Obrazy na stronie

ever been, and will probably continue to be, will hardly require to be told, there existed attendant on having outstripped contemporary in full force a great many egregiously foolish opinion. There was hardly a question on acts of Parliament, called diversely acts against which Dean Tucker was not distinctly in ad- Forestalling, Regrating, Badgering, and Exvance of his time. Though a strenuous de- grossing, but all passed with the same silly fender of religion against the infidel attacks purpose of putting senseless restraints on which were then so common, he was not less trade, by preventing the merchant or specalathe eager advocate of universal toleration. tor from purchasing corn or other provisions, He wrote against drunkenness, against sports in market or on their way to market, and involving cruelty to the brute creation, and selling them again in the same place, or against war. Nothing was too grand, nothing within four miles of it. The professed object too mean, if it affected a single human was to prevent any unfair enhancement of interest, for the wise word he had to utter. the prices of provisions ; the almost invariable His great argument for trade against territory, result was to empty the markets of provisions in which he warned the sovereigns of Europe altogether; and never were the magistrates, that the proper cultivation of the land of their in their fulness of ignorance, so bent on own countries inappreciably exceeded in im- putting in force the law against Forestalling, portance any amount of acquisition of waste as at those times of pinch and pressure when land in other countries, was followed by his nothing but that very law obstructed relief. " earnest and affectionate address to the A crisis of this kind occurred, and happened common people of England on their barbarous to be sorely felt in Bristol, where a scarcity of custom of cock-throwing on Shrove Tuesday." corn was threatened; whereupon straightway He was the first to defend the naturalization assembled the sapient justices to give inof foreigners, to point out the necessity of a mediate effect to the legislation described, and union with Ireland, to denounce the impolicy were surprised to see Doctor Tucker assume of the existing restraints against interchanges for the first time his privilege of magistrate, with that country, to resist the taxation and take his seat on the bench beside them. which then fell so heavily on the industrious " Why, gentlemen," said the dean, " what are and the poor, to oppose every kind of monopoly you going to do? How can you expect to whether of corporations or trading companies, have any corn at all, if you mean to punish to declare the navigation laws a clog upon the only persons perhaps that will bring you commerce, to propose a plan for getting rid any?". This home-thrust bad its effect; and, of slavery, to call for the opening of canals, says a contemporary account of the incident, to point out what advantages would result" the markets were immediately supplied with from the establishment of a warehousing corn.” For the dean's great principle, pursystem, to urge the necessity of improvement sues the same authority (a writer in a magain the high roads, to cry out against that zine of the time) about trade and commerce is, East India Company in which we only now that they will ever find their level; that begin to detect an injustice too monstrous for what commodities are wanted, and can be continuance or sufficiently ripe for redress, to paid for, will always be had ; that a nation insist on the wisdom of permitting the free will always go to the best and cheapest maresportation and importation of grain, and to ket for what they have occasion for ; and that advocate perseveringly in its largest sense neither political friendship nor enmity have free trade among all the nations of the earth. anything to do with these matters, but that “ Ah !” exclaimed Doctor Johnson one day they are regulated by utility and convenience." at Thrale's ; "another pamphlet by Tucker. A very simple and sufficient creed, which The dean always tells me something which I it took nearly a hundred years more to make did not know before." Yet it was but a manifest to English statesmen, short time after, that the dean was burnt in Happily the dean had not to wait so long effigy in his native town of Bristol, because before his view of the American quarrel resomething in one of his pamphlets (it was an ceived its ample justification. He did not argument for the naturalization of the Jew) live, indeed, to see that country enlarged and had given high offence on 'Change, where less raised by Independence from thirteen colonies tolerance for originality prevailed than in the to thirty-one, and from three millions to thirtylarge heart of Samuel Johnson.

five millions of population ; but his life was Nevertheless Doctor Tucker lived to see his spared till sixteen years after the treaty of townsmen make something better than a Guy Paris ; and when, on the Duke of Portland's of him, though of themselves perhaps some-installation at Oxford in the summer of 1793, thing worse ; for he lived to see a shouting mob the Dean of Gloucester, then between eighty unyoke the horses from his carriage, against and ninety years of age, entered the theatre his remonstrance, yoke themselves instead, with his brother doctors, the whole assemand draw him into Bristol in triumph. It blage welcomed with acclamation, on esel was a wonderful change, and brought about of the three days of the ceremony, the in a curious way. In those days, the reader venerable man whose advice, if timely taked,

would have saved the useless bloodshed of aid. Of equal importance is a perception of more than a hundred thousand of the Saxon the public requirement, so as to give it as race, and an addition to the English debt of much as it wants, and not much more than it more than eighty millions sterling.

