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ļiamentary entail of 7th James I. and been purchased at a hundred and is, in a variety of respects, extremely twenty, or a hundred and forty seers severe in its operation, from the title for a ropee, was re-delivered to black to and value of the island being totally merchants at the rate of fifteen seers misunderstood at the time the trans- for a rupee. This enormous effort of action took place, has, since he came avarice was 'sufficient to reduce the of age, made several applications for inhabitants of India, whose chief food sedress, which it has been found ne- is rice, to utter despair ; when their cessary to discontinue, from new distress was increased by the burning Inaiter arising in the course of bis in- of several granaries, in which the vestigations relative to this island; black merchants bad deposited their and his grace having obtained from purchases. The nabob and great men his inajesty a commission for inquire of the country having exhausted their ing into the nature of his complaints, stores in benevolent donations to the and the situation of the island, and a poor, and the fields no longer afford. report having been made generallying the means of subsistence, the ci, in favour of his grace's allegations, it ties were thronged with starving mulis understood that he is preparing to titudes, who in the agonies of death apply for a full consideration of his implored a termination of those micase, in order to the attainment of series from which they were not perredress from the honour, justice, and mitted to hope relief.” p.3, 4. equity of the imperial parliament." The interference of parliament in p. 578-580.
the concerns of the company next Volume II. Chap. XX. 1770—1774. follows, and the measures adopted by -This chapter introduces the affairs the committee of the house of comof India, and states the disastrous mons is detailed. The conduct of circumstances of the company at Lord Clive is investigated, who inakes home and abroad, which are attri- bis defence, points out many gross buted to “ the remoteness of the court abuses practised in India, and recomof directors from the country sub- mends a remedy for them. The conjected to their government, and the test with the Caribs of St. Vincents avarice of their servants. Their dis- comes next under view, and occupies tresses were increased by the loss of some space. The chapter closes with the supervisors, who were sent out noticing that “ a bill was again from this country, and the failure of brought in, though considerably al. the crops of rice in the year which tered from that of last year, for relief succeeded the improvident and ruin- of the protestant dissenters. It was ous war with Hyder Ally. By the last debated in an animated inanner, in circumstance a famine was produced the House of Commons, and passed t; in India, and the author introduces bụt was rejected by the Lords f. Sir the practice of some Europeans, which William Meredith also made a moneeds only to be read to excite hor- tion relative to subscribing the thirtyror and disgust. Notwithstanding nine articles at the time of matricuthe strict prohibitions of the court of lation in the universities; but after a directors against the interference of long debate it was negatived. their servants in the inland trade, this « On this occasion the following opportunity was eagerly seized by observations are said to have been interested and unprincipled indivi- made by Lord Chatham. Dr. Drumduals to enhance the public misery, mond, Archbishop of York, having and accumulate immense fortunes called the dissenting ministers . men from the groans of famine and de- of close ambition, Lord Chatham spair. When the state of the season accused him of judging uncharitably. made it apparent that the crop of rice • Whoever brought such a charge would be generally defective, the against them defamed-Here he English capitalists became eager pur- paused, and then proceeded— The chasers; and such was the effect of dissenting ministers are represented their pernicious industry, that the natives, before they apprehended the * A seer is the fortieth part of a maund; extent of their combinations, were a maund an undetermined quantity ; in Benalready exposed to the pressure of gal it is from 72 to 80 pounds; a seer may distress, and complained to the na- therefore be estimated about iwo pounds. bob that the English bad eogrossed
+ 154 to 145. all the rice. A traffic of unexampled
| Contents 26- Proxies 2-Non-contents
65. iniquity now began; rice, which had
as men of close ambition. They Chap. XXIX. resumes the narra. are so, my lords; and their ambi- tion of transactions in America, chietis • tion is to keep close to the college stating the operations of the war, and • of fishermen, not of cardinals, and the declaration of independency by to the doctrine of inspired apo- the Americans. stles, not to the decrees of interested Chap. XXX. 1776, 1777. –This * and aspiring bishops.—They con- chapter relates the transactions of • tend for a spiritual creed, and spi- parliament, and the attempt to barn • ritual worship. We have a Calvi- the royal arsenals, for which James
nistic creed, a Popish liturgy, and Aitken, known by the name of Joha an Arminian clergy.' This debate the Painter, was executed. The subis not reported, and for this speech jects of debate in parliament were, I have no authority, except a report on the proclamation at New York of Burke's speech on the 2d of March, -The suspension of the habeas cor1790, in Debrett's Parliamentary Re- pus-Lord Chatham's motion to register, vol. xxvii. p. 179." p. 48, 49. dress the grievances of the Ameri.
