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moss in Scania. It appears from the description of the horns to be an extinct, or at least, an unknown species. 3. Fossil deer of Somme.—The horns, the only parts hitherto discovered, show that this animal, although nearly allied to the fallow-deer, must have been much larger than the fallowdeer. The horns occur in loose sand in the valley of Somme in France, and in Germany. 4. Fossil deer of Etampes.—Allied to the reindeer, but much smaller, not exceeding the roe in size. The bones were found in abundance near Etampes in France, imbedded in sand. 5. Fossil roe of Orleans.—Found in the vicinity of Orleans. It occurs in limestone, along with bones of the palaeotherium. It is the only instance known of the remains of a living species having been found along with those of extinct species. But Cuvier enquires, May not the bones belong to a species of roe, of which the distinctive characters lie in parts hitherto undiscovered 2 6. Fossil roe of Somme.—Very nearly allied to the roe. Found in the peat of Somme. 7. Fossil red deer or stag.—Resembling the red deer or stag. Its horns are found in peatbogs, or sand pits in Scotland, England, France, Germany, and Italy. 8. Fossil fallow deer.—Found in peat-bogs and marl pits in Scotland and France. Bos, or.—1. Aurochs.-Cuvier considers this as distinct from the common ox, and it differs from the present varieties in being larger. Skulls and horns of this species have been found in alluvial soil in England, Scotland, France, Germany, and America. 2. Common or—The skulls of this species also differ from those of the present existing races, in being larger, and the direction of the horns being different. They occur in alluvial soil in many different parts of Europe, and are considered by Cuvier as belonging to the original race of the present domestic ox. 3. Large buffalo of Siberia.-The skull of this animal is of great size, and appears to belong to a species not at present known. It is not the common buffalo, nor can it be identified with the large buffalo of India, named armee. Cuvier conjectures that it must have lived at the same time with the fossil elephant and rhinoceros, in the frozen regions of Siberia. 4. Fossil or, resembling the musk or of America—More nearly resembling the American musk ox than any other species, and have hitherto been found only in Siberia. These fossil remains of deer and oxen may be distinguished into two classes, the unknown and the known ruminants. In the first class Cuvier places the Irish elk, the small deer of Etampes, the stag of Scania, and the great buffalo of Siberia; in the second class he places the common stag, the common roe-buck, the fallow deer, the aurochs, the ox which seems to have been the original of the domestic ox, the buffalo with approximated horns, which appears to be analogous to the musk ox of Canada; and there remains a dubious species, the great deer

of Somme, which much resembles the common fallow-deer.

“From what has been ascertained in regard to the strata,’ says Mr. Jameson, in which these remains have been found, it would appear that the known species are contained in newer beds than the unknown. Further, that the fossil remains of the known species are those of animals of the climate where they are now found: thus the stag, ox, aurochs, roe-deer, fallow deer, now dwell, and have always dwelt, in cold countries; whereas the species which are regarded as unknown appear to be analogous to those of warm countries: thus the great buffalo of Siberia can only be compared with the buffalo of India, the armee. M. Cuvier concludes that the facts hitherto collected seem to announce, at least as plainly as such imperfect documents can, that the two sorts of fossil ruminants belong to two orders of alluvial deposites, and consequently to two different geological o ; that the one have been, and are now, daily becoming enveloped in alluvial matter; whereas, the others have been the victims of the same revolution which destroyed the other species of the alluvial strata; such as mammoths, mastodons, and all the multungula, the genera of which now exist only in the torrid zone.


Rhinoceros antiquitatis.-Only one fossil species has hitherto been discovered, which differs from the five living species, not only instructure, but in geographical distribution. It was first noticed in the time of Grew, in alluvial soil near Canterbury. Sir E. Hone describes, in the Philosophical Transactions for 1817, a nearly perfect ...] of this species, which was found in a cave in limestone, near Plymouth. Similar remains have been found in many places of Germany, France, and Italy. In Siberia, not only single bones and skulls, but the whole animal, with the flesh and skin, have been discovered.

Hippopotamus.-Two fossil species have been ascertained by Cuvier. The one, which is the largest, is so very nearly allied to the species at

resent living on the surface of the earth, that it is difficult to determine whether or no it is not the same. Its fossil remains have been found in alluvial soil in France and Italy. The second fossil species, and the smallest, not being larger than a hog, is well characterised, and is entirely different from any of the existing species of quadrupeds.

Tapir.—The tapir, until lately, was considered as an animal peculiar to the new world, and confined to South America; but the recent discovery of a new species in Sumatra proves that it also occurs in the old world. Two fossil species of this genus have been discovered in Europe. The one is named the small, the other the gigantic tapir, and both have been found in different parts of France, Germany, and Italy.