wants ; since it is not the business of an enAnd as Mr. Curwen himself was still living cyclopædia to form the public taste or discover at the time, in his native town of Salem, we novelties, but to digest existing knowledge. may perhaps presume that even he had grown That this has been done by the Encyclopædia to be much more tolerant of Dean Tucker and Britannica in a literary sense, is proved by its his opinions, as a citizen of the American Re- long success. public, than when he first heard them in Some facts in connexion with its form of Bristol as a loyalist exile and refugee. publication will show the attention paid to the

quantum suff From the Spectator.

It was first published in three volumes, 4to, TIE NEW ENCYCLOPÆDIA BRITANNICA.* 1771 ; next in ten volumes, in 1778 ; in eighteen

volumes, in 1797 ; to which was added the SupThe test of more than eighty years, the plement, in two volumes, by Bishop Gleig, in exhaustion of five-and-thirty thousand copies | 1801 ; this was followed by an edition in twenty in seven impressions, and the demand for an volumes, in 1810, and other two editions during eighth edition, speak more for this national the succeeding ten years ; to which was added publication than any criticism can do. To the celebrated Supplement in six volumes, 4to, deserve success may be meritorious ; but it is edited by Professor Napier, commenced in 1815 more satisfactory to be successful. Desert in and finished in 1824. The Seventh Edition, & pursuit argues good intentions ; success in which was completed in 1842, embodied whatever the same pursuit, a just perception of the remained valuable in the previous editions and object in view, and the means of attaining it. in the Supplements. The proprietors, in their prospectus to this The eighth edition opens with the celenew edition, point with justifiable pride to brated Dissertation of Dugald Stewart on the the eminent names that have been connected Progress of Metaphysical and Ethical Phiwith the Encyclopædia Britannica; but a band losophy, to be followed by Mackintosh upon of great writers does not suffice to attain suc- the same subject, with a new preface by cess where great writing is not the first ob- Whewell. To these will succeed the Disserject. Names nearly if not quite as eminent tations on Mathematical and Physical Science may be found connected with different ency- by Playfair and Leslie; while Forbes will clopædias — as Coleridge, Arnold, and others, continue Physics to the present time, and the in the Metropolitana; but, however celebrated Archbishop of Dublin, in a new dissertation, that work may be, its sale was not equal to will handle the most popular subject of the its fame. The priınary object of an encyclo- whole," the Rise, Progress, and Corruptions pædia is reference. We recur to it for in- of Christianity," All capital things, if not formation, not instruction. The man who perfectly encyclopædic, except Stewart's artiwishes to study a science or master a subject cle, which fulfilled in some degree the purmay find better teachers for his particular pose of a preface. That these, however, are purpose, perhaps must take a wider range merely tit-bits thrown in, and that the genthan any digest of this kind can offer him. eral excellence and utility of the work will Great names are as a feather in the cap, and not be sacrificed to the "starring" system, if the p:ipers are of a merit proportioned to may be inferred from this passage of the prothe writer's fame, they are good as an attrac- spectus :tion ; but the permanent support is from humbler labors. That encyclopædia will be the vision and extensive correction. Articles ren

The Eighth Edition will undergo careful remnost enduring which gives the most of what dered imperfect by the lapse of time will be subwe want when we look for it, and in the way mitted for improvement to writers intimately we want it. When we take down a volume conversant with the respective subjects, whilst of an encyclopædia, we require an answer to other articles will be superseded by entirely new a question, or the resolution of a doubt. All contributions, and subjects not formerly embraced beyond this is a gain, but of the nature of a in its pages will be added. garnish, which will not of itself maintain the work. To do this effectually, a well-digested plan Gregory Shortcommons, M. A.

Wanted a Curate; a Satirical Poem. By is the first necessity, and of course competent

A clever enough poetical jeu d'esprit, and not • The Encyclopædia Britannica, or Dictionary at all bitter or exaggerated, considering that the of Arts, Sciences, and Miscellaneous Literature. satire is a succession of versified advertisements Eighth Edition, greatly improved. Edited by for curates — though some images are rather of Thomas Stewart Traill, M.D., F.R.S.E., Professor things understood than avowed. There is not of Medical Jurisprudence in the University of much of art or strength in the affair. — SpectaEdinburgh. Pulished by Adam and Charlos Black. I tor.