Chap. XXI. 1771 — 1774.– The cans, and to allow them the disposal origin of the war between Russia and of their own money-And the arrears the Porte is the first subject in this of the civil list-On presenting the chapter, which is followed by the bill granting the supply for the royal preparations made by France, under assent, Sir Fletcher Norton addressed pretence of defending Sweden, but the king in a speech which produced from the spirited conduct of Eng. the thanks of the house of comland she is deterred from hostilities. mons, and the most decided approbaThe state of Ireland, and the oppo- tion—The state and views of foreign sition in that country is noticed--A- powers with respect to Great Brimerican affairs are then detailed tain. The measures of the assembly of New Chap. XXXI. 1776, 1777.–The England, and their opposition to the extensive powers granted to Wash. governor-The tumultuous state of ington is the first subject in this Boston, and the violent proceedings chapter, followed by his proclamation of the inhabitants, are the subjects and the state of his army.-The supwhich occupy the close of this chap- plies received from France are noter.
ticed, and the rest of the chapter Chap. XXII-XXVII. 1774-1776. contains the movements and opera. After noticing the apprehension of tions of the armies, conclucling with Woodfall and Horne for a libel, and an account of the capture of General the making the act for trying the Burgoyne and his army, and a few merits of controverted elections per- circumstances immediately succeedpetual, these six chapters are occu- ing, which close the second volume. pied with the affairs of America, stat. This volume is embellished with the ing the measures adopted by the par- portrait of the Right Honourable liament, and the proceedings of the George Grenville. colonists prior to the war, which are Volume III. Chap. XXXII, 1777, circumstantially detailed, and some 1778.- This chapter contains parlia. extracts from the speeches in the mentary discussions on a variety of toHouse of Commons on the subject. pics, arising out of existing circum. The twenty-sixth chapter relates the stances, as the loss of Burgoyne's commencement of hostilities, and army, employment of savages in war, some future operations of the war. raising troops by subscription, and
Chap. XXVIII. 1775, 1776.- The Lord North's plan of conciliation.state of Ireland, which was affected The conduct of France, and her treaty by the conduct of the Americans, is with America, is inentioned. the first subject in this chapter, suc- Chap. XXXIII. 1778.—This same ceeded by propositions recommended chapter also contains the proceed. in the house of commons relative to ings of parliament, and details the America, for to promote a reconci. allusions to hostilities on the part liation--Wilkes's motion for a reform of France, and the artful conduct of parliament–Trial of the Dutchess of that power.—A bill for exclud. of Kingston-View of the conduct and ing contractors from the house is politics of foreign powers, and the introduced, but lost-Relief afforded publication of Dr. Price, with its ef. to Ireland—Bill for relief of the RoTects.
man Catholics passed-General Bure
goyne's return to England, and de- appeared in Scotland; and in Janu. tence of himself in the House of Com. ary 1779, there were riots in Edinmons.-The chapter concludes with burgh, in which the rage of the pothe death of Lord Chatham, and the pulace was directed against the Cahonours paid to his memory: iholics, and those who were friendly
Chap. XXXIV. 1778.–The state of to the relief granted to them. The the British and American armies is provost of Edinburgh is charged with noticed, and the future operations being “more than inactive, and have detailed–The arrival and treatment ing by his conduct given an indirect of the commissioners sent from Eng- sanction, if not an incentive, to the land to negotiate with the Americans rabble.” There were also riots at -Actions at sea, and the dislike of Glasgow, and these tumultuous prothe Americans to their new allies, ceedings are attributed to the efforts the French, are the remaining sub- of fanatics in Scotland. These are jects of this chapter.
succeeded by the formation of the Chap. XXXV. 1778, 1779.-The Protestant association, which, the ausubjects of this chapter are the state thor says, “ was composed of eightyof the public mind—Indignation a. five corresponding societies, and gainst France-Preparations against " was erected under the specious preinvasion – Keppel commands the text of protecting the Protestant religrand fleet, engages the French fleet, gion." This society, to which is at. and on account of altercation with Sir tributed the design of producing forHugh Palliser reflecting upon the lat- midable commotions, is represented ter, Sir Hugh accuses the Admiral, to have originated in debating soci. who is tried by a court martial, and eties, and Lord George Gordon is acquitted-Thé rejoicings and out- considered to be the former of the rages of the mob are noticed-Palli- body. The intemperance of Lord ser is afterwards tried and acquitted, George Gordon, and the succeeding but censured.-Among other things calamitous riots are particularly de before the house of commons the tailed, with the trial of some of the affairs of Ireland were discussed, their rioters and Lord George, which close dissatisfaction was noticed, and relief this chapter. granted-Relief was also afforded to
Chap. XXXIX. 1780.–The relief Protestant Dissenters.—The chapter of Gibraltar by Rodney, who capcloses with relating the rupture with tures a Spanish fleet, and defeats Lan. Spain, commencement of the siege' gara, is first noticed in this chapter, of Gibraltar, and the junction of the which then records the progress of French and Spanish fleets.
