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and thirty

truth.

Nyssenus in

meat this place It is speaketh not bread the sacra

one word of

471 virginis perdocti, facile saturantur 10: (138) which words report so plainly the truth The hundred of Christ's body in the sacrament, as all manner of figure and signification must be eighth unexcluded. And thus they may be Englished: "The bread that came down from heaven For Gregory is not a bodiless thing. For by what mean shall a bodiless thing be made to a body? And the thing which is not bodiless is a body, without doubt. not earing11, nor12 sowing, not the work of tillers, that hath brought forth the of this body; but the earth which remained untouched, and yet was full of the bread, whereof they that wax hungry, being thoroughly taught the mystery of the virgin, soon have their fill." Of these words may easily be inferred a conclusion, that in the sacrament is Christ, and that in the same we receive him corporally, that is, in verity and substance of his body; forasmuch as that is there, and that is of us received, which was brought forth and born of the virgin Mary.

In Johan.

ment.

Cyrillus, that ancient father and worthy bishop of Alexandria, for conLib. x. cap. xiii. firmation of the catholic faith in this point, saith thus: Non... negamus recta nos fide caritateque sincera Christo spiritualiter conjungi: sed nullam nobis conjunctionis rationem secundum carnem cum illo esse, id profecto pernegamus, idque a divinis scripturis omnino alienum dicimus 13 "We deny not but that we are joined spiritually with Christ, by right faith and pure charity; but that we have no manner of joining with him according to the flesh (which is one as to say carnaliter, 'carnally') that we utterly deny14, and say, that it is not agreeable with the scriptures." Again, lest any man should think this joining of us and Christ together to be (139) by other means than by the participation of his body in the sacrament, The hundred in the same place afterward he saith further: An fortassis putat ignotam nobis and thirtymysticæ benedictionis virtutem esse? Quæ cum in nobis fiat, nonne corporaliter truth. quoque facit communicatione corporis Christi Christum in nobis habitare 15 ? dwelleth in What, troweth this Arian heretic perhaps that we know not the virtue of the mysti- are incorpocal blessing, (whereby is meant this sacrament)? which when it is become to be in us, by baptism, doth it not cause Christ to dwell in us corporally by receiving of Christ's body in the appear. communion?" And after this he saith as plainly that Christ is in us, non habitu- In us. dine solum, quæ per caritatem intelligitur... verumetiam et participatione naturali 16; "not by charity only, but also by natural participation."

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Lib. in Johan.

ninth un

For Christ

us, and we

rate into him

&c. as shall

The same Cyril saith in another place, that through the holy communion of Christ's body we are joined to him in natural union: Quis enim eos, xi. cap. xxvi. qui unius sancti corporis unione in uno Christo uniti sunt, ab hac naturali unione alienos putabit 17? "Who will think," saith he, "that they, which be united together by the union of that one holy body in one Christ, be not of this natural union?" He calleth this also a corporal union in the same book, and at length after large discussion how we be united unto 18 Christ, not only by charity and obedience of religion, but also in substance, concludeth thus: Sed de unione corporali satis: "But we have treated enough of the corporal union." Yet afterward in divers sentences he useth these adverbs (140) for declaring of the verity of Christ's body in the The hundred sacrament, naturaliter, substantialiter, secundum carnem, or carnaliter, corpo- untruth. raliter, as most manifestly in the twenty-seventh chapter of the same book: Corpo- not one word raliter... Filius per benedictionem mysticam nobis ut homo unitur, spiritualiter of her autem ut Deus 19: "The Son of God is united unto us corporally as man, and ment. spiritually as God."

Again, whereas he saith there: Filium... Dei natura Patri unitum corporaliter substantialiterque... accipientes, clarificamur, glorificamurque 20, &c.: "We, re

[10 Gregor. Nyss. Op. Par. 1638. De Vit. Mos. Tom. I. p. 214.] [ Earing: ploughing.]

[12 Not, 1565, 1609, and H. A. 1564.] [13 Cyril. Alex. Op. Lut. 1638. Comm. in Joan. Evang. Lib. x. cap. ii. Tom. IV. p. 862.]

[14 Deny utterly, H. A. 1564.]