From Household Words.

furnished during the last five years from CHLOROFORM.

private and hospital experience. A few fig

ures, howerer, will suffice. The deaths after The recent occurrence of a case of sudden great amputations of the ordinary kind (not death after the administration of Chloroform painless), calculated for the half-century, in a London hospital reminds us that we are were found in the tables collected by Mr. now fairly entitled by the lapse of time to Phillips, relating to hospital and private prae pass a very distinct judgment on the value of tice, to be thirty-five per cent. In Dr. Simp this drug as an anæsthetic agent. The case son's estimate, calculated from hospitals to which we have just referred was the first alone, they were twenty-nine per cent. The fatal issue within the practice of the Hospital per centage, computed from all cases in which in which it occurred, although Chloroform had an anæsthetic agent had been used, was found been administered in the establishment to to be reduced to twenty-three. After ampusixteen hundred patients.

tations of the thigh the deaths used to be in Under an indiscriminate use of ether, sev, Paris, according to Malgaigne, sixty-nine in eral deaths followed : not many months had a hundred; in the Edinburgh Infirmary, acelapsed before there were nine cases on record cording to Peacock, forty-nine per cent. ; in of death from the effects of ether, so applied all practice, according to the general tables by the surgeon, without reckoning two or of Phillips, forty-four in a hundred ; at Glastiiree accidents. A reaction began to set in ; gow, according to Laurie, thirty-six ; in all some gave up the use of the new agent; English and Scottish hospitals, according to others attempted to discover the substances Simpson, thirty-eight, while, by the use of that should be as efficient and less dangerous. painless operations, the percentage of morMany substances were found to be more or tality has been reduced to twenty-five. less available (all containing carbon), but A few deaths directly occasioned by the use none were capable of superseding ether until of Chloroform or ether are, therefore, no, Dr. Simpson of Edinburgh, in November, more to be adduced as arguments against the 1847, published the merits of Chloroform to employment of those agents, than a few — or the profession. Experiments had been made

a great many

deaths by railway, are arguwith that substance by M. Flourens, the ments for the complete abolition of the railFrench physiologist, upon animals, in the way system. Chloroform and railways are preceding March ; but Professor Simpson both blessings to humanity; but it is requistands alone as the establisher of Chloroform site that they should both be managed carein the position which it now holds in the med- fully. It is a fact very much to the credit of ical profession. Its use spread rapidly ; no the medical profession that instances of accidoubt the more rapidly, because Dr. Simpson dent by Chloroform are so much rarer than taught that it should be applied upon a hand- railway accidents. kerchief without the use of any apparatus, When we before discussed this subject, we and his invention was, therefore, spared the mentioned those cases in which especially heavy clog which had been attached to the Chloroform or ether should not be employed; use of ether by the instrument-makers. Ether but, we repeat - as it is a kind of information as little required machinery of brass and which it is advantageous for the Chloroformglass as Chloroform ; but people fancied that inhaling public to bear well in mind - that it did. Chloroform was, therefore, at once the use of such agents is rarely safe in the highly recommended by the ease with which case of persons suffering under disease of the it was to be administered.

brain or spinal marrow; of the heart or lungs, The death of Hannah Greener at Newcastle, having an intermittent pulse; or when they who had been in great fear of Chloroform, are in a weak and pallid bodily condition. and died in two minutes after its use, first Experience also shows that fatal results have impressed people with the idea that even often followed the adıninistration of ChloroChloroform was not to be respired without form to persons who had exhibited a decisive great precaution. Accidents were however and unaccountable dread of it. This is a few, and instances of striking benefit almost curious fact which we may account for as we innumerable: the use of Chloroform spread please, either by some theory of instinct, or therefore over Europe, and in the five and a by some superstition of the fore-cast shadow half years that have elapsed since its intro- of approaching fato. duction, the whole number of cases in which it has produced death does not amount to

The Star in the Desert. By the Author of more than fisty, while the number of cases in

“ A Trap to Catch a Sunbeam," &c. which life has been saved, by sparing to the The restoration of a wife banished by her hussystem of a sick person the shock often at- band on account of his pride of birth, and the tendant upon a painful operation, are to be conversion of the husband himself from infidelity, numbered certainly by thousands.

are the subjects of this little tale. It is wellThis we are now able to prove by tables managed and prettily told. — Spectator.

