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11 Because He bath loosed my cord, and afflicted me,

they have also let loose the bridle before me. 12 Upou my right hand rise the youth;

they push away my feet,

and they raise up against me the ways of their destruction. 13 They mar my path,

they set forward my calamity,

they have no helper. 14 They came upon me as a wide breaking in of waters ;

in the desolation they rolled themselves upon me. 15 Terrors are turned upon me:

they pursue my soul as the wind :
and my welfare passeth away as a cloud.

b. The unspeakable misery which everywhere oppresses him: vers. 16-28. 16 And now my soul is poured out upon me;

the days of affliction have taken hold upon me. 17 My bones are pierced in me in the night season ;

and my sinews take no rest. 18 By the great force of my disease is my garment changed :

it bindeth me about as the collar of my coat. 19 He hath cast me into the mire,

and I am become like dust and ashes. 20 I cry unto Thee, and Thou dost not hear me:

I stand up, and Thou rgardest me not. 21 Thou art become cruel to me;

with Thy strong band Thou orposest Thyself against me. 22 Thou liftest me up to the wind;

Thou causest me to ride upon it,

and dissolvest my substance. 23 For I know that Thou wilt bring me to death, and to the house appointed for all living.

c. The disappointment of all his hopes : vers. 24-31. 24 Howbeit he will not stretch out his hand to the grave,

though they cry in his destruction. 25 Did not I weep for him that was in trouble ?

was not my soul grieved for the poor? 26 When I looked for good, then evil came unto me;

and when I waited for light, there came darkness. 27 My bowels boiled, and rested not:

the days of affliction prevented me. 28 I went mourning without the sun :

I stood up, and I cried in the congregation. 29 I am a brother to dragons,

and a companion to owls. 30 My skin is black upon me, and my

bones are burned with heat. 31 My harp also is turned to mourning,

and my organ into the voice of them that weep. 3. Solemn asseveration of his innocence in respect to all open and secret sins.

CHAPTER XXXI. a. He has abandoned himself to no wicked lust: vers. 1-8. 1 I made a covenant with mine eyes ;

why then should I think upon a maid ? 2 For what portion of God is there from above?

and what inheritance of the Almighty from on high?

or if

3 Is not destruction to the wicked ?

and a strange punishment to the workers of iniquity? 4 Doth not He see my ways,

and count all my steps ? 5 If I have walked with vanity,

my

foot hath basted to deceit; 6 let me be weighed in an even balance,

that God may know mine integrity. 7 If my step hath turned out of the way,

and mine heart walked after mine eyes,

and if any blot hath cleaved to mine hands ; 8 then let me sow, and let another eat;

yea, let my offspring be rooted out.

6. He has acted uprightly in all his domestic life: verg. 9-13. 9 If mine heart have been deceived by a woman,

or if I have laid wait at my neighbor's door; 10 then let my wife grind unto another,

and let others bow down upon her. 11 For this is a heinous crime;

yea, it is an iniquity to be punished by the judges. 12 For it is a fire that consumeth to destruction,

and would root out all mine increase. 13 If I did despise the cause of my man-servant, or of my maid-servant,

when they contended with me; 14 what then shall I do when God riseth up?

and when He visiteth, what shall I answer Him? 15 Did not He that made me in the womb make him ?

and did not One fashion us in the womb?

c. He has constantly practised neighborly kindness and justice in civil life: vers. 16-28. 16 If I have withheld the poor from their desire,

or have caused the eyes of the widow to fail; 17 or have eaten my morsel myself alone,

and the fatherless hath not eaten thereof: 18 (for from my youth he was brought up with me, as with a father,

and I have guided her from my mother's womb;) 19 if I have seen any perish for want of clothing,

or any poor without covering; 20 if his loins have not blessed me,

and if he were not warmed with the fleece of my sheep; 21 if I have lifted up my hand against the fatherless,

when I saw my help in the gate; 22 then let mine arm fall from my shoulder blade,

and mine arm be broken from the bone ! 23 For destruction from God was a terror to me,

and by reason of His highness I could not endure.

