Obrazy na stronie

(comp. Zeph. ii. 15; Jer. xlix. 17). Or “out more or less remote. Comp. above Introd. & 7, of his home" (Hirz.), which rendering gives b; and see a fuller discussion of the subject in essentially the same meaning.

Delitzsch ii. 86-89; to some extent also the 4. Third Section: First Strophe. Chap. xxviii. mining experts who have commented on the 1-11. The difficulty, indeed the absolute im- following verses, such as v. Weltheim (in J. D. possibility, of attaining true wisdom by buman Mich., Orient. Bibl. 23, 7 seq.), and Rud. Nasse skill and endeavor, described by means of an il- (Stud. u. Krit.. 1863, p. 105 seq.) lustration taken from mining, which gives man Ver. 1. For there is for the silver a vein access to all valuable treasures of a material [Germ. Fundort, place where it is found), and sort, but which can by no means put him in pos- a place for the gold, which they refine.session of that spiritual good which comes from the connection between this section and the God. The questionwhence the author had ac- preceding, which is indicated by the causal '? quired 80 accurate a knowledge of mining as he here for,” is this: The phenomenon described in displays, seeing that the land of the Israelites was ch, xxvii. 11-23, that the wicked-with whom, comparatively poor in mineral treasures comp. according to vers. 2-10 Job is not to be classed KEIL, Bibl. Archäol., p. 35 seq., 38)? may be an--meet with a terrible end without deliverance, swered, on the basis of Biblical and extra-Bibli- is to be explained by the fact that they do not cal sources of information, as follows: (1) The possess true wisdom, which can be acquired Jews in Palestine could not have been absolutely only through the fear of God, which cannot, strangers to the business of mining, seeing that like the treasures of this earth (the only object in Deut. viii. 9 there is expressly promised to for which the wicked plan and toil), be dug out, them “a land whose stones are iron, and out of exchanged or bought. The proposition introwhose hills thou mayest dig

brass." (2) Both duced by 's accordingly assigns a reason first Lebanon in the north, and the Idumean moun. tains in the south-east of Palestine proper, had of all for that which forms the contents of ch. copper mides, the particular location of these be- xxvii. 11-23 ; the prosperity of the ungodly ing at Phunon, or Phaino, Num. xxxiii. 42 seq., cannot endure"), but secondarily and indirectly in the working of which it is certain that the also that which is announced in ch. xxvii. 2-10 Jews were occasionally interested; comp. Vol. (Job is an upright man, and one who fears God, ney's Travels; Ritter, Erdkunde XVII. 1063; whose joy in God does not forsake him even in Gesenius, Thes. p. 1095; v. Rougemont, Bronze- the midst of the deepest misery). [“ The misezeit, p. 87. (3) The Israelites possessed iron rable end of the ungodly is confirmed by this, pits, possibly in South Lebanon, where in modern that the wisdom of man, which he has despised, times such may still be found, together with consists in the fear of God; and Job thereby smelting furnaces (Russegger, Reise I. 779, 778 attains at the same time the special aim of his seq.), but certainly in the country east of the teaching, wbich is announced at ch. xxvii. 11 Jordan, where, according to the testimony of by 5873 dans 17718; viz. he has at the same Josephus, de B. Jud. IV. 8, 2, there was an time proved that he who retains the fear of God "iron mountain" (ousnpowv opos) north of Moabi- in the midst of his sufferings, though those suftis, the “Cross Mountain," El Mi'râd of to-day, ferings are an insoluble mystery, cannot be a between the gorges of the Wadi Zerka and Wadi Arabun, west of Gerash; a mountain district in yun. . . . . And if we ponder the fact that Job which in our own century iron mines have been has depicted the ungodly as a covetous rich man worked here and there (v. Rougemont, l. c.;

who is snatched away by sudden death from his Wetzstein in Delitzsch, II. 90-91). (4) Jerome immense possession of silver and other costly testifies to the existence of ancient gold mines in treasures, we see that ch. xxviii. confirms the Idumea (Opp. ed. Vall. III. 183). (5) The preceding picture of punitive judgment in the Israelites might also come occasionally inio con following manner: silver and other precious nection with the copper and iron mines of the metals come out of the earth, but wisdom, whose Sinai-peninsula, in the development of which the value exceeds all these earthly treasures, is to Egyptian Pharaohs were conspicuously ener

