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not in all cases, such a connecting unity; and certainly nothing can be more valuable to the student, than the constant assumption, that there is a reason for every thing in language, which may in most cases be discovered; yet still coupled with the admission, that there may be occasional failures, and with a caution against over-refinement. It may sometimes be impossible to determine the primary from the secondary senses, because the change to the latter, although never arbitrary, may have depended on accidental circumstances, on which the history of the language or of the people sheds no light. For example had not the ancient manner of making covenants been known to us historically, as set forth in the Bible and in classic authors, we should have been utterly at a loss in determining how the Hebrew on, the Greek réuvw, and the Latin pango, came to have this peculiar application. If, therefore, under such circumstances, these words had been found only in their secondary uses, (as is the case with many others, every effort to deduce from them the remote primary sense must have been mere conjecture, probably widely variant from the truth. If there is, however, any error here, it is far more safe than that opposite fault, which consists in dividing and subdividing, one radix into several, with varying primary senses, to correspond to what appear to be independent derivatives. Even should the assigned primary be a mere conjecture, it may still serve as an important aid to the memory, by forming a bond of connection, although perhaps an artificial one, for the various secondary applications. It has besides this advantage, that even in its failures, it habituates the student to a process of investigation, necessary to be employed in the right acquisition of any language.

The opposite error, to which we have alluded, forms a striking fault of the lexicon of Gesenius. Words, in which all the derivatives, and secondary senses, may be arranged under one primary, and deduced from it in a natural and satisfactory manner, are not unfrequently divided by Gesenius into distinct roots, each with a separate and independent meaning. Many examples of this might be given did our limits permit. One striking peculiarity of Gesenius is his great fondness for deducing the Hebrew senses from the Arabica fondness which he often carries to great excess, in resorting to far fetched derivations from the cognate tongues, when the pure Hebrew origin is too manifest to be mistaken. Our author makes much more

use of the Hebrew in explaining itself. His almost vernacular acquaintance with the language led him to appreciate more fully its resources, than could be done by one whose knowledge of it, however critical, was of a different kind. All the works of our author show, that he is deeply imbued with the Hebrew spirit, and that he thinks and feels in the language, whilst Gesenius only speculates about it.*

ARTICLE X.

CRITICAL NOTICE S.

1.-Psychology; or Elements of a New System of Mental Phi

losophy, on the basis of Consciousness and Common Sense. Designed for Colleges and Academies. By S. S. Schmucker, D. D., Professor of Christian Theology in the Theol. Sem., Gettysburg, Pa. New-York: Harper & Brothers, 1842. pp. 227.

Had not our confidence in the good sense of the author forbid the apprehension, the title of this book would have awakened in our minds a suspicion as to the wisdom and soberness of its plan. After all the study, and trained and vigorous reasoning, that have been expended in the investigation of mind and its phenomena, it argues either great temerity, or an unusual degree of self-reliance, to attempt a “System of Mental Philosophy,” which may be properly denominated new. Orig. inal investigation, however, in respect to all subjects, should

* We would simply annex the concluding paragraph of the publisher's prospectus for the benefit of those who may wish to subscribe. It announces that “the work will be completed in 9 parts of 100 pages each, which it is proposed to issue at intervals of two or three months, at one dollar a part, to be paid on delivery. Those who have already sub. scribed, and also those who shall subscribe before the second number appears, will receive the last number gratis. After the work is completed the price will be raised. Orders for the work may be sent either directly to the publishers or to any of the booksellers in the country.” ED.

be encouraged. When conducted with a due regard to the eternal truths of revelation, and the principles which are settled in the experience of all mankind, it constitutes our only means of advancement in knowledge. Such advancement may doubtless be made in the science of Mind; and, if we mistake not, Dr. Schmucker has accomplished a valuable work by the clearness and simplicity of his division and arrangement of its elements. He does not attempt a system in all respects new. There is in it no affectation of novelty ; but the author, having thoroughly studied the works of others, has carefully subjected every principle to the test of his own experience. This he has done for many years, with the advantages of having been constantly engaged as a Teacher of Mental Science, and other associated branches. The result is the suggestion of what he regards some important modifications and improvements in the arrangement and classification of the materials of the science; and which, as a system, may perhaps with some propriety be denominated new.

This system has been constructed with great care and thoroughness. It is sufficiently condensed, in the volume before us, and is stated and illustrated with unusual precision and clearness. It is in these respects well adapted for use as a Text-book in Academies and Colleges. It is all embraced in 200 pages, the remaining 27 pages of the volume being occupied with a recapitulation of the leading principles and statements of the system, for the purpose of reviews. It represents the proper materials of Mental science to be, “not the supposed faculties, of which we know nothing directly, but the known phenomena of the mind, and all those entities or exis. tences, which exert an influence upon these phenomena, or are concerned in their production.” Its division of these phenomena, or operations, is threefold, embracing them all under the terms Cognative Ideas, Sentient Ideas, and Active Operations. The first embraces perceptions, consciousness, conceptions, judgments, recollections, results of reasoning, etc.; the second embraces sensations, emotions, affections, and passions; and the third, volitions, processes of reasoning, acts of memorizing, etc.