[15 Λεγέτω γάρ τις ἡμῖν τὴν αἰτίαν, καὶ διδασκέτω παρελθὼν τῆς μυστικῆς εὐλογίας τὴν δύναμιν. γίνεται γὰρ ἐν ἡμῖν διατί; ἆρ ̓ οὐχὶ καὶ σωματικῶς ἡμῖν ἐνοικίζουσα τὸν Χριστὸν τῇ μεθέξει καὶ κοινωνίᾳ τῆς ἁγίας αὐτοῦ σαρκός ;- Id. ibid.]

[16 Εν γὰρ δὴ τούτῳ μάλιστα κατιδεῖν ἄξιον, ὡς οὐ κατὰ σχέσιν τινὰ μόνην, τὴν ἐν διαθέσει νοουμέ

ນາ”,

ἐν ἡμῖν ἔσεσθαί φησιν ὁ Χριστὸς, ἀλλὰ καὶ κατὰ
μέθεξιν [φυσικὴν] ἤτοι φυσικήν. Id. ibid. p. 863.]
[17 Id. ibid. Lib. xI. cap. xi. pp. 998, 9.]
[18 To, H. A. 1564.]

[19 Id. ibid. cap. xii. p. 1001.]

[20 Id. ibid. p. 1002. See also Lib. XII. pp. 1104, 5. It may be observed that these quotations seem to have been made from the Latin version. See therefore Op. Insig. Cyril. Alex. in Evang. Joan, a G. Trapezont. traduct. Par. 1508. Lib. x. cap. xiii. fol. 151; Lib. XI. cap. xxvi. fol. 181. cap. xxvii. fol. 182; Lib. XII. cap. lviii. fol. 216; where in the second quotation communicatione carnis Christi.]

and fortieth For here is

presence

Christ

in us.

ceiving the Son of God, united to the Father by nature corporally and substantially, dwelleth are clarified and glorified, or made glorious, being made partakers of the supreme nature." The like saying he hath Lib. xii. cap. 58. Now this being and remaining of Christ in us, and of us in Christ naturally and carnally, and this uniting of us The hundred and Christ together corporally, presupposeth a participation of his very body, (141) first untruth, which body we cannot truly participate but in this blessed sacrament. And therepernicious fore Christ is in the sacrament naturally, carnally, corporally, that is to say, ous doctrine. according to the truth of his nature, of his flesh, and of his body. (142) For were The hundred not he so in the sacrament, we could not be joined unto him, nor he and we could not second un- be joined and united together corporally.

and forty

joined with

and danger

and forty

truth.

For Christ is likewise joined cor

Divers other ancient fathers have used the like manner of speech; but none so much as Hilarius and Cyrillus; (143) whereby they understand that Christ is preby the sacra- sent in the1 sacrament, as we have said, according to the truth of his substance, of ment of bap- his nature, of his flesh, of his body and blood.

porally to us

tism.

The hundred

and forty

third un

truth. For they neither understand

so, nor write

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Bernard. de
Epiph.
Serm. i.

Basil. in Apol, ad Cæsar.

καὶ αἷμα

THE BISHOP OF SARISBURY.

Now at the last M. Harding draweth near the matter, and bringeth forth the old fathers with these very terms, "really," "substantially," "corporally," "carnally," &c. and allegeth these few, as he saith, instead of many, having indeed no more to bring. And although these fathers speak not any one word that is either denied by us or any wise serveth to this purpose, yet he cunningly leadeth away the eyes of the ignorant with the shew of old names, and, like a juggler, changeth the natural countenance of things, and maketh them appear what him listeth.

us.

For whereas he hath taken in hand to prove that Christ's body is really and fleshly in the sacrament, he, finding his weakness and want therein, altereth the whole case, and proveth that Christ's body is really, fleshly, and naturally within But this matter was not in question, and therefore needeth2 no proof at all. Herein standeth the whole guile; and thus the simple is deceived. To this end M. Harding so useth the words and witness of these holy fathers, as Cacus the outlaw sometime used Hercules' kine3: because he cannot handsomely drive them forward, he taketh them by the tails, and pulleth them backward.

