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“ The mode in which the spasms to be distinctly seen by the different were propagated along the course of medical gentlemen present, before it the nerves, was as follows.
was cut through. As soon as it was “ Five or fix tremors took place in divided, the two cut ends retracted the flexors of the thumb and fore-fin- from one another, to a considerable ger; then similar convulsive motions distance. This retraction was very affected the muscles of the fore-arm; unexpected, as the nerve was disensoon after, the muscles of the arm gaged from the cellular membrane, and were thrown into the fame kind of no other part had been divided, whole action; afterwards the pectoral mufcie, action could make the portions of the and scaleni of the neck: the muscles nerve recede. of the lower jaw were probably in the “ That nerves, when divided, do same state, although their action was retract, is well known in the practice of not within the notice of the buy-tiand- surgery; but this effect has been usual. ers. The head was pulled forcibly to ly attributed to the contraction of the that fide, in quick fücccliive motions, neighbouring parts, as the cellular and, in a second or two, tht whole membrane, and blood-veliels
, with ceased; the parts became tranquil, the which the nerves are connceted. As insensibility went off, and the patient none of these caules could produce the recovered himself: there was, however, effict in the profunt inliance, it was a general feel cf languor and distrets natural to suppoít, that an indepeod over the whole body, before the reco- ent action existed in the nerve itieli, very.
which had been to much increased by « From these observations, the dif- the influence of discali, as to be ease appeared to be decidedly in the come unutually great; and, therefore, inferior branches of the median nerve; the retraction was more distinctly feen and the irritation was conveyed along than in a healthy ftate of the body, its course, from its terminations in the “ 'The moment the nerve was divide thumb and fore-finger, to the origin ed, there was a spalin ever the whole in the brain.
body, and a inumentary intendibility. “ It was proposed to divide the The blood-veilels divided in the operinerve, as it palies from under the ani- tion were not fecured by ligature, but nular ligament of the wrist towards the allowed to ftop of themselves, to give thurnb, to cut off the communication the wound every chance of healing by between the diseated extreinities and the first intention. The edges of the the trunk of the nerve, älld to put a skin were carefully brought together, ftop to the progress of irritation which and kept in that it?le by compress and constituted the disease.
bandage, to promote as much as pol“ That such an operation might be fible the union. attended with success, was not only “ For cight hours after the operarendered probable from reafoning, but tion, the parts were perfectly quict, the perforining it was fully juftified by and there was no fjaím. The wound the success which had been experienced then began to feel hot, as if a red-hot from a similar operation, in fome cases coal had been applied to it. To reof the Tic douicureux ; a difcafe, in lieve this fentation, the outer, bandage many relpects, of the same nature with was loosened, and immediately there the prefent.
were twitches in the nerve, which fooa " All these circumstances were ex- went oil. The patient felt himself plained to the patient, who, from a generally unwell, extremely nervous, defire of obtaining relief, confented to and irritable. have the nervt divided. This was done “ Fifteen hours after the operation, on the ist of January 13co, in the fol- he had a violent ipalm, which went lowing manner: the nerve, as it palles along the arm to the head, but did not from under the armular lignment, tv- affect the brain. In an hour, there wards the thumb and fort-finger, was was a second attack, at which I was laid bare, for above an inch in length; prefent; the pulse was one hundred it was then detached from its lateral and five in a minute, the tongue white, connexions, and, in this exposed state, a great deal of general irritation, nere a probe-poiated bistoury was palied vous twitches all over the body, but in behind it, and i've nerve was raised the greatest degree in the arın and leg upon the edge of the irftrument, so as of that tide. The fiff-fronted glove
was now put on, to confine the “ It commences in a valley on the thumb." P. I.
wift, and pasles through a hill, which “ The fifth day, suppuration took is first of iteep and then of moderate place in the wound; the fwelling in .afcent, for upwards of half a mile cuftthe hand was much abated; and the ward; when the principal copper lodes, patient was able to dress and share which follow this direction, meet with vithout spain, having only twitches a large cross lode, by which, and by in the fingers, and treinors in the fore- other crois courses and ficokans, which arm."
interfest them in their fariher progress, “ The fixteenth day, the wound was they are repeatedly leaved, and so difentirely healed; and, as there had been ordered by these neaves, in their form no return of (palms, the patient was and polition, and so changed by them, considered as well.
in re!pect to their compofition, as " On the twenty-fourth day, which hardly to be recognised. was a fortnight after the spasms had “ The strata of the diftrict in which ceased, at nine o'clock in the morning, this takes place. confit of the common he was awakened by a violent fpat, metalliferous fort of argiliaceous Nate which passed directly up to the head, called Kilas. and affected the brain, producing in- “ The copper lodes of this district senlibility: this was the only time the are remarkable for the hortness of their brain had been aifected fince the opera- continuity; for, where is other lodes tion.” P. 8.