d. He has not violated his more secret obligations to God and his neighbor : vers. 24-32. 24 If I have made gold my hope,

or have said to the fine gold, Thou art my confidence; 25 if I rejoiced because my wealth was great,

and because mine hand had gotten much; 26 if I beheld the sun when it shined,

or the moon walking in brightuess ; 27 and my heart hath been secretly enticed,

or my mouth hath kissed my hand :

28 this also were an iniquity to be punished by the judge ;

for I should have denied the God that is above. 29 If I rejoiced at the destruction of him that hated me,

or lifted up myself when evil found him: 30 (-neither have I suffered my mouth to sin

by wishing a curse to his soul :) 31 if the men of my tabernacle said not,

O that we had of his flesh! we cannot be satisfied. 32 The stranger did not lodge in the street:

but I opened my doors to the traveller.

e. He has been guilty furthermore of no hypocrisy, or mere semblance of holiness, of no secret violence, or

avaricious oppression of his neighbor: vers. 33-40. 33 If I covered my transgressions as Adam,

by hiding mine iniquity in my bosom: 34 did I fear a great multitude,

or did the contempt of families terrify me,

that I kept silence, and went not out of the door? 35 O that one would hear me!

behold, my desire is that the Almighty would answer me,

and that mine adversary had written a book. 36 Surely I would take it upon my shoulder,

and bind it as a crown to me. 37 I would declare unto Him the number of my steps ;

as a prince would I go near unto Him. 38 If my land cry against me,

or that the furrows likewise thereof complain; 39 If I have eaten the fruits thereof without money,

or have caused the owners thereof to lose their life; 40 Let thistles grow instead of wheat, and cockle instead of barley.

The words of Job are ended.

God of the Future (ch. xxxl.). These divisions EXEGETICAL AND CRITICAL.

are very obvious, and justify the divisions into

chapters founded on them as corresponding 1. Although introduced by the same formula | strictly to that intended by the poet himself. as the discourse immediately preceding (comp. Neither can there be much doubt in regard to cb. xxix. 1 with xxvii. 1), this last long series of the more special sub-division of these chief diJob's utterances exbibits decidedly a uetáßaois visions. The first and the seeond contain resiç iho yévos, a form and method esssentially spectively three long sub-divisions or strophes, new in comparison with the former controver- of 8-9 verses each (once only, ch. xxx. 1 seq. of sial and argumentative discourses of the collo- | 15 verses, which long strophe indeed may also quy. They are not once addressed to the be divided into two shorter ones of 8 and 7 friends, who since ch. xxv. have been entirely verses. In the third part there appear quite silenced, and have not been provoked to further distinctly five groups of thought of 7-8 (once reply even by the elaborate instructions, which of 9) verses each. he imparts to them in ch. xxvii. xxviii. In- 2. First Division: The prosperity of the past : stead of this they frequently appeal to God, and ch. xxix. [“ It is very thoughtfully planned by present, especially in the last section, a long the poet that Job, by this description of his forseries of solemn asseverations or adjurations mer prosperity, unintentionally refutes the arcuuttered before God. They thus appear, in con- sations of his friends, inasmuch as it furnishes trast with the interlocutory character of the dis- a picture of his former life very different from courses hitherto, as a genuine soliloquy by Job, that which they had ventured to assume. We which both by its contents and by its conspicu- have here the picture of a rich and highly disous length, forms a suitable transition to the fol- tinguished chief of a tribe (or patriarch], who lowing discourses, or groups of discourses by was happy only in spreading abroad happiness Elihu and Jehovah, which are in like manner of and blessing." Schlottmann). considerable length. Tbe three principal sec- First Strophe : vers. 2-10: The outward aptions are a yearning retrospect to the happy pearance of this former prosperity. past (ch. xxix.), a description of the sorrowful Ver. 2. Oh that it were to me (Oh tbat I present (ch. xxx.), and solemn asseverations of were] as in months of yore! lit. "who gives innocence in presence of the divine judge, or (makes) me like the months of the past," who וְחוֹב

puts me back in the happy condition of that blessings, and that close by his side, so that he time (so Rosenm., Welte, Vaih, etc.). Or, with was not compelled to go far; comp. Deut. the dative rendering of the suffis in ??? (as in *xxii. 13. Is. xxvii. 4; Jer. ix. 1), “ who gives to me like