But because M. Harding will hereof reason thus, If Christ's body by mean of the sacrament be really and carnally in us, it is likely the same body is also really and carnally in the sacrament: for answer hereunto, it shall be necessary first to understand how many ways Christ's body dwelleth in our bodies, and thereby afterward to view M. Harding's reason. Four special means there be whereby Christ dwelleth in us and we in him: his nativity, whereby he embraced us; our faith, whereby we embrace him; the sacrament of baptism; and the sacrament of his body. By every of these means Christ's body dwelleth in our bodies; and that not by way of imagination, or by figure or fantasy; but really, naturally, substantially, fleshly, and indeed.

And touching Christ's nativity, St Bernard saith: [Corpus Christi] de meo est, et meum est: parvulus enim natus est nobis, et filius datus est nobis1: "The body of Christ is of my body, and is now become mine; for a Babe is born unto us, and a Son is given unto us." So saith St Basil: Participes facti sumus Verbi et Sapientiæ per incarnationem et sensibilem vitam. Carnem enim et sanguinem appelσapka yap lavit omnem illam mysticam conversationem 5: “ "We are partakers of the Word and of the Wisdom (which is Christ) by his incarnation, and by his sensible life. For TUOTI flesh and blood he called all his mystical conversation.' *So saith Gregorius δημίαν Nyssenus Corpus Christi... est omnis humana natura, cui admixtus est": "His ouage. body is all mankind, whereunto he is mingled." And thus Christ, being in the womb of the blessed virgin, became flesh of our flesh, and bone of our bones. And in that sense St John saith: Verbum caro factum est, et habitavit in nobis: subjicietur ei. The Word was made flesh, and dwelt in us." And therefore Christ calleth him

πᾶσαν...

κὴν ἐπι·

"In dictum apostoli, Tunc etiam

ipse filius

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self the vine, and us the branches: St Paul calleth Christ the head, and us the body; which be names of most near and natural conjunction.

Christ dwelleth in us.

John i.

John xv.

Col. ii.

2 Pet. i.

Trall.

Touching faith, St Paul saith: Christus habitat in cordibus nostris per fidem: "Christ by faith dwelleth in our hearts." And St Peter saith: "Hereby we are made partakers of the divine nature." So saith Ignatius: “By his passion and resurrection (that is, by our faith in the same) we are made the members of his body7." Eph. iv. And notwithstanding by these means Christ be in us, and we in him, yet for- Eph. iii. asmuch as both our life and faith is unperfect, as we daily desire God to amend Ignat. ad our life, and to augment our faith, even so we daily pray that this conjunction between Christ and us may be increased, that Christ may come nearer and nearer9 into us, and that we may grow into a perfect 10 man in him. And to this end God hath specially appointed us his holy sacraments. And therefore St Paul saith concerning the sacrament of baptism: "They that are baptized are Eph. iv. planted into Christ;" "they have put Christ upon them;" "by one Spirit they are Gal. iii. baptized into one body." St Augustine saith: Ad hoc baptismus valet, ut bapti- De Conser zati Christo incorporentur11: "This is the use of baptism, that they that be Dist. 4. baptized may be incorporate into Christ." Which word incorporari he useth also in sundry other places, speaking of baptism. In this respect Dionysius saith: De Eccles. Baptizati transimus in Deum12: "Being baptized, we are turned into God." And cap. i. Pachymeres saith: "We are graft into Christ, and made one nature with him by Dionys. holy baptism 13."

Rom. vi.

1 Cor. xii.

Ad hoc.

Hierarch.

Pachym. in cap. iv.

σύμφυτοι

τοῦ θείου

Bonavent. In

Thus much may suffice to descry M. Harding's slender argument. For, not- yeyovores withstanding by the sacrament of baptism Christ be naturally in us, yet may not aw dia he therefore conclude that Christ is naturally in the sacrament of baptism. BarтioμаBonaventura saith well: Non est aliquo modo dicendum, quod gratia continetur in Tos. sacramentis essentialiter, tanquam aqua in vase.... hoc enim dicere est erroneum. iv. Sent. Sed dicuntur continere gratiam, quia eam significant 14: "We may not in any wise Quæst. 3. say, that the grace of God is contained in the sacraments, as water in a vessel. For so to say, it were an error. But they are said to contain God's grace, because they signify God's grace."

Dist. 1.

