third century B. C. He studied philosophy at Athens, and, after passing through various sects, became at last a Peripatetic. It is said he wrote certain books on the follies of mankind of a very bitter character. As 'sal' is put for wit (S. i. 10. 3), 'sale nigro' means coarse wit.

61. Tres mihi convivae] He treats his friends, all asking him for different sorts of verse, as guests at a dinner each liking different fare, so that he does not know what to give them.

67. Hic sponsum vocat,] This is a repetition of S. ii. 6. 23.

68. cubat hic in colle Quirini,] As to 'cubat,' see S. i. 9. 18, n. Mons Quirinalis was in the sixth, or most northern division of the city; Mons Aventinus, in the opposite quarter, the thirteenth region.

70. Intervalla vides humane commoda.] A pretty convenient distance, you see.' 'Humane' is not used in this ironical way elsewhere.

71. Purae sunt plateae,] This is a supposed answer, the rejoinder to which is in v. 72. 'Platea' is a less general name than 'vicus.' It applies only to the broader streets. The word, being derived from the Greek λareîa, would properly have its penult long. It suits Horace to shorten it. As to the obstructions in the streets of Rome, the best of which were but narrow, see Epp. i. 6. 51, n. 'Purae' means unobstructed.

72. redemptor,] See C. ii. 18. 18, n.; iii. 1. 35, n. 'Calidus' only strengthens festinat,' he is in hot haste: the substantives are in the ablative, 'cum' being omitted.

73. machina] Probably a pulley raising a large stone or beam for the upper part of a building, and swinging it over the heads of the passengers. As to funera,' see S. i. 6. 43, n.

77. amat nemus] See C. i. 1. 30, n. Compare Juvenal (vii. 53, sqq.). 80. contracta sequi vestigia] To follow the confined steps of the poets,' by which he means that the poets walk in a path narrowed by fixed rules; and that it requires thought and diligence to tread in their steps.

81. vacuas desumpsit Athenas,] See Epp. i. 7. 45, n. for 'vacuas.' Horace

the man who has retired to study, as he had done at Athens, and has himself up for several years, and got dull over his books and his medins, cannot open his lips when he gets to Rome, and is only laughed at he people for his sobriety. This is an odd defence for one who had ten so much as he had done at Rome. It is meant for a joke. Septem s' is not to be taken literally, as if Horace had been seven years at ens, which is very improbable, but for any considerable number. He only twenty-two when he joined Brutus, A. U. c. 711.

7. Frater erat Romue] Who these brothers were Horace does not tell us, it does not matter. One was a jurisconsultus (see S. i. 1. 9, n.), and the er a teacher of rhetoric. The lawyer said the rhetorician was a perfect cchus for eloquence, and he returned the compliment by declaring that brother was a second Scævola for legal learning. And this sort of mu1 flattery goes on, Horace says, among poets, and he cannot keep pace h their passion for praise. Tiberius Gracchus and his brother Caius were h, in Cicero's opinion, great orators. We need not therefore attempt to ide which Horace means us to understand here. Q. Mucius Scævola the gur, son-in-law of C. Lælius, and an early instructor of Cicero (Lael. c. 1), learned in the law; but his namesake and younger contemporary, the ntifex Maximus (mentioned in the same treatise), was more celebrated l. This name, therefore, like that of Gracchus for oratory, stands for a summate jurist.

88. meros audiret honores,] Compare Epp. i. 7. 84, "vineta crepat mera." 90. argutos] Compare iv. 6. 25: "Doctor argutae fidicen Thaliae." It eans melodious, and is a sort of mock compliment.

92. Cuelatumque novem Musis opus] It is likened to a perfect piece of rved work, in which all the Muses had a hand.

93. quanto molimine] This expresses the pompous strut with which they ss the library of Apollo, in which they take it for granted a place is rerved for them. As to aedem,' see S. i. 10. 38.

95. procul] This word signifies any distance, great or small. Here it eans hard by, as in S. ii. 6. 105; Epp. i. 7. Quid ferat' means what ch has to say. 97. Caedimur et totidem plagis] They carry on such a contest of mutual attery, that they are like two gladiators, each trying to get the better of the ther. 'Samnites' were a particular class of gladiators, so called because hey wore the same arms as that people, particularly an oblong shield. See -. ii. 6. 44, n. 'Ad lumina prima' would be usually till the second course, when the lights were brought in. Among the amusements that rich men had t their dinners were gladiators who fought with blunt weapons; and here he contest is said to be protracted ('lento') till the lights came in. It was - long trial of skill.

99. puncto illius;] In his judgment or by his vote. When an election ook place, there were certain persons called 'custodes' appointed to take he votes and prick off the number given for each candidate. From this process votes came to be called 'puncta.' See A. P. 343, n.