Vers. 7-10. The honor and dignity which he the months of the past," i. e. who makes me to then enjoyed. When I went forth to the live over such! (80 usually). On the construc- gate up to the city. Wo is equivalent to tion in b (the constr. state''p'a before the relayu, towards the gate (comp. ch. xxviii. 11; tive clause), comp. Gesenius, & 116, [&114), 3. Gen. xxvii. 3), not: “out at the gate" (as be[Green, 8 255, 2].

low, ch. xxxi. 34 ning), for Job's residence was Ver. 3. When it (viz.) Eis lamp shone in the country, not in the city with Dinyo. For above my head.—ihna, inf. Kal of 5577 with this same reason he speaks here of his going up the vowel a weakened to i (Ewald. & 255, a) ??ny,“ up to the city;" for the city adjoin[Green, & 139, 2], not Inf. Hiph. as Böttcher ing to him, was on an eminence, as was usually would render it, when after the Targ. he trans- the case with ancient cities. (Comp. Abraham's lates: “when He caused His lamp to shine.” relations to Hebron, as indicated in Gen. xxiii.). This Hiphil rendering could only be justified if In respect to the use of the space directly inside (with Ewald in his comm.) we should read ihong the gates of these cities as a place for assem(ihna2). [“ Probably alluding to the custom xxxi. 4; Prov. I. 21; viii. 3, and often. When of suspending lamps in rooms or tents over the I prepared my seat in the market. ? head. The language of this ver. is of course figurative, and implies prosperity and the di- the open space at the gate, as in Neh viii. 1, 3, vine favor.” Carey]. On the anticipation of the the Infin, to the finite verb), comp. ver. 3; ch.

16, etc. On the construction (the change from subject ind by the suffix, comp. Ew., & 309, c.

xxviii. 25. Delitzsch quite too artificially refers the suffix Ver. 8. Then the young men saw me, in hood to God, and takes in, as a self-cor- and hid themselves; i. e. as soon as they rective, explanatory permutative: "when He, And the gray-headed rose up, remained

came in sight of me, from reverential awe. His lamp shone, etc.?

Ver. 4. As I was in the days of my har- standing—until I myself had sai. [" A most vest. -ORI, “as, according as,” resumes the elegant description, and exhibits most correctly

the great reverence and respect which was paid, ? , ), . . “The days even by the old and decrepit, to the holy man in of the harvest" are, as ver. 5 b shows, a figura- passing along the streets, or when he sat in tive expression for ripe manhood ("the days of public. They not only rose, which in men so my prime” Carey), the ætas virilis suis fructibus old and infirm was a great mark of distinction, fæla et exuberans (Schultens): comp. Ovid Metam. hut they stood, they continued to do it, though XV. 200. [The rendering of E. V. “in the the attempt was so difficult.” Lowth). On the days of my youth” (after Symmach, and the construction, comp. Ewald, 8285, 6. Vulg.) is less correct, as is shown by the reference Ver. 9. Princes restrained themselves above to ver. 5 b, the time referred to being that from speaking (opp 99, as in ch. iv. 2; wben he had bis children about him, as well as by the word in itself, which means the time xii. 15), and laid the hand on their mo h, when the ripe fruit is gathered]. When imposed on themselves reverential silence ; comp. Eloah's friendship was over my tent; i.e. ch. xxi. 6. ["What is meant is not that those dispensed protection and blessing above my ha- wbo were in the act of speaking stopped at Job's bitation. Tio bere meaning "familiarity, con- entrance, but that when he wished to speak, even fidential intercourse,” (as in ch. xix. 19; Ps. princes, i. e. rulers of great bodies of men, or xxv. 14 ; lv. 15 [14]; Prov. iii. 22), not the ce- those occupying the highest offices, refrained lestial council of God, as in ch. xv. 8 (against from speech.” Dillmann]. ). ["