But Chrysostom saith: "Christ mingleth his body with our bodies, and driveth us, as it were, into one lump of dough with himself." This place would have stood 15 M. Harding in better stead, if Chrysostom had said, Christ mingleth his body with the sacrament, and driveth himself and it into one lump. For this is it that should be proved. Neither will M. Harding say, that either Christ mingleth himself with us, or we are made one lump of dough with him, simply and according to the letter, and without figure. Whereof he seeth it must needs follow, that much less is Christ's body in the sacrament, according to that he would have the letter to sound, plainly, simply, or, as he saith, really and fleshly, and without figure. It is a vehement and a hot kind of speech, such as Chrysostom was most delighted with, far passing the common sense and course of truth; and therefore he himself thought it necessary to correct and to qualify the rigour of the same by these words, Ut ita dicam; which is, "As it were," or "If I may be bold so to say." In such phrase of talk Anacletus saith: In oleo Anaclet. virtus Spiritus sancti invisibilis permista est 16: "The invisible power of the Holy Epist. 2. Ghost is mingled with the oil." And Alexander saith: In sacramentorum...obla- Inter Decret.

[' ... δι' οὗ, ἐν τῷ πάθει αὐτοῦ, προσκαλεῖται iμás, övтas μéλŋ avтoû.—Ignat. ad Trall. Epist. cap. xi. in Patr. Apostol. Oxon. 1838. Tom. II. p. 338. See also Interp. Epist. in Coteler. Patr. Apostol. Amst. 1724. Tom. II. p. 67.]

[8 Unperfite, 1565.]

[ Neare, 1565.]

[10 Perfite, 1565.]

[ August. in Corp. Jur. Canon. Lugd. 1624. Decret. Gratian. Decr. Tert. Pars, De Consecr. Dist. iv. can. 143. col. 2030. See Op. Par. 16791700. De Pecc. Mer. et Rem. Lib. 1. cap. xxvi. 39. Tom. X. col. 22.]

[12 The exact words have not been found; but the idea frequently occurs: thus... dè [owтnpíα]

οὐχ ἑτέρως γενέσθαι δύναται, μὴ θεουμένων τῶν
owloμévwv.-Dionys. Areop. Op. Antv. 1634. De
Eccles. Hierarch. cap. i. Tom. I. p. 233. See also
cap. ii. 3. pp. 257, 9.]

[13 Pachym. Paraphr. cap. iv. in eod. Tom. I. p.
354; where συμφύτους γεγονότας.]

[14 Bonavent. Op. Mogunt. 1609. In Lib. IV. Sentent. Dist. i. Quæst. 3. Tom. V. p. 7; where we have contineatur, intelligere for enim dicere, and ipsam for eam.]

[15 Stand, 1565.]

[16... omnis sanctificatio constat in Spiritu sancto, cujus virtus invisibilis sancto chrismati est permixta. -Anaclet. Epist. ii. in Crabb. Concil. Col. Agrip. 1551. Tom. I. p. 59.]

Alex. i.

Christ mingled

with us.

Gregory

de S. Steph.

[1] Cor. x.

Heb. ii.

tionibus... passio Domini miscenda est1: "The passion of Christ must be mingled with the oblations of the sacraments." So saith Gregorius Nyssenus of St Stephen: Gratia sancti Spiritus permixtus et contemperatus, per illum sublatus et evectus est ad contemplationem Dei: "St Stephen, being mingled and tempered with the grace of the Holy Ghost, was by him advanced3, and taken up to the sight of God." These and other such-like sayings of holy fathers may not be hardly pressed according to the sound of the letter; but rather must be gently expounded and qualified, according to the sense and meaning of the writer.