From Household Words.


niche over the fire-place. Whenever they GABRIEL'S MARRIAGE.

saw him look in this direction Gabriel and the young girl shuddered and crossed themselves ;

and even the child who still kept awake One night, during the period of the first imitated their example. There was one bond French Revolution, the family of François of feeling at least between the old man and Sarzeau, a fisherman of Brittany, were all his grandchildren, which connected his age waking and watching at an unusually late and their youth unnaturally and closely tohour in their cottage on the peninsula of gether. This feeling was reverence for the Quberon. François had gone out in his boat superstitions which had been handed down to that evening, as usual, to tish. Shortly after them by their ancestors from centuries and cenhis departure, the wind had risen, the clouds turies back, as far even as the age of the Druids. had gathered ; and the storm, which had The spirit-warnings of disaster and death, been threatening at intervals throughout the which the old man heard in the wailing of whole day, burst forth furiously about nine the wind, in the crashing of the waves, in the o'clock. It was now eleven; and the raging dreary, monotonous rattling of the casement, of the wind over the barren, heathy peninsula the young man and his affianced wife and the still seemed to increase with each fresh blast little child who cowered by the fire-side, that tore its way out upon the open sea ; the heard too. All differences in sex, in temperacrashing of the waves on the beach was awful ment, in years, Superstition was strong to hear ; the dreary blackness of the sky enough to strike down to its own dread level, terrible to behold. The longer they listened in the fisherman's cottage, on that stormy to the storm, the oftener they looked out at it, night. the fainter grew the hopes which the fisher Besides the benches by the fire-side and the man's family still strove to cherish for the bed, the only piece of furniture in the rooin safety of François Sarzeau and of his younger was a coarse wooden table, with a loaf of son who had gone with him in the boat. black bread, a knife, and a pitcher of cider

There was something impressive in the placed on it. Old nets, coils of rope, tattered simplicity of the scene that was now passing sails, hung about the walls and over the within the cottage. On one side of the great wooden partition which separated the room rugged black fire-place crouched two little into two compartments. Wisps of straw and girls; the younger half asleep, with her head ears of barley drooped down through the in her sister's lap. These were the daughters rotten rafters and gaping boards that made the of the fisherman ; and opposite to them sat floor of the granary above. their eldest brother, Gabriel. His right arm These different objects and the persons in had been badly wounded in a recent encounter the cottage, who composed the only surviving at the national game of the Soule, a sport members of the fisherman's family, were resembling our English football ; but played strangely and wildly lit up by the blaze of the on both sides in such savage earnest by the fire and by the still brighter glare of a resin people of Brittany as to end always in blood- torch stuck into a block of wood in the chimshed, often in mutilation, sometimes even in ney corner. The red and yellow light played loks of life. On the same bench with Gabriel full on the weird face of the old man as he sat his betrothed wife - a girl of eighteen lay opposite to it, and glanced fitfully on the clothed in the plain, almost monastic black figures of Rose, Gabriel, and the two chiland wbite costume of her native district. She dren; the great gloomy shadows rose and fell, was the daughter of a small farmer living at and grew and lessened in bulk about the some little distance from the coast. Between walls like visions of darkness, animated by a the groups formed on either side of the fire- supernatural spectre-life ; while the dense place, the vacant space was occupied by the obscurity outside spreading before the curtainfoot of a truckle bed. In this bed lay a very less window seemed as a wall of solid darkold man, the father of François Sarzeau. His ness that had closed in forever around the haggard face was covered with deep wrinkles ; fisherman's house. The night-scene within his long white hair flowed over the coarse the cottage was almost as wild and as dreary lamp of sacking which served him for a pil- to look upon as the night-scene without. low, and his light gray eyes wandered inces For a long time the different persons in the santly, with a strange expression of terror and room sat together without speaking, even withsuspicion, from person to person, and from out looking at each other. At last, the girl object to object, in all parts of the room, turned and whispered something into Gabriel's Every time when the wind and sea whistled ear. and roared at their loudest, he muttered to “ Rose, what were you saying to Gabriel ?" himself and tossed his hands fretfully on his asked the child opposite, seizing the first wretched coverlid. On these occasions, his opportunity of breaking the desolate silence eyes always fixed themselves intently on a doubly desolate at her age - which was prelittle delf image of the Virgin placed in a served by all around her.