101. Fit Mimnermus] See Epp. i. 6. 65, n. Horace seems to think him superior to Callimachus, who was a grammarian and voluminous prosewriter as well as a poet, a native of Cyrene, and established at Alexandria in the reigns of the Ptolemies, Philadelphus and Euergetes, in the third century B. C. 'Optivo,' signifying 'desired,' does not occur elsewhere.

105. impune legentibus] He says, when he has done writing and recovered his senses (which was the same thing), he should stop his ears, and they might recite without fear of reprisals. See Epp. i. 19. 39.

113. Verba movere loco,] The notion of the censor is kept up. See note on S. i. 6. 20.

114. Et versentur adhuc] This is a way of saying that the verses, though they may be expunged, still are kept in the author's desk, because he has a regard for them, and cannot make up his mind to destroy them. The sanctuary of Vesta could only be entered by her own priestesses, and Horace calls his desk 'penetralia Vestae' because it was private.

116. speciosa vocabula rerum,] 'Expressive terms'; words which make themselves intelligible at once. So in A. P. 319 a play is said to be 'speciosa locis,' that is, 'plain in its points,' its commonplaces or sentiments clearly put.

117. Catonibus atque Cethegis] As to the use of the plural number, see note on S. i. 7. 8. M. Porcius Cato Censorius was born about B. c. 234, and was therefore contemporary with Ennius, with whom he is associated, A. P. 56, as successfully importing new words into the language. Fragments remain of his treatise De Re Rustica, embracing a variety of instructions on husbandry and subjects connected with domestic economy; and of his Origines, an account of the early history of Italy. There are also fragments of his orations, which Cicero appears to have studied (Brutus, c. 17). He had the highest opinion of Cato, and complains that he was not studied enough even in his day. M. Cornelius Cethegus was older than Cato, since he was curule ædile when Cato was no more than twenty. His eloquence was such that Ennius called Cethegus "Suadae medulla, orator suaviloquenti ore.” (Cic. Brut. c. 15; Cat. Maj. c. 14; see Epp. i. 6. 36, n.) But it does not appear that any of his orations were extant in Cicero's time, for he only mentions them on the authority of Ennius, who had heard him speak. His reputation was sufficient at the time Horace wrote, for him to name him twice as an authority on the language (see A. P. 50, n.).

119. quae genitor produxerit usus.] Usus' is custom,' which has always been the parent of novelties in language. Compare A. P. 70, sqq.

120. Vehemens] The first two syllables are pronounced as one. Compare S. i. 5. 67.

123. virtute carentia tollet,] 'He will remove what lacks merit.' He will work hard to produce a result which shall appear playful and easy, the turns being as easy as those of the 'mimus,' who dances either the light measure of the nimble Satyr, or the clumsy dance of the Cyclops (on which see S. i. 5. 63, n.). The poet's art is to conceal his art, and to make that appear easy which has cost him a good deal of trouble.

126. Praetulerim scriptor] This is supposed to be the remark of one who would be a poet without the necessary trouble. He would rather be pleased with his own bad verses, even though he might be deceiving himself, than be so learned and be perpetually vexed with himself. 'Ringere' is properly applied to the grinning of a dog when it snarls.

128. Fuit haud ignobilis Argis,] Sir Henry Halford furnishes a parallel story (Essays, p. 61): "One case, that of the gentleman of Argos, whose delusion led him to suppose that he was attending the representation of a play, as he sat in his bedchamber, is so exact, that I saw a person of exalted rank (George III.) under those very circumstances of delusion, and heard him call upon Mr. Garrick to exert himself in the performance of Hamlet."

131. Caetera qui vitae servaret] "Though he observed all the other duties of life."

134. Et signo laeso] The 'amphorae' or 'lagenae' were sealed with the owner's seal when they were filled. Horace says that the man was not one who would get furious if he found the slaves had opened a 'lagena,' and drunk the contents. See C. iii. 8. 11. 12.

135. puteum vitare patentem.] Wells were usually surrounded with a wall ('puteal') two or three feet high. See Dict. Antt.

cognatorum opibus] See S. ii. 3. 217, n., and as to 'elleborum,' see that Satire. Meracus' is generally applied only to wine. Nimirum sapere est] See Introduction.

quod quis libra mercatur et aere,] There was a mode of sale which ed 'per aes et libram.' A third person held a pair of scales (libra'), he purchaser touched with a piece of money, at the same time laying d on the thing purchased. According to a set form of words he the thing as his own, and handed the money to the seller as a token sum agreed upon. This form of purchase was called 'mancipatio.' ler was said 'mancipio dare' (to which 'mancipare' in this place is ent), and the purchaser was said 'mancipio accipere.' A man might - owner of 'res mancipii' by having been in possession for a certain s much as if he had received it by 'mancipatio.' Hence 'usus' is nancipare,' because the effect is the same whether a man got his ship by usus,' that is, possession, or by 'mancipatio.' 'Usus' here that sort of possession which consists in the enjoyment of the fruits by for them. Before 'quaedam,' 'si' must be supplied again.