Chrysostom's purpose was, by this word massa, which in this place signifieth a lump of dough, to make resemblance unto these words of St Paul, "We are one loaf, and one body;" and by such majesty of speech the more to quicken and lift up our spirits, and to cause us thereby the better to consider that wonderful conjunction and knitting that is between Christ and us, whereby either is in other, he in us, and we in him; and that even in one person; in such sort as he is neither in the angels, nor in the archangels, nor in any other power in heaven. And therefore St Paul saith: "The angels he took not, but he took the seed of Abraham." But this wonderful conjunction, and (as Chrysostom calleth it) this "mixture," is wrought, not only in the holy mysteries, but also in the sacrament of Leo, Serm.14. baptism. And in that sense Leo saith: Susceptus a Christo, Christumque suscipiens, non est idem post lavacrum, qui ante baptismum fuit; sed corpus regenerati fit caro crucifixit: "A man received of Christ, and receiving Christ (in baptism), is not the same after baptism that he was before; but the body of him that is regenerate is made the flesh of him that was crucified." Likewise St Augustine saith: Ergo gratulemur et agamus gratias, non solum nos Christianos factos esse, Joh. Tract.21. sed [etiam] Christum. Intelligitis, fratres, gratiam Dei super nos; capitis; admiramini; gaudete; Christus facti sumus. Si enim ille caput est, et nos membra, totus ille homo, et nos": "Let us rejoice and give thanks that we are not only made christian men, but also made Christ. Brethren, ye understand the grace of God that is upon us; ye understand it; ye wonder at it; rejoice ye; we are made Christ. For if he be the head, and we the members, both he and we are one whole man.'

De Passione.

August. in

Prim. in 1 Cor. xi.

Gregor. Nyss.

Hieron. in
Esai.cap.lxii.

Now, gentle reader, as Leo saith, our bodies by baptism are made Christ's flesh; as St Augustine saith, we are made Christ himself; and as Gregory Nyssene saith, St Stephen was tempered and mingled with the grace of the Holy Ghost; even so, and in the same sense Chrysostom saith, we are made one lump of dough with Christ; and Christ hath tempered and mingled himself with us. These things considered, the force of M. Harding's reason must needs fail. Certainly Primasius saith: "As the breaking of this bread is the partaking of the body of our Lord, even so the bread of idols is the partaking of devils." And addeth further: Si de eodem pane manducamus, quo idololatræ, unum cum illis corpus efficimur: “ If we eat of one bread with idolaters, we are made one body with them."

66

These other three authorities, of Hilary, Gregory Nyssene, and Cyril, may well be discharged with one answer, saving that Gregory Nyssene, an old writer newly set abroad with sundry corruptions, is brought in only to make a shew, not speaking any one word, neither of Christ's natural dwelling in us, nor of the sacrament. His purpose was only to speak of Christ's birth, and of that body which he received of the blessed virgin, which was not a shadow, or a fantasy, but real, fleshly, and indeed. And in like manner of speech St Hierome saith: Triticum,... de quo panis cœlestis efficitur, illud est, de quo loquitur Dominus, Caro mea vere est cibus: "The wheat whereof the heavenly bread is made is that of which our Lord saith, 'My flesh is meat indeed'." And to this purpose Amphilochius saith,

[ Alexandr. I. Epist. i. in eod. Tom. I. p. 73.]
[ Gregor. Nyss. Op. Par. 1638. In S. Stephan.

Encom. Tom. III. p. 364.]

[3 Avanced, 1565.]
[Leon. Magni Op. Lut. 1623. Serm. xiv. De
Pass. Dom. col. 176; where we have non idem sit,
and fiat caro.]

[5 August. Op. Par. 1679-1700. In Johan.
Evang. cap. v. Tractat. xxi. 8. Tom. III. Pars II.
col. 459; where si enim caput ille, nos membra ;

totus homo, ille et nos.]

[ Et panis quem frangimus, nonne participatio corporis Domini est ? Sic et idolorum panis dæmonum participatio est...Sic et si de &c. unde idololatræ, &c.-Primas. Comm. in Epist. ad Cor. 1. cap. x. in Mag. Biblioth. Vet. Patr. Col. Agrip. 1618-22. Tom. VI. Pars II. p. 60.]