terrible game

“I was telling him," answered Rose sim- with terror, his hands were stretched out conply, “ that it was time to change the bandages vulsively towards his grandson. The White on his arm ; and I also said to him, what I Women!” he screamed. • The White Wohave often said before, that he must never men ! the grave-diggers of the drowned are play at that

of the Soule out on the sea !” The children, with cries again.

of terror, llung themselves into Rose's arms ; The old man had been looking intently at even Gabriel uttered an exclamation of horRose and his grandchild as they spoke. His ror, and started back from the bedside. Still harsh, hollow voice mingled with the last soft the old man reiterated, “ The White Women! tones of the young girl, repeating over The White Women! Open the door, Gaand over again the same terrible words : briel ! look out westward, where the ebb tide “Drowned ! drowned! Son and grandson, has left the sand dry. You 'll see them bright both drowned ! both drowned !”

as lightning in the darkness, mighty as the “ Hush ! Grandfather,” said Gabriel, “ we angels in stature, sweeping like the wind over must not lose all hope for them yet. God and the sea, in their long white garments, with the Blessed Virgin protect them!" He looked their white hair trailing far behind them ! at the little delf image, and crossed himself ; Open the door, Gabriel ! You 'll see them the others imitated him, except the old man. stop and hover over the place where your Ile still tossed his hands over the coverlid, father and your brother have been drowned ; and still repeated “ Drowned ! drowned !”. you 'll see them come on till they reach the

Oh, that accursed Soule !groaned the sand ; you'll see them dig in it with their young man,

“ But for this wound I should naked feet, and beckon awfully to the raging have been with my father. The poor boy's sea to give up its dead. Open the door, life might at least have been saved ; for we Gabriel — or, though it should be the death of should then have left him here."

me, I will get up and open it myself!”. "Silence !” exclaimed the harsh voice from Gabriel's face whitened even to his lips, the bed. “ The wail of dying men rises but he made a sign that he would obey. It louder than the loud sea ; the devil's psalm- required the exertion of his whole strength to singing roars higher than the roaring wind! keep the door open against the wind, while be Be silent, and listen! François drowned ! looked out. Pierre drowned! Hark! Hark!”

“Do you see them, grandson Gabriel ? A terrific blast of wind burst over the Speak the truth, and tell me if you see them,” house, as he spoke, shaking it to its centre, cried the old man. overpowering all other sounds, even to the “I see nothing but darkness — pitch darkdeafening crash of the waves. The slumber-ness," answered Gabriel, letting the door close ing child awoke, and uttered a scream of again. fear. Rose, who had been kneeling before '“ Ah! woe! woe!" groaned his grandher lover, binding the fresh bandages on his father, sinking back exhausted on the pillow. wounded arm, paused in her occupation, “Darkness to you; but bright as lightning to the trembling from head to foot. Gabriel looked eyes that are allowed to see them. Drowned ! towards the window ; his experience told him drowned ! Pray for their souls, Gabriel - I what must be the hurricane fury of that blast see the White Women even where I lie, and of wind out at sea, and he sighed bitterly as dare not pray for them. Son and grandson he murmured to himself, “God help them drowned ! both drowned !" both man's help will be as nothing to The young man went back to Rose and the them now !"

children. i Grandfather is very ill to-night,” “ Gabriel !” cried the voice from the bed he whispered. - You had better all go into in altered tones very faint and trembling. the bedroom, and leave me alone to watch by

He did not hear, or did not attend to the him." old man.

He was trying to soothe and en They rose as he spoke, crossed themselves courage the trembling girl at his feet. before the image of the Virgin, kissed hiin " Don't be frightened, love,” he said, kiss- one by one, and, without uttering a word, ing her very gently and tenderly on the fore- softly entered the little room on the other head. “You are as safe here as anywhere. side of the partition. Gabriel looked at his Was I not right in saying that it would be grandfather, and, saw that he lay quiet now, madness to attempt taking you back to the with his eyes closed as if he were already farm-house this evening ? You can sleep in dropping asleep. The young man then that room, Rose, when you are tired - you heaped some fresh logs on the fire, and sat can sleep with the two girls.”

down by it to watch till morning. Very “ Gabriel ! brother Gabriel!” cried one of dreary was the moaning of the night-storm ; the children. “0! look at grandfather!” but it was not more dreary than the thoughts

Gabriel ran to the bedside. The old man which now occupied him in his solitude had raised himself into a sitting position ; his thoughts darkened and distorted by the terri. eyes were dilated, his whole face was rigid ble superstitions of his country and his race.

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