Ver. 10. The voice of nobles hid itself, or tid having the force of an active [verbaij lit. “hid themselves,” for the verb trans is put noun, “His being familiar.” Dillm.---Carey's in agreement with the plur. dependent on explanation, though pushing the literal render. | as the principal term, as in the similar cases in ing a little too far, is striking: "lit. in the seat or ch. xv. 20; xxi. 21; xxii. 12. [Comp. Green, cushion of God being at my tent; i. e., when God 8 277].--O'??? lit. "those who are visible” was on such terms of familiar intercourse with (from 723) i. e. conspicuous, noble [nobiles). On me that he had, as it were, his accustomed seat comp. passages like Pg. cxxxvii. 6; Ezekiel at my tent"].

iii. 26. Ver. 5. On children as a most highly valued

Continuation. Second Strophe: vers. 11-17. blessing, placed here next to God Himself, comp: Job's active benevolence and strict integrity as Ps. cxxvii. 3 seq.; cxxviii. 3. Concerning o'ny) the inward cause of his former prosperiiy. in this sense (oot in that of “servants,'') see Ver. 11. For if an ear heard-it called above ch. i. 19; xxiv. 5.

me happy - lit. " for an ear heard, and then Ver. 6. When my steps were bathed in called me happy;" and similarly in the second cream (comp. ch. xx. 17, where however we

member. The object of the hearing, as afterhave the full form 78?!?), and the rock be- wards of the seeing, is neither Job's specches in side me poured out streams of oil; that the assembly of the people (“if this ver. were a which elsewhere was barren poured out costly continuation of the description of the proceed.

קוֹל ings in the assembly, it would not be introduced Ver. 16. On a comp. Is. ix. 5; xxii. 21.-3x by '?” Dillm.], nor his prosperity (Habn, De- and D'IVON seem to form a paronomasia bere. litzsch), but as ver. 12 seq. shows, bis whole - and the cause of the unknown [the public and private activity. [For the reason strangers, the friendless] I searched out, i. e., mentioned by Dillmann ? is better translated in order to help them as their advocate, provided "'for” than “when” (E. V.)]. In regard to they were in the right.—"nym, NS, attributive

x “to pronounce happy," "comp. Prov. xxxi. 28; Cant. vi. 9. In regard to tyn, to bear fa- Clause, as in ch. xviii. 21 ; Is. xli. 3 ; 1v. 6, and

oftea. [E. V., “the cause which I knew not” vorable testimony to any one, comp. faptupeivis admissible, and gives essentially the same Tivi Luke iv. 22; Acts xv. 8.

sense ; but the other rendering is to be preferVer. 12. For I delivered the poor, that red, as furnishing a better parallel to the blind, cried, and the orphan, who had no helper lame, poor,” preceding.--The man whom nobody 095 ??-res! a circumstantial clause, comp. Ew., knew, or cared for, Job would willingly take for

his client.-E.]. & 331). [The clause " is either a third new ob

Ver. 17. I broke the teeth of the wicked ject (so E. V.)], or a close definition of what precedes: the orphan and (in this state of or- (the cohortative, 7770's), as in ch. i. 15; xis. phanhood) helpless one. The latter is more 20), and out of his teeth I plucked the probable both here and in the Salomonic pri- prey.--For the description of hardhearted opmary passage Ps. lxxii. 12; in the other case pressors and tyrants (or unrighteous judges, of is niy-y"x 1081 might be expected.” Delitz.). the figure of ravaging wild beasts, from which

whom we are to think particularly here), under The Imperfects describing that which is wont to

the prey is rescued, comp. Ps. iii. 8 [7]; lviii. 7 be, as also in vers. 13, 16. As to the sentiment, [6], etc. comp. Ps. lxxii, 12.

