Obrazy na stronie

Christ's body in

one place.

August. in

Epist. Johan.

Tract. 1.

August. in
Epist. Johan.
Tract. 2.

Orig. in
Matt. Tract.


Orig, in

eadem Hom.

Hieron. in Prov. Lib. i. cap. vii.

more1 with you, but me ye shall not have.' Let good men hear this, and not be careful. For this he spake of the presence of his body. For according to his majesty, according to his providence, according to his unspeakable and invisible grace, it is fulfilled that he said, I am with you always until the consummation of the world.' But according to the flesh that the Word received, according to that he was born of the virgin, according to that he was taken of the Jews, according to that he was nailed to the cross, according to that he was taken down, and lapped in a shroud, and laid in the grave, and rose again, and shewed himself; in this respect it is true that he said, 'Ye shall not evermore have me with you."

Likewise again: Dominus consolatur nos, qui ipsum jam in cœlo sedentem manu contrectare non possumus, sed fide contingere3: "The Lord doth comfort us, that cannot touch him with our hand, sitting now in heaven, but may touch him notwithstanding with our faith." And again: Si illi propterea crediderunt, quia tenuerunt et palpaverunt, nos quid facimus? Jam Christus ascendit in cœlum, et non est venturus, nisi in fine, ut judicet de vivis et mortuis1: "If they therefore believed in Christ, because they held him and touched him, what do we then? For Christ is now ascended into heaven, and will not come again, but in the end, to judge the quick and the dead." So saith Origen: [Christus] secundum... divinitatis suæ naturam non peregrinatur [a nobis]; sed peregrinatur secundum dispensationem corporis, quod suscepit: "Christ, according to the nature of his Godhead, is not a stranger unto us; but he is a stranger to us touching the dispensation of the body, which he hath received." Again: Nec...est homo qui est, ubicunque duo vel tres in ejus nomine fuerint congregati, &c. 6: "It is not Christ, as man, that is wheresoever two or three be gathered in his name; neither is Christ, as man, with us always until the consummation of the world." So likewise saith St Hierome: Christus non est corporaliter in ecclesia: surgens enim a mortuis, ascendit in cœlum: "Christ is not now bodily in the church; for, being risen from the dead, he is ascended into heaven."

I pass over St Ambrose, St Gregory, St Cyril, St Basil, Vigilius, Fulgentius, Didymus, Beda, and other like ancient fathers. Thus were they then resolved of

Christ's body, and this they took to be the catholic faith.

Yet neither were they therefore condemned for new masters, nor followed they only the judgment of nature, nor led they the world with peevish reasons, nor, touching Christ's body, had they forgotten whose body it was, nor were they counted the enemies of God's omnipotent power, nor were they then thought to fight against the church. But M. Harding, with his new-devised fantasy, is a patron and a maintainer of the Manichees, of the Apollinarists, of the Eutychians, and other more horrible and old condemned heretics.

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OR that the priest did then hold up the sacrament over his head.

ARTICLE VII. H. A. 1564.]


*TheThe eleva


tion of the sacrament is

now no arti gion; yet in

Of what weight this ceremony is to be accounted, catholic christian men, whom you call your adversaries, M. Jewel, know no less than you. Verily, whereas it pleaseth you thus to jest, and, like a Lucian, to scoff at the sacraments of the church, and the reverent use of the same, calling all these articles in general the highest mysteries and greatest keys of our religion, without which our doctrine cannot be maintained and stand upright; understand you that this, as sundry other articles which you deny and require proof of, is not such, ne never was so esteemed. priest's lifting up or shewing of the sacrament is not one of the highest mysteries or greatest keys of our religion; and the doctrine of the catholic church may right be maintained and stand without it. But it appeareth you regard not so much what you say, as how you say somewhat for colour of defacing the church: which whiles you go about to do, you deface yourself more than you seem to be ware of, and do that thing whereby among good christian men, specially the learned, you article of the may be ashamed to shew your face. For as you have over rashly, yea, I may say, wickedly affirmed the negative of sundry other articles, and stoutly cracked of your assurance thereof, so you have likewise of this. For, perusing the ancient fathers' writings, we find record of this ceremony used even (154) from the apostles' time The hundred [Elevation of forward. St Dionyse, that was St Paul's scholar, sheweth that the and fifty

the sacrament.

H.A. 1564.]

