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fands a perfect detestation of the man and the minister who had raised himself to power by his pretended zeal for the cause of parliamentary reform, and had now become the most implacable prosecutor of those who still retained the principles which he - had abandoned ; preferring poverty, exile, and death, to the possession of riches and honors purchasable only at the price of an infamous and profligate apoftafy. In relation to these trials, it was contended in vain, though with much strength of legal argument, that the crime charged upon these gentlemen was merely that of leasing-making, or public libel; the punishment for which, by the law of Scotland, is banishment, under which term transportation to a specific place, which is obviously a sentence of a severer nature, could not be included. As the forms of procedure in the criminal courts of that kingdom are extremely arbitrary, and the evidence admitted in them to the last degree vague and slight, the punishment annexed ought at least to be mild and moderate : but admitting the charges against the present delinquents to be fully proven, the sentence passed upon them was so disproportionate to their guilt, that the whole transaction was calculated to excite, and in fact it did excite, general indignation and horror, not in Britain only, but throughout Europe. « The trial of the Scottish advocate, T. Muir,” says a respectable German writer, " who, for various endeavours to effect a reform of the parliament of his country, was condemned to be transported to Botany-Bay, muft excite in the breast of every German an esteem for his native land. We here see a man sent to Botany-Bay on account of an accusation to which a German court of justice would have been ashamed to liften.'

The military operations of the autumnal months of the campaign remain to be narrated. In a session of the French Convention, held August 16th, the energetic and fertile


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ALTONA Journal, A. D. 1794. No. 3,

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genius of Barrere conceived the sublime project of exciting the whole people of France to rise en masse to expel the invaders from their territory: and by the unremitted exertions of the Committee of Public Safety, this plan, in appearance fo chimerical, was regularly digested, and the new levies organized with singular dispatch and ability.

On the 25th of August the duke of York, with his army, arrived before Dunkirk, after waiting long for the train of. artillery from England necessary for the fiege. During the delay a secret correspondence, carried on by the duke with general O'Moran, governor of the place, was discovered ; O'Moran was dismiffed, and afterwards suffered for his treachery; and the garrison was augmented by a reinforcement of 12,000 veteran troops. The design was therefore hopeless. The works were, however, carried on, though with trivial effect, till the 6th of September on which day the covering army, commanded by the Hanoverian field-marshal Freytag, was unexpectedly attacked and totally routed by a large body of troops suddenly collected by general Houchard; the marshal himself and prince Adolphus, son of the king of England, were taken prisoners, though afterwards rescued. A grand sortie was at the same time attempted by the garrison with complete success, and the duke of York was compelled on the 7th to raise the siege with the greatest preciyitation, suffering very great loss in his retreat, or, to speak more properly, flight. The fine train of heavy, artillery from England was only landed to be loft—no less than 114 pieces falling into the hands of the enemy. The French government, however, far from being satisfied with what was effected, charged the general, M. Houchard, with culpable negligence, in not cutting off the retreat of the English army, altogether, as it was generally allowed he might with much facility have done : and being denounced by the Jacobin party, he (uffered by the severe sentence of the Revolutionary Tri.. bunal. What was still more extraordinary, general Cur


tine, who had signalized himself by very brilliant exploits during the former and the present campaign on the banks of the Rhine, met with the same cruel fate for not attempting, by some grand and decisive effort, the relief of Valenciennes. The world stood amazed at these instances of republican ferocity, and it was imagined by those who were ignorant of the springs by which human nature is actuated, that no general of talents would be found to assume in future the command of the French armies : but events soon demonstrated the grofsness of this mistake. In fact, when fo much was exacted, nope but those who felt the consciousness of superior genius, combined with heroic courage, could venture to undertake so perilous a trust.