Elephas jubatus, or primigenus, elephant or mammoth.-Of this genus two species are at present known as inhabitants of the earth. e one, which is confined to Africa, is named the African elephant; the other, which is a native of Asia, is named the Asiatic elephant. Only one fossil species has hitherto been discovered. It is the mammoth of the Russians. It differs from

both the existing species, but agrees more nearly with the Asiatic than the African species. It appears to have been clothed in fur, and provided with a mane. Its bones have been found in many different parts of this island; as in the alluvial soil around London, in the county of Northampton, at Gloucester, at Trenton, near Stafford, near Harwich, at Norwich, in the island of Sheppy, in the river Medway, in Salisbury Plain, and in Flintshire in Wales; and similar remains have been dug up in the north of Ireland. this animal have been dug up in Sweden, and Cuvier conjectures that the bones of supposed giants, mentioned by the celebrated bishop Pontoppidan as having been found in Norway, are remains of the fossil elephant. Torfaeus mentions a head and tooth of this animal dug up in the island of Iceland. In Russia, in Europe, Poland, Germany, France, Holland, and Hungary, teeth and bones of this species of elephant have been found in abundance. Humboldt found teeth of this animal in North and South America. But it is in Asiatic Russia that they occur in greatest abundance. Pallas says, that from the Dom or the Tanais to Tichutskoinoss, there is scarcely a river the bank of which does not afford remains of the mammoth; and these are frequently imbedded in, or covered with alluvial soil containing marine productions. The bones are generally dispersed, seldom occuring in complete skeletons, and still more rarely do we find the fleshy part of the animal preserved. One of the most interesting instances on record of the preservation of the carcase of this animal is thus given by M. Cuwher:“In the year 1799, a Tungusian fisherman observed a strange shapeless mass projecting from an ice-bank, near the mouth of a river in the north of Siberia, the nature of which he did not understand, and which was so high in the bank as to be beyond his reach. He next year observed the same object, which was then rather more disengaged from among the ice, but was still unable to conceive what it was. Towards the end of the following summer, 1801, he could distinctly see that it was the frozen carcase of an enormous animal, the entire flank of which, and one of its tusks, had become disengaged from the ice. In consequence of the ice beginning to melt earlier, and to a greater degree than usual in 1803, the fifth year of this discovery, the enormous carcase became entirely disengaged, and fell dow from the ice craig on a sand-bank forming part of the coast of the Arctic Ocean. In the month of March of that year the Tungusian carried away the two tusks, which he sold for the value of fifty rubles; and at this time a drawing was made of the animal of which I possess a copy. ‘Two years afterwards, or in 1806, Mr. Adams went to examine this animal, which still remained on the sand bank where it had fallen from the ice, but its body was then greatly mutilated. The Jukuts of the neighbourhood had taken away considerable quantities of its flesh to feed their dogs; and the wild animals, particularly the white bears, had also feasted on the carcase; yet the skeleton remained quite entire,

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except that one of the fore legs was gone. The entire spine, the pelvis, one shoulder-blade, and three legs, were still held together by their ligaments, and by some remains of the skin ; and the other shoulder-blade was found at a short distance. The head remained, covered by the dried skin, and the pupil of the eye was still distinguishable. The brain also remained within the skull, but a good deal shrunk and dried up; and one of the ears was in excellent preservation, still retaining a tuft of strong bristly hair. The upper lip was a good deal eaten away, and the under lip was entirely gone, so that the teeth were distinctly seen. The animal was a male, and had a long mane on its neck. “The skin was extremely thick and heavy, and as much of it remained as required the exertions of ten men to carry away, which they did with considerable difficulty. More than thirty pounds weight of the hair and bristles of this animal were gathered from the wet sandbank, having been trampled into the mud by the white bears while devouring the carcase. Some of the hair was presented to our Museum of Natural History by M. Targe, censor in the Lyceum of Charlemagne. It consists of three drstinct kinds. One of these is stiff black bristles, a foot or more in length; another is thinner bristles, or coarse flexible hair, of a reddishbrown color; and the third is a coarse reddishbrown wool, which grew among the roots of the long hair. These afford an undeniable proof that this animal had belonged to a race of elephants inhabiting a cold region, with which we are now unacquainted, and by no means fitted to dwell in the torrid zone. It is also evident that this enormous animal must have been frozen up by the ice at the moment of its death. Mr. Adams, who bestowed the utmost care in collecting all the parts of this animal, proposes to publish an exact account of its osteology, which must be an exceedingly valuable present to the philosophical world. In the mean time, from the drawing I have now before me, I have every reason to believe that the sockets of the teeth of this northern elephant have the same proportional lengths with those of other fossil ele#. of which the entire skulls have been ound in other places.’ Sus proavitus, hog.—Only single bones and teeth of this tribe have been hitherto met with ; some of these appear to belong to the sus scrofa, or common hog; while others are of a dubious nature. They are found in loam, along with the remains of the elephant and rhinoceros, and even imbedded in peat mosses. MAstodon. Mammoth of Blumenbach.-This is entirely a fossil genus, no living species having hitherto been discovered in any part of the world. It is more nearly allied to the elephant than to any other animal of the present creation; it appears to have been an herbivorous animal; and the largest species, the great mastodon of Cuvier, was equal in size to the elephant. Five species are described by Cuvier. 1. Great mastodon, mammoth ohioticum of Blumenbach-This species has been hitherto found in greatest abundance in North America, near the river Ohio, and remains of it have been dug up

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