The Will is defined to be “that power of the soul by which it freely determines, in view of motives, either now or hereafter, absolutely or conditionally, to perform or not to perform some one or more of the active operations.” The motives by which the soul is influenced, in respect to its acts of choice, are its constitutional inclinations, the bodily appetites, and all other en tities. Yet the will is free in all its acts of choice.

Such are the leading features of this system. Its principles are stated didactically and illustrated with great brevity. Their difference from those of other systems is only occasionally referred to, and the work is wholly free from that polemical aspect which has too much affected most philosophical discussions. On the whole we anticipate a favorable reception of this new system, as a concise, intelligible, and convenient class-book of Mental science.

2.Travels in Europe and the East, embracing Observations

made during a Tour through Great Britain, Ireland, France, Belgium, Holland, Prussia, Saxony, Bohemia, Austria, Bavaria, Switzerland, Lombardy, Tuscany, the Papal States, the Neapolitan Dominions, Malta, the Islands of the Archipelago, Greece, Egypt, Asia Minor, Turkey, Moldavia, Wallachia and Hungary, in the years 1834, 35, '36, '37, '38, '39, '40, and '41. By Valentine Mott, M. D., President of the Medical Faculty of the University of New York, and Professor of Surgery, etc. etc. New-York: Harper & Brothers, 1842. pp. 452.

It has become fashionable, of late, to denominate a certain character of style suggestive. The above title exhibits this character in a remarkable degree. Besides its very numerous specifications, it suggests the author's high professional reputation, that he has enjoyed very peculiar advantages in his foreign travels, and has seen a great many countries and things, which he must of course be better qualified, than most tourists, to describe. We accordingly commenced the perusal of this handsome octavo volume, with raised expectations. In some respects, however, we have been disappointed.

The introductory pages, and other portions of the book which appear to be wholly original, besides containing many things of trifling interest, are written in a style which is strikingly faulty. Its sentences are unreasonably long and loaded with epithets; and, in many instances, they need to be broken up and rearranged, to become easily intelligible. There are also blunders in grammatical construction, and a use of unauthorized words, as “ objectional,” for objectionable, etc., indicating a defect of literary taste and discrimination, which would hardly be tolerated in a work of much lower pretensions.

But while we feel constrained to enter these strictures, we would by no means undervalue the work before us;. or dis

courage its perusal. The high professional standing of Dr. Mott, as a surgeon, gave him access to the best sources of information, on subjects relating to medical and surgical sci. ence, and his long residence and extensive travels abroad have enabled him to make some valuable remarks on the state of the healing art in the several countries which he visited. That portion of his book which relates to the European States, is confined almost exclusively to topics of this sort, and to descriptions of his interviews with distinguished individuals of the medical profession. Two thirds of the volume, however, are occupied with a narrative of his travels in Greece and Egypt, and the other Eastern countries named in the titlepage, with historical sketches of their monumental remains, notices and illustrations of the present condition and habits of the people, etc. These portions of the work are written in a better style than the introductory chapters, and will be read with interest by those who are not already familiar with the work of Mr. Pittàkys on Egypt, and other authors from whom Dr. Mott has derived the materials of his sketches.

3.-HARPERS' FAMILY LIBRARY:

No. 145. On the Beauties, Harmonies, and Sublimities of Nature ; with Notes, Commentaries, and Illustrations. By Charles Bucke, author of Ruins of Ancient Cities,etc. Selected and Revised by William P. Page.

No. 146. Essays on Property and Labor, as connected with Natural Law and the Constitution of Society. By Francis Leiber.

No. 147. The Natural History of Selborne. By Rev. Gilbert White, A. M., Fellow of Oriel College, Oxford.

New-York: Harper & Brothers, 1842. These are the last volumes of the Family Library, which have come into our hands; and as is usual in this series, they are good and useful books. The first is made up of choice selections from the larger work of Mr. Bucke, in three vol. umes. It comprises fifty-one distinct topics, relating to the most interesting and exciting objects and scenes in nature, and abounds in striking facts and sentiments, and in beautiful imagery. Its perusal is suited to exert a salutary moral infuence upon the mind, and to excite an admiration of the works of God.

Dr. Leiber's Essay is a truly philosophical, and at the same time, a popular and very intelligible discussion of an important subject, on which there has heretofore existed great di

SECOND SERIES, VOL. VII. NO. II.'

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