The French army of the North now took a strong position, under general Jourdain, the successor of Houchard and Custine, near the town of Maubeuge, in the blockade of which the allies were engaged with their whole recollected force under the prince of Cobourg. On the 15th of October the enemy made a grand attack

army of the prince with such vigor and effect as to compel that able commander to abandon his chain of posts and repass the Sambre. General Jourdain was by this means at liberty to fend detachments, in various directions, to Maritime Flanders, where they took pofleffion, with little resistance, of Werwick, Menin, and Furnes. They then proceeded to Nieuport, which was saved only by having recourse to the desperate expedient of an inundation, and Ostend itself was thought not free from danger.

Early in the month of September, Landau had been invested by the combined powers; but that important fortress being covered and protected by the French army posted, under general Irembert, at Weissemburg on the Lauter, general Wurmfer, the Austrian commander, on the 13th of October made a grand attack upon the lines, which were carried, with the towns of Lauterburg and Weiflemburg, after a comparatively feeble resistance. The French

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retreated with precipitation, and the forts of Haguenauand Vauban were successively reduced by general Wurmser. In the beginning of November the Conventional commissie oners, St. Just and Le Bas, arrived for the purpose of encouraging and re-organizing the troops. They ordered immense reinforcements from the neighbouring departments ; and, to afford a third example of what they styled salutary severity, general Irembert, charged with treachery in the affair of Weiffemburg, was sentenced to be shot at the head of the army. General Hoche, who, as commander of the army of the Moselle, had checked the progress of the duke of Brunswic, now advanced to sustain the army of the Rhine under general Pichegru ; and these two heroes, who were opposed by the equal bravery and fill of the veteran Wurmser, performed in conjunction prodigies of valor. At length the Austrian commander, overpowered by superior force, was compelled fowly and reluctantly to relinquish his conquests; and, after a continued series of the most obstinate conflits, the Republican army, on the 27thof December, entered Weissemburg in triumph, the Imperialists retreating behind the Rhine, and the duke of Brunswic hastily falling back to cover the city of Mentz. The siege of Landau was immediately raised, and Keisarflautern, Germersheim, and Spires, were repossessed by the French troops.

Notwithstanding the very serious aspect which the rebellion in La Vendée had for a time worn, the efforts of the Convention were eminently successful also in that quarter. The character of the insurgents, who were the devoted adherents of CHURCH and KING, was made up of ignorance, superstition, and barbarity. It was said that they mingled the facramental wine with the blood of their adverfaries, and administered it to the people. On one of their captured standards, presented to the Convention, was embroidered, on one side the figure of a bishop in his pontificals, and on the reverse the Virgin Mary, with an infant


Jesus. General Charette, their commander, assaulted the city of Nantz while the citizens were celebrating the civic feast of the 10th of August, but was vigorously repulsed ; after which the insurgents were defeated in a variety of engagements madly contested with the generals Westerman, Beyffer, and Rossignol; and at the end of October they no longer appeared in any considerable force. An expedition had been planned by the British government, but with many concomitant and characteristic circumstances of incoherence and imbecility, for the purpose of co-operating with the royalists on the coasts of Britanny, and the command entrusted to an officer of high and approved merit, the earl of Moira. But this was only a secondary object with the English cabinet, who strained every nerve to exhibit to the best advantage the military talents of the duke of York at the head of a numerous army in Flanders—losing the opportunity, never to be retrieved, of striking a mortal blow into the vitals of France on the opposite quarter. At length, on the ift of December, when the insurrection was in a manner subdued, the British armament failed from Portsmouth, and early the next morning they made the coast of Normandy near Cherbourg ; but not one of the concerted signals was answered from the shore; upon which his lordship retired to Guernsey, where he learned from undoubted intelligence the discomfiture and dispersion of the royalists, upon whom the vengeance of the Convention, by this time wholly Jacobinical, was exercised with the most savage and wicked ferocity. To the proceedings of this famous assembly, since the æra of the trial and execution of the king, it is now become necessary to advert,

On the 15th of February, 1793, the plan of a new constitution, on pure republican principles, was presented to the Convention by M. Condorcet, a leader of the Briffotine faction, in a report from the committee appointed for that important purpose. As the plan in question was universally regarded by all persons, of all parties, as altogether vifonary


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