Eccles. Hier. cap. iii.

of relithe late time

of tyranny it looked unto

was more

than any one


fourth un


and fifty-fifth


priest at his time, after the consecration, was wont to (155) hold up the truth, as shall dreadful mysteries, so as the people might behold them. His words be The hundred these, according to the Greek: Pontifex divina munera laude prosecutus, untruth; for sacrosancta et augustissima mysteria conficit, et collaudata in con- ch spectum agit per symbola sacre proposita 8: "The bishop, after that he hath done words. his service of praising the divine gifts, consecrateth the holy and most worthy mysteries, and bringeth them so praised into the sight of the people, by the tokens set forth for that holy purpose." On which place the ancient Greek writer of the scholies upon that work saith thus: τὸν κουφισμὸν καὶ τὴν ὕψωσιν τῆς μιᾶς εὐλογίας τοῦ θείου ἄρτου φησὶ, ὃν ὑψεῖ ἱερεὺς λέγων, Τὰ ἅγια τοῖς ἁγίοις 9: Loquitur de unius benedictionis, nimirum panis divini, elevatione, quem pontifex (156) in sublime attollit, The hundred dicens, Sancta sanctis: "This father speaketh in this place of the lifting up of the one sixth unblessing (that is to say, of the one form or kind of the sacrament), even of that divine in standbread which the bishop lifteth up on high, saying, Holy things for the holy." *In St translation, Basil's and Chrysostom's 10 mass we find these words: Sacerdos elevans sacrum lifting up a panem, dicit, Sancta sanctis 11: "The priest, holding up that sacred bread, saith, the table; Holy things for the holy." In St Chrysostom's mass we read that, as the people is head." kneeling down after the example of the priest and of the deacon, the deacon, seeing saith, "mo

[ Dionys. Areop. Op. Antv. 1634. De Eccles. Hierarch. cap. iii. 2. Tom. I. p. 284.]

[ Max. Schol. in eod. p. 306; where noiv öv ὑψοῖ ὁ ἱερεύς.]

[10 Chrysostom, 1611.]

[ Pontifex exaltans panem, orat secrete...voce sublata dicit, Sancta sanctis.-Basil. Lit. in Cassandr. Op. Par. 1616. Liturg. cap. viii. p. 23.]

and fifty

in false

He meaneth

little from

not over the



Here is no mention of lifting over the head. M. Harding mistaketh

one thing for


A fable.

the priest stretching forth his hands, and taking up that holy bread, пpòs Tò TOσAL τὴν ἁγίαν ὕψωσιν, ἐκφωνεῖ, πρόσχωμεν, ad sacram elevationem peragendam palam edicit, Attendamus 1, "to do the holy elevation, speaketh out aloud, Let us be attent; and (then) the priest saith (as he holdeth up the sacrament), Holy things for the holy."

Amphilochius, of whom mention is made before in the life of St Basil, speaking of his wondrous celebrating the mass, among other things saith thus: Et post finem orationum exaltavit panem, sine intermissione orans, et dicens, Respice, Domine Jesu Christe, &c.3: "And, after that he had done the prayers of consecration, he lifted up the bread, without ceasing praying, and saying, Look upon us, Lord Jesus Christ, &c." The same St Basil meant likewise of the elevation and holding up of the sacrament after the custom of the occidental church, in his book de Spiritu Sancto, where he saith thus: Invocationis cap. xxvii. verba, dum ostenditur panis eucharistiæ et calix benedictionis, quis sanctorum nobis scripto reliquit? "Which of the saints hath left unto us in writing the The hundred words of invocation, whiles the bread of eucharistia (157) (that is to wit, the blessed sacrament, in form of bread), and the consecrated chalice, is shewed in sight ?” standing in He speaketh there of many things that be of great authority and weight in the church, which we have by tradition only, and cannot be avouched by holy scripture. Of shewing the holy mysteries to them that be present in the sacrifice the old doctors make mention not seldom.

and fiftyseventh untruth,

false con


in Moral.


St Chrysostom declareth the manner of it, saying, that such as were In Epist. accounted unworthy and heinous sinners were put forth of the church Ephes Serm. 3. whiles the sacrifice was offered, whiles Christ and that Lamb of our Lord was sacrificed. Which being put out of the church, then were the rails (of the altar) taken away, to the intent the holy mysteries might be shewed in sight, doubtless to The hundred stir the people to more devotion, reverence, (158) and to the adoration of Christ's body in them present. And thus for the elevation or holding up of the sacrament we the Grecians have said enough.

and fifty

eighth un

truth. For

knew neither

this kind of adoration nor real presence.