be found nowhere within the province of the getic (comp. Aristeas v. Haverkamp, p. 114; creature; God alone possesses it, and from God Lepsius, Briefe, p. 335 seq.; Ritter, Erdkunde Xiv. alone it comes; and so far as man can and is to 784 seq; v. Rougemont, i.c.* (6) What has been attain to it, it consists in the fear of the Lord said above by no means excludes the possibility and the forsaking of evil.” Delitzsch.] The that in this description the poet in many parti- first verses of the chapter indeed down to the culars took for his basis traditional reports con

11th, present nothing whatever as yet of that cerning the mines of dıstant lands, e. 9. concern- which serves directly to establish those anteceing the gold mines of Upper Egypt and Nubia dent propositions, they simply prepare the way (Diodorus iii. 11 seq.), concerning the gold and for the demonstration proper, by describing the silver mines of the Phenicians in Spain (1 Macc. achievements of art and labor in the accumulaviii. 3 ; Plin. iii. 4; Diod. v. 35 seq.), concern- tion by men of their treasures, by means of ing the emerald quarries of the Egyptians at which nevertheless wisdom can not be found. Berenice, and other deposits of precious stones, Hence '? may appropriately be rendered "for

truly" (the “but” in ver. 12 corresponding to * The name Mafkal, “Land of Copper," which the Egyptians gave to the Sinaitic peninsula on account of those

the “truly”). This connection betweea ch. mines, is of late explained by Brugsch to mean "Land of xxviii. and xxvii. is erroneously exhibited, when Turquois.” it being assumed by him that tırquois was iho any subordinate proposition of ch. xxvii. is gion. Comp. H. Brugsch, Wanderung nach den Türkisminen regarded as that which is to be established (as der Sinai-Halbinsel, 1868, 2d Ed., p. 66 seq.

e. 9., according to Hirzel, the question in ver.

12: “why are ye so altogether vain? why do the stones of darkness and of death-shade, ye adhere to so perverse a delusion ?" or accord- i. e. the stones under the earth, bidden in deep ing to Schlottmann the purpose to warn against darkness. 817 before p.in refers back to the the sin of making unfriendly charges, which he thinks is to be read between the lines in the indefinite subj. of biy, who is continued through description vers. 11-23). These false concep-ver. 4, and again in vers. 9-11. tions of the connection, alike with the total

Ver. 4. še breaketh [openeth, cutteth abandonment of all connection, which has led through] a shaft away from those who many critics to resort to arbitrary attempts to sojourn (above). Soos, elsewhere river, valassign to ch. xxviii. another position (e. g. ac- ley [river-bed] (Wadi), is here—as is already cording to Pareau after ch. xxvi.; according to made probable by the verb r?, pointing to a Stuhlmann after ch. xxv.) or to question alto-violeni breaking through (comp. ch. xvi. 14); gether its genuineness (Knobel, Bernsteincomp. Introd. & 9, 1)—all these one-sided con- member of the verse—a mising passage in the

and as is made still more apparent by the third ceptions rest, for the most part, on the assumption that it is the divine wisdom, which rules the earth, and that moreover a perpendicular shaft universe, whose unsearchableness is described rather than a sloping gallery. 7-oyp, lit. in our chapter, and not rather wisdom regarded "away from one tarrying, & dweller," i. e. as a human possession, as a moral and intellectual removed from the human babitations found blessing bestowed by God on men, connected above, removing from them ever further and with_genuine fear of God. Comp. Doctrinal deeper into the bowels of the earth. (Schlottand Ethical Remarks, No. 1. [E. V.'s rendering mann understands by the miner himself of '? by “surely” overlooks the connection, dwelling as a stranger in his loneliness; i.e. his and was probably prompted by the difficulty he dwells above. The use of 7 is doubtless &