4. Conclusion: Third Strophe : Vers. 18–25. Ver. 13. The blessing of the lost (lit. “of The honor and the influence which Job once enone lost, perishing;" zais as in ch. xxxi. 19; joyed, and the loss of which he mourns with esProv. xxxi. 6) came upon me; i. e., as 6 pecial sorrow. shows, the grateful wish that he might be blessed

Ver. 18. And so then I thought [said] : from such miserable ones as had been rescued With my nest [“ together with my nest,” as by him, hardly the actual blessing which God implying a wish that he and his nest might pebestowed on him in answer to the prayer of such rish together, would be “ unnatural, and diame(comp. Hermas, Past. Simil. 2).

trically opposed to the character of an Arab, who Ver. 14. I had clothed myself with righ- wish that he may continue to live in his children,

in the presence of death cherishes the twofold teousness, and it with me; i. e., in tion as I exerted myself to exercise righteous and that he may die in the midst of his family," ness (P.7) toward my neighbor, the same [righ- Delitzsch] (or also : “in my nest") shall I die ; teousness) took form, filled me inwardly in truth ther with my family, and property (comp. Ps.

i. e., without having left or lost my home, toge["it put me on as a garment, i. e., it made me so

lxxxiv. 4 (3]), hence in an advanced, happy old its own, that my whole appearance was the representation of itself, as in Judg. vi. 34, and days: lit., “make many, multiply my days."

age.-And like the phenix have many twice in the Chron., of the Spirit of Jehovah it The language also would imit of our rendering is said that He puts on any one, induit, when He makes any one the organ of His own manifesta- | Sin “sand,” understanding the expression to tion,” Delitzsch. Righteousness was as a robe refer to the multiplication of days like grains of to me, and I was as a robe to it. I put it on, sand; comp. “as the sand of the sea in 1 Ki. and it put me on; it identified itself with me.' v. 9 [iv. 29 applying to Solomon's wisdom] and Words.] Not: "and it clothed me," as Rosen- often; also Ovid, Metam. XIV. 136 seq. : quot hamüller, Arnh., Umbr. [E. V., Schlottm., Carey, beret corpora pulvis, tot mihi natales contingere vana Renan, Rod., Elz., etc.], arbitrarily render the rogavi. But against this interpretation, which second wzh, thereby producing only a flat tau- Umbreit, Gesenius, Stickel, Vaih., Hahn, [E. V.,

is adopted by the Targ., Pesh., Saad., Luther, tology. [Ewald also: "it adorned me." - The Con., Noy., Ber., Carey, Words., Renan, Rodother rendering is adopted, or approved by Gesen., Fürst, Delitzsch, Dillmann, Wordsworth, well, Merx], and in favor of understanding sin Noyes in his Notes]. The figure of being clothed of the phenix, that long-lived bird of the wellwi h a moral quality or way of living to repre-known oriental legend (so most moderns since sent one as equipped, or adorned therewith, Rosenmüller) may be urged: (1) The oldest (comp. Isa. xi. 5 ; li. 9; lix. 17; Ps. cxxxii. 9), exegetical tradition in the Talmud, in the Midrais continued in the second member, where Job's shiin, among the Masoretes and Rabbis (espestrict righteousness and spotless integrity (this cially Kimchi); (2) the versions-manifestly is what per means; comp. Mic. iii. 8) are re- proceeding out of a misconception of this phenix presented as “a mantle and a tiara (turban);" tradition of the LXX: WoTEP OTé e xoş qoivikos;

of the Itala: sicut arbor palmæ, and of the Vulg.: comp. Is. Ixi. 10.

Ver. 15. Comp. Num. X. 31. To be anybody's sicut palma; (3) and finally even the etymology eye, ear, foot (here “feet”), etc., is of course to of the word hin (or San, as the Rabbis of Nasupply these organs by the loving ministration of help, and to make it possible as it were to dis-hardea read, according to Kimchi) which it would penge with them.

seem must be derived (with Bochart) from hin

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