M. Harding seemeth in part to disclaim this article, as a matter of small weight, and none of the principal keys of his religion; wherein I see not but I may safely and easily grant unto him, adding notwithstanding thus much withal, that the less it is the less hurt is in it. Yet notwithstanding, of late days it was otherwise esteemed, and most severely exacted, as the thing wherein stood their adoration, which was the whole price and beauty of their mass. The priest was wicked that would not use it: the people was wicked that would not allow it: their greatest doctors have travailed painfully to know the cause and signification of this mystery, and yet cannot find it. All this notwithstanding, it is now confessed to be a small matter, of no great weight, and such as the church may well spare without hindrance. But, as M. Harding here saith his doctrine may sufficiently be maintained, and stand upright without this ceremony of elevation; even so may we truly and justly say, that the heavenly and infallible doctrine of the gospel of Christ may likewise stand upright, and be maintained, not only without this new ceremony, but also without their private mass, without their half communion, without their strange unknown prayers, without their supremacy of Rome, without their transubstantiation, and other like fantasies by them devised.

Yet are not they all of that side hitherto fully resolved touching their own elevation, neither when, nor where, nor wherefore it first came in use, nor what it meaneth. Some of them say the lifting up of the sacramental bread signifieth Christ's incarnation: some of them say it signifieth Christ hanging upon the cross; some of them that it signifieth the taking down of his body from the

[Sacerdos sustollens modicum portionem, quæ est in sancta patina, dicit, Sancta sanctis.-Chrysost. Lit. in eod. ibid. cap. vii. p. 19. See also below, page 512, note 2.]

[ Afore, H. A. 1564.]

[3 Amphiloch. Op. Par. 1644. In Vit. S. Basil. pp. 175, 6. See before, page 188.]

[Basil. Op. Par. 1721-30. Lib. de Spirit. Sanct. cap. xxvii. Tom. III. pp. 54, 5.]

[ ...οὕτω δὴ καὶ ἐνταῦθα, ἐκφερομένης της θυσίας, καὶ τοῦ Χριστοῦ τεθυμένου, καὶ τοῦ προς βάτου τοῦ δεσποτικοῦ, κ. τ. λ.-Chrysost. Op. Par. 1718-38. In Epist. ad Ephes. cap. i. Hom. iii. Tom. XI. p. 23.]

Lib. iii.

iv. de sexta


cross; some his resurrection; some his ascension into heaven; some that it Ger. Lorich. signifieth a sacrifice special, above all sacrifices: some others say that the priest Durand. Lib. lifteth up the chalice, to signify that Christ, crying out with a loud voice, gave parte Canon. up the spirit". M. Harding saith: "It is lifted up doubtless to the intent the Titil de Offic. people may adore." Thus many and more mysteries they have imagined in one thing, and yet the same, as it is confessed, no key of their religion. Disagreement evermore argueth ignorance. St Augustine saith: Si vix aut omnino nunquam inveniri possint caussæ, quas in istis rebus instituendis homines sequuti sunt, August. ad ubi facultas tribuitur, sine ulla dubitatione resecanda existimo":"If the causes Epist. 119. which men followed in devising such things can hardly or never be found, I think it best, when opportunity and occasion is given, they be abolished and put away without scruple or staggering."


Lib. iii.

iv. de sexta parte Canon. John xii.


They have assayed earnestly to prove this ceremony by the warrant of God's word, as if God himself had commanded it. Gerardus Lorichius saith: Hunc ritum David videtur prævidisse in spiritus: "David seemeth to have foreseen this Ger. Lorich. order in the spirit." And to this purpose he allegeth the authority of Rabbi Johai, whom I marvel M. Harding had forgotten. Durandus, for the same, Rab. Johai. allegeth the words of Christ: Ego si exaltatus fuero a terra, omnia traham ad Durand. Lib. meipsum3: "If I be once lifted up from the earth, I shall draw all things to myself 10." And to speed the matter the better forward, Linwood saith: "The pope hath given liberal dole of pardons11;" and the more to astonne the simple Linwood de people, Alexander of Hales saith: "They have of themselves invented and devised Miss. Altis. many strange miracles 12." They have earnestly and sadly disputed whether the Alexand. de cup should be holden up open or covered 13. They say: "It is a matter of special Quæst. 53. meed, and able to confound heresies 14" They have wrested and corrupted the Art. 3. scriptures, and falsified the rabbins for the same. M. Harding also would seem Lib. iv. to allege a multitude of old doctors, and long continuance, even from the apostles' Ger. Lorich. time. To be short, they have holden them for heretics, and burned them, that durst to speak against it. Yet now in the end M. Harding saith: "It is but a small matter, and the rest of their religion may well stand without it." I wonder he proceedeth not herein with as good courage as in the rest.