shaft sinks ever further from the but in which attending it]. - Ain, lit. "outlet” (comp. 1 little singular, and Schlottmann's explanation Kings x. 28), the place where anything may be may be accepted so far as it may serve to acfound, synonymous with the following Dipp.- count for it by the suggestion that those who do

live in the vicinity of mines are naturally O'?", The word 4pi is a relative clause: gold, which sojourners, living there to ply their trade and they refine, or wash out. In regard to ppi, lit. shifting about as new mines or veins are dis“to filter, to strain," as a technical term for covered.-E.]-Who are forgotten of every purifying the precious metals from the stone- step, lit. of a foot” (927-"}?), i. e. of the foot alloy which is mixed with them, comp. Mal. iii. or step of one travelling above on the surface of 3; Ps. xii. 7 [6]; 1 Chron. xxviii

. 18. Comp. the earth [hence=“totally vanished from the the passage relative to the gold mines of Upper remembrance of those who pass by above"], not Egypt, describing this process of crushing fine the foot of the man himself that is spoken of, as the gold-quartz, and of washing it out, this pro- though bis descent by a rope in the depths of cess accordingly of gold-washing,", as prac- the shaft were here described (V. Leonhardt in tised by the ancients, in Diodor, iii. 11 seq., as Umbr. and Hirzel). [On this use of i? after well as the explanations in Klemm's Allgem. Kulturgesch. V. 503 seq., and in M. Uhlemann, novi, comp. Deut. xxxi. 21; Ps. xxxi. 13; Egypt. Alterthumskunde, II. 148 seq.

forgotten out of the mind, out of the heart"]. Ver. 2. Iron is brought up out of the Moreover oņain are identical, according to ground.-py, here of the interior or deep the accents, with the indef. subj. of yn (the ground, not of the surface as in ch. xxxix. 14; interchange between sing. and plur. acc. 10 Ew. xli. 25 [33], and stone is smelted into cop-8 319, a); hence the meaning is: those who per.-pas here not as in ch. xli. 15 Partic. work deep down in the shafts of the mines. Pual of pö', but as in ch. xxix. 6 Impert. of They are again referred to in the finite verbs in pay-psi (the 3d pers. sing. masc. expressing s, which continue the participial construction: the indefinite subj.). [Gesenius not so well they hang far away from men, and swing. makes the verb transitive: "and stone pours 157 from 557 (related to 557) deorxum pendere, out brass."'] Ver. 3. He has put an end [DV still the

according to the accents, accompanies Vid? indefinite subj., but as the description becomes

(meaning the same with 7-07?), not w, as more individual and concrete, it is better with Mahn and Schlottm. think. The adventurous E. V. 10 use from this point on the personal swinging of those engaged in digging the ore pron.."he"] to the darkness, viz. by the out of the steep sides of the shafts. hanging miner's lamp; and in every direction (lit. down by a rope, is in these few, simple words

It is the “to each remotest point, to every extremity, in beautifully and clearly portrayed. all directions ") [not as E. V. "all perfection," situation described by Pliny (H. N. xxxiii

. 4, which is too general, missing the idiomatic use 21: is qui cædit

, funibus pendet, ut procul intuenti of the phrase; nor adverbially: "to the utmost," species ne ferarum quidem, sed alitum fiat. Pen

dentes majori ex parte librant et lineas itineri præor "most closely:"_"slobons might be used ducunt, etc. [The above rendering, adopted by thus adverbially, but moban-sph is to be ex

all modern exegetes, gives a meaning so appro.

priate to the language and connection, and witbal plained according to 019-535, Ezek. v. 10, 10 60 beautiful, vivid and graphic that it seeme all the winds.'" Delitzsch] - he searcheth strange that all the ancient and most of the


modern versions of Scripture, including E V., begun in ver. 7 of the inaccessibleness of the should have so completely darkened the mean- subterranean passage-ways. The proud beasts ing. The source of the difficulty lay doubtless of prey (lit. “sons of pride;" so also in ch. xli. in bod which being taken in its customary finely illustrative phrase "sons of pride"]