the war in America–The particulars Chap. XXXVI. 1779.- After no- relating to the unhappy fate of Major ticing the state of the English and André, and the capture of the British French fleets in the West Indies, East and West India, and the Que. the capture of St. Vincents and Gre bec fleets. nada by the French, and the engage- Chap. XL. 1780, 1781-contains ments between Byron and d'Estaing transactions in parliament–The rise -The proceedings of the armies in and progress of the dispute with HolAmerica, and other circumstances of land-Burke's plan of economy re. the war, are detailed- The state of newed, and the first speech of the Ireland, proceedings in the Irish Honourable William Pitt. parliament, popular measures in that Chap. XLI. 1780, 1781.-Attack country, and the riot in Dublin, cluse of the French on Jersey-Progress this chapter.
of the siege of Gibraltar-Misery, reChap. XXXVII. 1779, 1790. lief, and brave sortie of that garrison, This chapter is chiefly occupied with by which they drove the Spaniards the proceedings in parliament on the from their intrenchments, and de. subject of economical reforın, with the stroyed their fortitications – Naval petitions presented to the house on actions in the channel and oil the llie occasion.
Dogger Bank, and the different acChap. XXXVIII. 1778, 1779, 1780, tions in America, form the contents 1781.-In this chapter are rarrated of this chapter. the effects produced in consequence Chap. XLII. 1781, 1782.- This of passing the bill which granted re- chapter reports the conduct of the liei to the Catholics. The first evi- neutral powers, state of the public dences of opposition to the measure mind, and parliamentary proceedings
“PETE this city, (Philadelphia
-Motions grounded on the occurrences of the war-The petition of CXXXI. TRAVELSIN THE UNITED London for peace--The dissolution STATES OF AMERICA; Commenof the cabinet, and the character of ing in the Year 1793, and ending a Lord North
1797; with the Author's Journal of Chap. XLIII. 1781, 1782.-A view his Two Voyages across the Atlantic of the new ministry, and the mea- By WILLIAM PRIEST, Masicia, sures they had resolved to execute late of the Theatres of Philadelphia, before they came into office-Affairs Baltimore, and Boston, 8vo. wird as of Ireland, and subsequent measures Engraving of Peter Brown's ármes, of parliament -The passing of the which is thus explained: contractors and revenue officers bills, and Burke's bill for economy in an altered state-The opening of a ne
of gotiation with Holland and France, having made his fortune, set up his and Rodney's victory over de Grasse, coach ; but so far from being ashanare the principal subjects of this cbap- ed of the means by which he acquired ter.
his riches, he caused a large anvil to Chap. XLIV. 1778-1783.-The be painted on each panel of his transactions which took place in Ame- carriage, with twa naked arms in the rica, and the glorious victory, ob- act of striking. The motto, ' By Ass tained in defeating the formidable • I got ye'". p. 25. attack upon Gibraltar by sea and After a short journal of his vayage : land are circumstantially detailed in from England, the author inform ni this chapter, which concludes with he landed at Gloucester Point, five negotiations for peace, and the pro- miles below Philadelphia. The first visional treatv with America.
object he notices, is the amazing pro. Chap. XLV. 1782, 1783.- This duce of the maize, or Indian cora chapter brings us to the termination he says, “ I counted the increase of of the war, and contains the signing one stalk with three ears; the amount of the preliminaries of peace with of the grains were upward of one thorthe substance of the treaties–The sand two hundred. p. 11. coalition of Lord North with Mr. Fox From Woodbury, the author visits -The first petition for abolishing the Annapolis, and then returns to Phila. slave trade-The se parate establish- delphia ; on his way he sups on frit ment of the Prince of Wales, and the squirrels and coffee; this is noticed, general peace.