Neither did I scoff hereat as a Lucian, as it pleaseth M. Harding in his choler to report, but reverently and soberly spake the truth, even as in the presence of God. It pitied me to see God's people so deceived, and that even by such as had taken upon them to be the fathers and guiders of the people. But, O merciful God! what religion may this be that no man may touch or truly report of it, without surmise or suspicion of scoffing? And whereas M. Harding, as a man somewhat overmuch subject to his passions, saith further, “ I may be ashamed to

[ Elevatio hostia videtur respicere ad hoc Christi, Cum exaltatus fuero, omnia traham ad me ipsum. Significat Christum in cruce exaltatum... Sublevatur salutaris hostia ut populus catholicus veneretur et adoret. Elevatio enim...in missa Christi significat passionem, &c.-Ger. Lorich. De Miss. Pub. Prorogand. 1536. Lib. III. cap. iii. pp. 277, 8, 80.

Sacerdos elevat corpus Christi: primo, ut cuncti astantes illud videant, et petant quod proficit ad salutem; juxta illud: Ego si exaltatus fuero a terra, &c. Joan. xii. Secundo ad notandum, quod non est aliud dignum sacrificium: imo est super omnes hostias. Tertio, exaltatio eucharistiæ...signat Christum verum panem, per prophetas in scripturis exaltatum: quando scilicet ejus incarnationem prophetizabant. Unde Esa. Ecce virgo concipiet...Quarto, significat resurrectionem.-Durand. Rat. Div. Offic. Lugd. 1565. Lib. iv. cap. xli. 51. fol. 169. 2. Sacerdos ergo elevans Nicodemum repræsentat: ipsa vero elevatio, Christi depositionem de cruce.-Id. ibid. cap. xlvi. 22. fol. 1842.]

[7 August. Op. Par. 1679-1700. Ad Inq. Januar. Lib. 11. seu Epist. lv. 35. Tom. II. col. 142; where ita ut vix and in eis instituendis.]

[ Hune, &c. quod ex hoc psalmi 72 conjicere

possumus: Et erit fundamentum in terra, in sum-
mis montum superextolletur, &c....Accedit huc quod
Rabbi Johai, qui Christum diu antecessit, hunc ver-
sum magis de eucharistiæ sacramenti institutione, et
de elevationis hostiæ mysterio intelligit: legit enim,
Et erit placenta frumenti in terra in capite montium.
-Ger. Lorich. de Miss. Pub. Prorogand. Lib. III.
cap. iii. p. 278.]

[ See above, note 6.]
[10 Meself, 1565.]

["...ut populares...flectant genua, indulgentias concessas a pluribus episcopis habituri.-Pecch. in Lyndw. Provinc. Oxon. 1679. Lib. 111. Tit. xxiii. pp. 231, 2. See also Annot. in loc. ibid.]

[12 These words have not been met with in Hales. The following, however, is a passage nearly similar: Notandum est autem, quod in corpore Christi undecim miracula considerantur, de quibus expressa reddi ratio non potest.- Durand. Rat. Div. Offic. Lib. IV. cap. xli. 16. fol. 164.]

[13 Id. ibid. cap. xlii. 30. fol. 166. 2.]

[14...quod ritus ille vere est salutaris, quippe qui occasio est maximi meriti, et simul errorum multorum obstructio quædam.-Ger. Lorich. De Miss. Pub. Prorogand. Lib. 111. cap. iii. p. 279.] ·

Hales, iv.

Memb. 4.


Lib. iii.

Rom. i.

Luke ix.

Tit. Liv.

Lib. i.

Plut. in

Hier. cap. iii.

shew my face among learned men;" if he mean the learned of his own side, verily, it can be no great glory for me to behold those faces that have been so often turned. O M. Harding! we have no cause to be ashamed of the gospel of Christ: "it is the mighty power of God unto salvation." I pray God, that both you and I may leave these worldly respects and faces of men, and so use the gifts that God hath lent us, and so freely discharge our consciences in this life, that Christ be not ashamed of us before his Father, but we may come to see God face to face.