26 [34]) have not trodden it.—That this meaning of “river, flood,” threw everything refers to the haughty, majestically stepping into confusion. Add to this a probable want beasts of prey ["-seeking the most secret retreat, of familiarity with mining operations on the and shunning no danger," Del.], appears clearly part of the early translators, and the result will not seem so surprising.-E.]

enough from the parallel use of bro in 6 (comp. Ver. 5 states what the miners are doing in ch. iv. 10). the depths.—The earth-out of it cometh Ver. 9. On the flint (the hardest of all forth the bread-corn (onas in Ps. civ. 14), stones) he lays his hand (the subject being

man, as the overturner of mountains; see b, and but under it it is overturned like fire: i. e. as fire incessantly destroys, and turns what is respecting the use there of wine?, radicitus, uppermost lowermost. [“Man's restless search, “from the root,” comp. above ch. xiii. 27; xix. which rummages everything through, is com; 28. (“IT nye something like our “ to take pared to the unrestrainable ravaging fire.” Del.] Instead of ipo Jerome reads ing: “is determination and courage, which here consists

in hand,” of an undertaking requiring strong overturned with fire," which some moderns pre. in blasting, etc. Del.] How the band is laid fer (Hirz., Schlott.), who find a reference here on flint and similar hard stones is described by to the blasting of the miners. But this is too Pliny I. c.: Occursant silices; hos igne et aceto remote. ["The principal thought is the process rumpunt, sæpius vero, quoniam id cuniculos fumo of breaking through; the means are not so much et vapore strangulat, cædunt fractariis CL. libras regarded ; and fire was not the only means. habentibus, etc. Dillmann.. Some commentators have fancied in Ver. 10. Through the rocks he cutteth this verse a trace of what modern criticism calls “gentimentalism," as though Job were protest

passages.-O'?, an Egyptian word, which ing against ruthlessly ravaging as with fire the signifies literally water-canals, must here, like interior of that generous earth

which on its sur soos in ver. 4, signify subterranean passages or face yields bread for ihe support of man. Job pits for mining. And further, according to be is, however, fixing his attention solely on the what is intended are galleries, horizontal excaagent-man, who not satisfied with what grows vations, in which the ore is dug out, and preout of the earth, digs for treasure into its deep- cious stones discovered. The word can scarcely est recesses.-E.]

be used of wet conduits, or canals to carry off Ver. 6. The place of the sapphire (Dipthe water accumulating in the pits, of wbich as in ver. 1 a, the place where it may be found) Joh does not begin to speak until the following are its stones, viz. the earth's, ver. 5; in the verse (against v. Weltheim, etc.). [The rendermidst of its s ones is found the sapphire, wbich ing “rivers”. (E V., Con., Car., Rod., etc.) is mentioned here as a specimen of precious would be still more misleading, because more stones of the highest value. —And nuggets of vague, than canals,” which is not without gold (or "gold ore," bardly “gold-dust” as plausible arguments in its favor. Add however Hirzel thinks) become his, viz. the miner's to Zöckler's arguments in favor of the render(so Schult., Rosenm., Ewald, Dillmann). Or: ing "passages, galleries," the sequence in the

nuggets of gold belong to it," the place Dips) second member: And his eye sees every where the sapphire is found (Hahn, Schlotim., precious thing; which, as Delitzsch says, "is Delitzsch). The reader may take his choice consistently connected with what precedes, since between these two relations of 19; the brevity (veins), and any precious stones that may also

by cutting these cuniculi the courses of the ore of the expression makes it impossible to decide be embedded ihere, are laid bare."-E.) with certainty.

Ver. 11. That they may not drip be stops Ver. 7. The path (thither) no bird of prey up passage-ways.—'???, lit. “away from hath known (and the vulture's eye hath not gazed upon it]. In is a prefixed nom.