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villicus Orbi,] Who is meant by Orbius, if anybody, it is impossible He had landed property and sold the produce. As to 'villicus,' op. i. 14. 1, n.


cadum temeti:] Temetum' is an old word signifying 'wine.' See . trecentis- nummorum millibus] Three hundred sestertia.' Taking lue of the 'sestertium' at 8/. 17s. 1d., this sum would be 2,656/. 5s. of sh money.

· Emptor Aricini quondam] Emptor quondam,' as Orelli says, is alent to 'is qui quondam emit,' he who buys at any time.' As to a, see S. i. 5. 1, n. The old Veii had long ceased to exist. It had replaced (whether on the same site or not is uncertain) by a new city,

again fell into ruin in the civil wars. Julius Cæsar divided its lands ng his soldiers. It appears, however, that Augustus restored it, and e it a municipium.

0. qua populus adsita certis Limitibus] Usque' in this verse is an adof place, not of time. It means all the way up to where the poplar ds.' There were many different kinds of private boundaries, as, for ince, a stone or an image of the god Terminus, with a tree or a clump ted near it, such as Horace alludes to. A ditch or a hedge, a stream or ■, and many other marks, were sufficient to define the limits of property, prevent neighbors from quarrelling ('vicina refugit jurgia').

7. Quid vici prosunt] Vicus' is used for any collection of houses. cus urbanus' was a street in the city; 'vicus rusticus,' a village. Here ppears to mean a villa with the adjoining cottages.

Calabris Saltibus adjecti Lucani,] 'Saltus' expresses 'pastures,' wooded otherwise, on hills or in valleys and plains. Those of Calabria were low without wood; those of Lucania were among the hills. See Epod. 1.


80. Tyrrhena sigilla,] Small images of the gods, of Etrurian workman

in bronze.

181. Gaetulo murice] See C. ii. 16. 35, n.

182. Sunt qui non habeant,] See C. i. 1. 3, n.

184. Herodis palmetis pinquibus,] Herod the Great derived a large revenue m the woods of palm which abounded in Judæa. They were most thickly anted about Jericho and on the banks of the Jordan. The date-palm is at which most abounded there.

187. Scit Genius] See Epp. i. 7. 94, n. 'Albus et ater' signifies 'cheerand gloomy.'

192. Quod non plura datis] 'Because he finds that I have not left him more'; lit. because he finds not more than what I have left him'; in short, he gets less than he expected.

193. simplex hilarisque] 'A guileless cheerful man,' and so liberal. He says he is anxious to learn the difference between such a one and a prodigal, and between the thrifty and covetous, and of course to act the part of the former of the two in either case. 'Plura' means 'more than enough.'

197. festis Quinquatribus olim,] The Quinquatria was a festival in honor of Minerva, held on the 19th of March and four following days. Boys had holidays during this festival, that they might pay their devotions to Minerva, the goddess of learning.

199. domus] This word is omitted, and an imperfect verse given in some MSS. It has no meaning here. The best MSS. vary, and the commentators seem agreed to give it up without being able to find out what Horace really wrote. (See note on C. iv. 6. 17.)

205. Non es avarus: abi;] 'You are no miser: go to; what, do all your faults vanish with that?' See Forcell. for a variety of uses of ‘abi.'

209. Nocturnos lemures] The belief in ghosts was as common with the ancients as with the superstitious among ourselves. The spirits of the dead were worshipped as Manes, Lares, Lemures, and Larvæ. Under the two former names were recognized the spirits of the good (see Epp. ii. 1. 138, n.); the other two represented cruel spirits coming up to terrify and torment the living. The Thessalians had the credit of extraordinary power in magic and drugs. (See C. i. 27. 21; Epod. 5. 45.)

210. Natales grate numeras?] 'Are you happy when you count up your birthdays?' that is, 'Are you content to see yourself advancing in life and drawing near the end of it?' As to ‘natales,' see S. ii. 2. 60, n.; C. iv. 11. 8, n.

213. decede peritis.] If you do not know how to live properly, go off the stage and give place to those that do.'

216. lasciva decentius aetas.] 'A time of life which may be wanton with less indecency'; that is, youth, to which it is more natural."


THERE are no internal evidences, at all fit to be trusted, of the time when this poem was written, or of the persons to whom it is addressed. They are three in number, a father and two sons.

The poem professes to contain a history of the progress of poetry, and rules for composition, with criticisms of different authors and different styles. The rules are miscellaneous, and have little or no method, and the history is more fanciful than real. It is impossible to look upon it as a finished poem.

1. Humano capiti] The picture supposed is monstrous enough; a woman's head and a fish's tail, with a horse's neck, limbs from all manner of beasts, and feathers from all sorts of birds. This portentous medley (invented of course by himself, for we are not bound to suppose he had ever seen a pic

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