Touching the matter itself, M. Harding thinketh it best to claim his elevation even from the apostles' time. So the Romans in old times, because they knew not from whence their ancilia came unto them, they thought it not amiss, for the more credit of the matter, to say they were sent to them from heaven. So Romulus and Theseus, because they were base-born, and no man knew their fathers, therefore were reckoned to be the children of the gods. Dionysius, Chrysostomus, and Basil, as they are worthy of much credit for their antiquity, so in this case they say nothing that of our part is denied. The question is, whether the priest did then hold up the sacrament over his head, or no. This thing M. Harding dissembleth and passeth by, and turneth his whole proof to another thing, that neither is doubted of nor denied. First, whereas Dionysius Dion. Eccles, saith, In conspectum agit1; "He bringeth the mysteries into sight;" this maketh very small proof of M. Harding's side, except happily he will say, no man can bring a thing to sight, unless he hold it over his head. But that thou mayest thoroughly and fully see both the very ground and sense of these words of Dionysius, and also M. Harding's perverse and strange construction touching the same, it may please thee, gentle reader, to understand that in those days the manner was, that the sacrament, being all in one whole loaf or cake, undivided, should remain still upon the holy table, covered under a fair cloth, until the time of the distribution thereof unto the people. Touching which ceremony PachyPachym. meres the Greek paraphrast writeth thus: Αποκαλυπτομένων τῶν παναγίων δώρων μετὰ Eccles. Hier. dè Εθιες. Πει! τὰς εὐχὰς, μενόντων δὲ κεκαλυμμένων ἕως καιροῦ μεταλήψεως”: “The holy gifts being Maximus: opened after the prayers or consecration, and yet remaining still covered until the time of the distribution, &c." So likewise saith Maximus in his scholy upon the same place; and addeth further: Not only the holy bread was set forth covered, but also the holy cup, which thing, he saith, now is not done3.

in tert. caput

От кека

λυμμένου ἔμενε τὸ

θεῖον δώρου ἕως καιροῦ

μεταλή ψεως.

Dion. Eccles.

Hierar. cap. iii.

εἰς ὄψιν ἄγει.

τὸν γὰρ Сукекаλυμμένου

This order or ceremony to the church then well considered, Dionysius is plain enough of himself without other commentary. For thus stand his words: Profert ea, quæ laudavit, in conspectum,... per symbola reverenter proposita: et dona sacrificiorum commonstrans, ad sacram illorum communionem et ipse accedit, et hortatur alios: "The priest bringeth forth the things that he hath praised into sight, by the tokens reverently set before him; and, shewing forth the gifts of the mysteries, both he himself draweth near to the holy communion of the same, and also exhorteth others." This shewing and bringing into sight was nothing else but the uncovering and laying abroad of the mysteries.

If M. Harding will say this exposition is wrested or violent, let him then hear Dionysius expound himself: thus he writeth afterward in the speculation or exposition of the same: In conspectum profert, &c.: "He bringeth forth the things that he hath praised into sight," &c. It followeth: Nam opertum et indivisum panem aperiens, et in multas partes dividens, et unitatem poculi omnibus Kai adai- impertiens, symbolice implet unitatem: "For uncovering the bread that was PETO ap- covered, and stood whole and undivided, and cutting it into many parts, and Augas, kai parting the unity of the cup unto all the people, by way of a sacrament he cis To fulfilleth unity." If all this will not content M. Harding, yet Dionysius saith again in plainer sort: τὰ μὲν ἐγκεκαλυμμένα δῶρα εἰς τὸ ἐμφανὲς ἄγει" : Munera quæ tecta

τον ανακα


εἰς τὸ ἐμ

φανές άγει.

[ Dionys. Areop. Op. Antv. 1634. De Eccles.

Hierarch. cap. iii. 2. Tom. I. p. 284.]

[2 Pachym. Paraphr. in eod. p. 316.]

[3 Max. Schol. in eod. p. 306; also p. 312; where μᾶλλον τότε ἔμενον κεκαλυμμένα τὰ θεῖα δῶρα, ἕως καιροῦ τῆς ἁγίας μεταλήψεως.]

[* Of, 1565, 1609.]

[ Dionys. Areop. Op. De Eccles. Hierarch. cap. iii. 2. Tom. I. p. 284; where i' ö.]

[" Id. ibid. 3. p. 299.]

[7 Id. ibid. pp. 299, 300; where após тò èμpaνὲς ἄγων.]

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