dripping" (weeping), or: “against the drip

ping,". i. e. against the oozing through of the absol. like ry in ver. 5. It may indeed also

water in the excavations, to which the shafts be taken as in opposition to Dipp in ver. 6 and galleries, especially when old, were so easily (, as Ewald thinks), in liable. van, as elsewhere waņ, to stop or dam which case the rendering would be: "the path, up, to bind up surgically (comp. van, the surwhich no bird of prey hath known,” etc. (Del.). But that “the place of the sapphire" should be geon, or wound-healer in Is. iii. 7; i. 6). immediately afterwards spoken of as a path," niiņ? seems in general to mean the same as looks somewhat doubtful. Concerning ing dony above, and D'm ver. 10, to wit, excavacomp. on ch. xx. 9.—[The rendering of E. v.: tions, shafts, pits, galleries. Nevertheless it “There is a path which no fowl knoweth,” etc., may also denote “the seams of water” breaking is vague and incorrect in so far as it leads the through the walls of these excavations, thus mind away from the deposits of treasure, which directly denoting that which must be stopped are the principal theme of the passage.--E.] up (Del.).-And so (through all these efforts

Ver. 8 carries out yet further the description and skilful contrivances) he brings to the



light that which was hidden a remark in Ver. 16. In regard to the gold of Ophir (here the way of recapitulation, connecting back with noix ona, fine gold of Ophir) comp. ch. xxii. the beginning of the description in ver. 1, and 24; respecting the onyx stone (ono, lit. "pale, at the same time forming the transition to what lean”) comp. the commentators on Gen. ii. 12. follows. Respecting nen, comp. ch. xi. 6; Vers. 17-19. Further description of the in, . loci

comparable and unattainable value of wisdom, 5. Continuation : Second Strophe: vers. 12–22. standing in a similar connection with vers. 15, Application of the preceding description to wis- 16, as Prov. iii. 15 with Prov. iii. 14.-Gold dom as a higher good, unattainable by the out- and glass are not equal to it.-774 intrans. ward seeking and searching of men. ["Most with Accus.—æquare aliquid, as in ver 19; Ps. expositors since Schultens, as e. g. Hirz., Schlott., lxxxix. 7. In respect to the high valuation of etc", assume out of hand that the Wisdom treated glass by the ancients (n?!!, or as some MSS., of here is the divine wisdom, as the principle Ed's., and V. Kimchi read-npi??) comp. Wiwhich maintains the moral and natural order of the universe. But that the divine wisdom is to ner, Realw., Vol. I., 432 [and Eng. Bib. Dicbe found only with God, not with a creature, is tionaries, Art “ Glass "]. In respect to non something so very self-evident, and the exalta- | in b, "exchange, equivalent,” comp. ch. xv. 31; tion of the divine wisdom above all human com- xx. 18. prehension was a proposition so universally Ver. 18. Corals and crystal are not to be recognized, being also long since maintained named, not to be mentioned, i. e., in comparison and conceded by both the contending parties of with it, with wisdom (in regard to the construcour book (chs. xi. and. xii.), that it is not appa- tion of the passive 1 with the accus., comp. rent why Job should here lay such stress upon Gesen., & 143 [& 140] 1, a). 71, (lit. "ice,” it.” Dillm.] Ver. 12. But wisdom-where is it found? which was regarded by the ancients as a pre

like the Arab. gibs) denotes the quartz-crystal, And where (lit. "from where?” O'N? as in cious stone, and supposed to be a product of the ch. i. 7, and 1? accompanying **? as in Hos. cold ; Pliny, H. N. XXXVII. 2, 9.—The nidx), xiv. 9 [8]) is the place of understanding? the mention of which precedes, seem to be cononn, with the article, because wisdom is to rals," an explanation favored by what is conjecbe set forth as the well-known highest good of tured to be The radical signification of this word,

With the principal term noen is con- · horns of buils, or of wild oxen” (from DXnected 777'd as an alternate notion, as is often comp. Pliny XIII. 51), as well as by its being the case in Proverbs, especially chs. i.-ix. The placed along with the less costly crystal;comp.also first term denotes wisdom rather on its practical Ezek. xxvii. 16, where indeed corals from the side, as the principle and art of right thinking Red Sea and the Indian Ocean are mentioned as and doing, or as the religious and moral recti- Tyrian articles of commerce.