[ Hieron. Op. Par. 1693-1706. Comm. Lib. XVII. in Isai. Proph. cap. Ixii. Tom. III. col. 461.}

Apol.

in Vita Mosis.

as he is alleged by Cyrillus: Nisi Christus natus fuisset carnaliter, tu natus non Cyril. in fuisses spiritualiter: "Unless Christ had been born carnally, thou hadst not been born spiritually." Touching Gregorius Nyssenus, as he saith, "Christ is Gregor. Nyss. made our bread;" so he saith likewise in the same place: Quicquid assumenti conveniens sit, ... in id mutatur. Fit perfectioribus solidus cibus, inferioribus olus, infantibus lac: "Whatsoever thing is convenient for the receiver, into the same thing Christ turneth himself. He becometh strong meat unto the perfect 10, herbs unto the weaker11, and milk unto children." And as Christ is herbs or milk, even so, and none otherwise, he is bread or flesh. Neither will this ancient father agree unto M. Harding's error, that we cannot receive Christ's body but only in the sacrament; for even in the same place he holdeth the contrary. His words be these: Qui abundanter ex apostolicis fontibus biberit, is jam totum recepit Ibidem. Christum 12: "Whoso hath abundantly drunken of the apostles' springs, hath already received whole Christ." The argument that M. Harding gathereth hereof must needs stand thus: Christ was born of the virgin; ergo, his body is really and fleshly in the sacrament. This conclusion is but childish; yet, if he conclude not thus, he concludeth nothing.

Trin. Lib. vii.

The greatest weight of this matter lieth upon two old fathers, Cyril and Hilary. For Hilary saith: "We receive Christ vere sub mysterio 13, verily under a Hilar, de mystery;" and either of them useth these terms, carnally, corporally, naturally; and that not once or twice, but in sundry places. The authorities be great: the words be plain. But, God be thanked! these places be common, and not unknown. And for answer of the same, once again remember, good christian reader, that, notwithstanding M. Harding have found in these two fathers that Christ's body is corporally and naturally in us, yet hath he not hitherto found that thing that he sought for, neither in these fathers, nor in any other; that is, that Christ's. body is naturally or corporally in the sacrament. Wherefore I much marvel that either he would avouch this matter so strongly, finding himself so weak; or else thus vainly dally, and shew one thing for another, and deceive his reader.

Psal. cini.

Missus est

3.

Joh. cap. vi.

That we verily and undoubtedly receive Christ's body in the sacrament, it is neither denied, nor in question. St Augustine saith: Panis est cordis:...intus esuri: August, in intus siti14: "It is the bread of the heart: hunger thou within: thirst thou within." And the thing that is inwardly received in faith, and in spirit, is received verily and indeed. St Bernard meant no falsehood 15 when he said: Lavemur in Bern. sup. sanguine ejus 16: "Let us be washed in the blood of Christ." Notwithstanding, he Gab. Serm. meant not that our bodies really and indeed should be washed with the blood of Christ. And whereas St Augustine saith, Quid paras dentem et ventrem? Crede, et August, in manducasti1, “What preparest thou thy tooth and thy belly? Believe, and thou Tract. 26. hast eaten;" we may not think that he meant any fantastical or false eating; notwithstanding he utterly refuseth, in this behalf, both the teeth and the belly, and all other office of the body. And therefore Cyrillus saith: Sacramentum Cyril. ad nostrum hominis manducationem non asserit, mentes credentium ad crassas cogitati- Theod. ones irreligiose introducens 18: "Our sacrament teacheth us not to eat a man (with the material mouth of our body), in ungodly sort leading the minds of the faithful unto gross cogitations." It is a holy mystery, and a heavenly action, forcing our minds up into heaven, and there teaching us to eat the body of Christ, and to drink his blood; not outwardly by the service of our bodies, but inwardly by our faith, and that verily and indeed. The truth hereof standeth not in any real or

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ἡ γὰρ πέτρα...ὁ Χριστός ἐστιν.—Id. ibid. p. 214.]
[13 Vere sub mysterio carnem corporis sui sumi-
mus. Hilar. Op. Par. 1693. De Trin. Lib. VIII. 13.
col. 955.]

[14 August. Op. In Psalm. ciii. Enarr. Serm. iii.
14. Tom. IV. col. 1160.] [15 Falsehead, 1565.]
[16 Bernard. Op. Par. 1690. Sup. Missus est,
Hom. iii. 14. Vol. I. Tom. III. col. 748.]

[17 August. Op. In Johan. Evang. cap. vi. Trac-
tat. xxv. 12. Tom. III. Pars 11. col. 489.]

[18 Cyril. Alex. Op. Apolog, adv. Orient. Anath. xi. Def. Cyril. Tom. VI. p. 193.]

Object.

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