because squirrels are considered as ! Chap. XLVI. 1783.- In this chap- great delicacy in America. A de ter is given a general view of the late scription of the city of Philadelphia, belligerent powers, and in noticing the manner of living in that place, America the prudence of Washington and the situation of a back settier
, is highly spoken of—The interview particularly bis dangers, precede a re. of Mr. Adams with the King is also presentation of a Pennsylvania plannoticed. “ The king declared he an- ter, in which is noticed the advas. ticipated this interview as the most tages of a religious education." He critical moment of his life, but he re. enjoys a happy state of mediocrits ceived the new minister with gracious belween riches and poverty, perhaps affability. I was the last man in the most enviable of all situation • the kingdom, Sir,' he said, 'to con- When the boys of this family are nu
sent to the independence of Ame- merous, those the father cannot pro• rica; but now it is granted, I shall vide for at home, and who prefer a • be the last man in the world to planter's life to a trade or proles
: sanction a violation of il'.” p. 599. sion, are, when married, presented
The work then concludes with ge. with two or three hundred acres of neral remarks upon the struggle in uncultivated land, which their par which England had been engaged, reuts purchase for them as near home and considers that her support through as possible. The young couple are the contest is to be attributed to her supplied with stock, and supported excellent constitution.
till they have a suficient quantity of This last volume contains portraits land cleared to provide for themof Lord North and the Earl of Bute. · selves.
"If unsuccessful, through want of industry, &c. they often sell off
emigrate to Kentucky, or some other animal from which they take their new country seven or eight hundred name.” p. 49, 50. miles to the south west, and begin In the beginning of the work menthe world again as back settlers. tion is made « of relishes of salt fish,
* The daughters are brought up in usual at breakfast and supper in Ame. habits of virtue and industry ; the rica; they are chiefly of shad, a name strict notions of female delicacy in- given them by the first settlers, from stilled into their minds from their their having some resemblance, thought carliest infancy, never entirely for- in fact they are very different; and sake them. Even when one of these indeed this is the case with almost girls is decoyed from the peaceful every fish, bird, and other aniinal dwelling of her parents, and left by these Anglo-Americans took it into her infamous seducer a prey to po- their heads to christen.” p. 67. verty and prostitution in a brothel at This introduces an account of the Philadelphia, her whole appearance fishery on the Delaware, particuis neat, and breathes an air of mo- Jarly ihe shad. The author thus dedesty ; you see nothing in her dress, scribes it: “But to return to the shad, language, or behaviour, that could if it must be so called; it is an excel. give you any reason to guess at her lent fish, and comes up the river in unfortunate situation ; Chow unlike prodigious shoals, in the months of her unhappy sisters so circumstanced April and May, to spawn. The largin England!) she by no means gives est nets used in this fishery are on the over the idea of a búsband; she is sel- Delaware, where that river is froin dom disappointed; and, am in one to two miles wide. These nets formed, often makes an excellent are from one hundred and fifty to wife.” p. 45,16.
three hundred yards long. "The Our author introduces two extracts greatest hawl ever known was upfrom history relative to the noises wards of nine thousand, from four to made by the frogs in America, and nine pounds per fish." p. 68. then proceeds with the following ac- The regard evidenced to morality count : “ Prepared as I was to hear in America is in the following passomething extraordinary from these sage contrasted with the religion of animals, I confess the first frog con- the author in his own words. cert I heard in America was so much “ The revolution has not yet done beyond any thing I could conceive away a fanatical law passed by the of the pozvers of these musicians, that quakers, prohibiting the catching of I was truly astonished. This perform- these fish on a Sunday; which, consiance was al fresco, and took place on dering the short time they remain in the night of the 18th instant, in a the river, is highly impolitic. farge swamp, where there were at • “There are thirteen fisheries within least ten thousand performers, and I ten miles of Philadelphia ; allowing really believe not iwo exactly in the only eight Sundays in the season, and same pitch, if the octave can possibly ten thousand shads lost in each of admit of so many divisions or shades the twenty-four hours, a very modeof semitones.
rate calculation, the aggregate loss "I have been since informed by to Philadelphia and the adjacent an amateur, who resided many years country is eighty thousand fish, in this country, and made this spe- weighing five pounds each, on an cies of music his peculiar study, that average. I say loss; for the return on these occasions the treble is pers of the fish is the same now as it was formed by the tree-togs, the smallest a hundred and thirty years ago, when and most beautiful species; they are only a few dozen were taken in the always of the same colour as the bark season by the Indians. of the tree they inhabit, and their " There is also a small fish which note is not unlike the chirp of a comes up the rivers with the shad; cricket: the next in size are our the shoals this year have been unCOURIET tenors; they have a nute re- coinmonly large; upwards of tenthousembling the setting of a saw.
A still sand have been taken at one hawl. larger species sing tenor; and the un. Like the shad it takes salt well, and der part is supported by the bull
. from its having some resemblance to frogs, which are as large as a man's a herring, they give it that name, foot
, and bellow out the bass in a tone though very different from the beras loud and sonorous as that of the ring which visits the shores of Eu