On the contrary tude taught by God; the second (with which O'?'?? in b must be, according to Prov. iii. 16; mura, Prov. viii. 1, and nyl, Prov. i. 2, alter- viii. 11; 11. 15; xxxi. 10, an exchangeable nate) pre-eminently on the theoretic side as the commodity of extraordinary value, which decorrect perception and way of thinking which cides in favor of the signitication pearls" aglies at the basis of that right doing. Comp. the signed (although not unanimously) to this word Introd. to the Solomonic Literature of Wisdom, by tradition, however true it may be that in & 2, Note 3 (Vol. X., p. 7 of this series).

Lam. iv. 7 corals seem rather to be intended (or Ver. 13. No mortal knows its price.- perhaps red pearls artificially prepared, like the 7.7%. (from T1 vers. 17, 19) means lit. equiva- Turkish rose-pearls of to-day). Comp. Carey lent, price, value for purchase or exchange, the [who agrees in rendering niort by corals," same with and elsewhere. The LXX. proba- and doubtfully suggests “ mother-of-pearl” for bly read 1977, which reading is preferred by 022]. Delitzsch renders the former of the two some moderns, e. g., by Dillmann, as agreeing words by "pearls,” the second by “corals" (so better with ver. 12

J. D. Michaelis Rödiger, Gesenius, Fürst; the Ver. 14. With the land of the living” (ver. two latter regarding Disy and D'}'as equi13] i. e., the earth inhabited by men (comp. Ps. valent. See also in Smith's Bib. Dic.,-Art's., xxvii. 13; Is. xxxviii. 11, etc.) are connected the "Rubies,” “ Pearls,” “Coral"]. The word two other regions beneath heaven, in which wis- un, "acquisition, possession,” (from Jun, "'10 dom might possibly be sought: (1) The “Deep” draw to oneself”) only here in the 0 T.; re(Din i. e., the subterranean abyss with its lated are

pun, Gen. xv. 2, and pop?, Zepb. waters, out of which the visible waters on the ii 9. surface of the earth are supplied (Gen. vii. 11; Ver. 19. The topaz from Ethiopia (Cusb) xlix. 25):—(2) The “Sea” (O = Slkeavós) as is not equal to it.—The rendering topaz (rothe chief reservoir of these visible waters. táciov) for 1770? is established by the testimony

Ver. 15. Pure gold is not given for it.- of most of the ancient versions in this passage, nido is the same with hija m, 1 Kings vi. 20; as well as in Ex. xxviii. 17; Ezek. xxviii 13.

. 21, not "shut up" [= carefully preserved], It is also favored by the statement of Pling but according to the Targ. “ purified" gold (au- (xxxvii. 8) that the topaz comes principally from rum colatum, purgatum), hence gold acquired by the islands of the Red Sea, as also by the proheating, or smelting; comp. Diodor. I. c. bable identity of the name 7700 with the San.

scrit pita, yellow (comp. Gesen.) [and see the the subject God [should be inigys if the verse Lexicons, Delitzsch, Carey, etc, on the probable were antecedent]. Furthermore the Divine traneposition of letters in ihe Hebrew and Greek " looking to the ends of the earth,” etc., ver. forms]. In regard to b, comp. the very similar 24, would need a telic qualification, referpassage in ver 16 a).

ring the divine omniscience (God's looking Ver. 20 again takes up the principal question every where and seeing every thing] to the propounded in ver. 12. The ? in npano is creation and preservation of the order of nature, consecutive, and may be rendered by “then” in order that it might not be understood as de: (Ew., & 348, a).

claring the omniscience of God in abstracto. Ver. 21. It is bidden (niphyl, lit., “and That He may appoint to the wind its moreover, and further it is hidden ") from the weight, and weigh the water by measure. eyes of all living, i. e.,, especially of all living - The careful measurement” of wind and wa. beings on the earth; 'n- as in ch. xii. 10; ter, i.e., their relative apportionment, governxxx. 33. Of these “living" b then particularly peculiarly characteristic example of God's wise

ment, and management (comp. Isa. lx. 12), is a specifies the sharp-sighted, winged inbabitants administrative economy in creation : “Who sends of the upper regions of the air; comp. above the wind upon its course,” etc. Instead of the ver. 7.

Infinitive the finite verb appears in b, and that Ver. 22 follows up the mention of that which in the Perf. form, j?, because the expression is highest with that of the lowest: Hell and the abyss [lit. "destruction and death"] say, sequence, precisely as in chap. v. 21 (see on

of purpose passes over into the expression of n!? in connection with 11.73x (see on ch. xxvi. the v.). 6) means the realm of death, the abyss; comp. Ver. 26 seq. As the wisdom of God furnishes ch. xxxviii. 17; Ps. ix. 14 [13]; Rev. i. 18. For the means and basis of His government of the the rest comp. above, ver. 14; for to say that world, so in the exercise of His creative power they [destruction and death] have learned of was it the absolute norm, and is in consequence wisdom only by hearsay is substantially the thereof the highest law for man's moral action, same with saying, as is said there of the sea and positively and negatively considered. When the deep, that they do not possess it. ["The He appointed for the rain a law (when and

how often it should fall, where it should cease; in so ''yo 70 7ys, ver. 21, evidently points

comp. Gen. ii. 5) and for the thunder-flash back to the 12'y nnxn poso ver. 10. In ver. a path (i. e., through the clouds; comp chap. 11 it is said that man brings the most secret xxxviii

. 25), then saw He it and declare a thing to light. In ver. 22 that Divine wisdom is it—i. e., in thus exercising at the beginning His hidden even from the underworld.” Schlott.].

creative power, He beheld il, contemplated it (we 6. Conclusion : Third Strophe: Vers. 22-28 are to read mx 7 with Mappiq in 17), as His eter. The final answer to the question, where and how nal pattern, according to which He made, orwisdom is to be found : to wit, only with God, dered, and ruled His creatures, and declared it and through the fear of God. [“ T'he last of (1790), lit. “and enumerated it”), i.e., unfolded these three divisions (of the chap.) into which its contents before men and His other rational the highest truths are compressed is for empha- creatures throughout the whole creation, which in sis the shortest, in its calmness and abrupt end- truth is nothing else than such a “development ing the most solemn, because the thought finds and historical realization” of the contents of eterno expression that is altogether adequate, float- nal wisdom. The attempt of Schult.. Ew., Dillm. ing in a height that is immeasurable, but opening to explain 100 as meaning “to number through, a boundless field for further reflection." Ewald,

to review all over” (after ch. xxxviii. 37; Ps. Ver. 23. God knows the way to it, and cxxxix. 18) is less natural. He established He knows its place.—'Abx and N17, in it, and also searched it out, i. e., He laid its emphatic contrast with the creatures mentioned 22, 23, where both verbs, 773p and 703, convey

foundations in the creation (comp. Prov. viii. in ver. 13 seq., and ver, 21 seq. The suffix in A977 is objective (comp. Gen. iii. 24) “ the way as jan here), brought it to its complete actual

the same idea of founding, establishing wisdom to it."

Vers. 24, 25 constitute one proposition which ization in creation, and then reviewed all its illustrates and explains the Divine possession of individual parts to see whether they all bore wisdom by a reference to God's agency in cre- the test of His examination. Comp. what is ating and governing the world (so correctly said in Gen. i. 31: “Aud God saw everything Ewald, Arnh., Dillm.) [E. V., Conant, Rodman). that He had made, and behold, it was very good Against connecting ver. 25 with what follows,

-Or again: “ IIe set it up before Himself," for more immediately with ver. 26, and then regard- more attentive contemplation (1??? according ing vers. 25, 26 together as constituting the pre- as in chap. xxix. 7), and searched it out thotasis of ver. 27 lies the objection that niey's Doughly, exploring its thoughts (so Wolff and

Dillmann) (the latter of whom says:

" He set it cannot properly be translated either when He up for contemplation, as an artist or an arcbimade,” or “ in that He made,” as well as the tect puts up before himself the Men'). It is fact that the gerundive Infinitive withụ cannot not necessary, with some MSS. and Eds. to read be put before its principal verb, together with ??, instead of my ???, as Döderl. and Ew. do.

Ver. 28. And said to man: Behold, the the absence of a suffix after niwy referring to fear of the Lord is wisdom, etc. He would

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