may be trad to an indefinite cient “ The return of the spasms after the in the sanie line of direction, these, on wound had been healec, made it evie the contrary, are observed to taper dent, that the operation of dividing away gradually, and terminate to all the nerve had not anfwered the purpote appearance, at a short distance, comwhich was expected from it. The pietely and irrecoverably. failure probably arose from the wound “ This mine was worked about not healing by the first intention: the twenty years ago, when it was fook to consequent inflammation rendered the the depth of one hundred fathoms cut end of the nerve uncommonly irri- from the furface. It wag again lei to table; and, in this state, the confinement work abeut eight years since; has now in the hard thickened cicatrix, rendered four fire-engines and two steam-whims it liable to be stretched by every motion on it; and is sunk to a depth of une of the thumb, fo as to bring on fpalino. hundred and fifty-five fathoms below dic contractions.
the funface, or, as the miners call it, “ From this time the patient was not from grass. under my direction; but I understool, “It is in this latter period of its hiflory that he tried the effect of large doces that a discovery bas been made of a of opium, which did not a Ford relief. contidviaule quantity of silver ore, in a He was then induced to employ clec- particular part of the mine, the fingira tricity, which was also unsuccessful; larity of which discovery, in this couli, and he died in a fit, which at the time try, has much excited the curiclity of was believed to be apoplexy, about five the priblic. months after the operation had been “ Por, although the numerous veins performed; but, as the body was not
of lend i: Corrival are ri hly impregexamined, the nature of the fit could rated with filver, and occasionally yield, not be ascertained.” P.9.
finali quantities of filver ore, and even fecimens ofn.rive silver, yet, hitherto,
no inftarce huid trea known of their ACCOUNT OF
pelling this precious metal in fich aburdince; nor ha l any circumtances,
in the natural history of the mineral “ HERLAND mine is situated in veins of this country, borne any anathe parish of Gwinear, about foveo logy to thote which accompanied the mile3 N.E. of St. Michael's Mount, on print discovery.' the southern coast of Cornwall; and “ The filver ore, Irictly lpeaking, is two miles ud a halffroin the mouth of a mixture of gakra,, native bilinuth, the river Hayle, on the northern coast gray cobalt ort', vitreous filver ore, and of the same county: it is contiguous native tilver; which, in respect to their to Prince George mine.
THE DISCOVERY OF SILVER IN HERLAND COPPER MIXE. BY THE REV. MALACHY HITCHINS.
proportions, follow the order in which VOL. V.--No. L.
they are here enumerated, the galena suffocated, &c. The founders of this being the most prevalent. The native society were Dr. Cogan and Dr.Hawes: filver, of which specimens of the greatest they afterwards requested the patronbeauty have been reserved for the ca- age of his Majesty, and the inftitution binets of the curious, is found chiefly was consequently called the Royal in a capillary form, in the natural ca- Humane Society: They immediately vities of the lode.
published concise directions for the “ About one hundred and eight tons treatment of the drowned, or otherwise of this ore have been raised. The mi- apparently dead by suffocation, &c. of ners continue to fink near the same which many thousand copies were dispoint of intersection; and seem confi. tributed. These directions are very dent that both lodes will soon become elegantly printed on cards, of a pocket richer, because similar instances of de- fize. A reward of two guineas was clension and recovery have frequently offered to those who should fi ft refeue occurred in the copper lodes of this a person from danger; and four guineas mine, and because the two lodes ap- to him who should be successful in pear to have a reciprocal influence on employing the restorative process. The each other.
society then nominated a confiderable “ Unfortunately, however, the ex- number of medical affiftants, especially tent of their speculation is limited by such as resided near the banks of rivers the great depth of the present work and the fea-coast, in order to afford the ings; for, forty-five fathoras have been most speedy relief to persons drowned, sunk since the first discovery of the film fuffocated, &c. the instruments necel ver; and twenty, or twenty-five fa- fary for saving life being depofited in thoins more, are as much as can be adjacent houses. To excite emulation sunk in this mine, with its present and stimulate industry, a gold and filver mechanical powers of drawing the wa- prize medal were granted by the foter; at which level, viz. one hundred ciety as a reward. and eighty fathoms tiom the surface, it “ In 1775 and 1776, institutions would be somewhat deeper than any fimilar to that of the Royal Humane mine in Cornwall, and about one hun- Society, were formed in all the large dred and thirty fathoms below the level towns of the kingdom, especially at of the sca, at low water mark.” P.163. Norwich, ull, Liverpool, Worcester,
Chester, and Kidderminster; as well
as in Scotland and Ireland. This re: LXXVIII. Struve on the Art of reco. spectable fociety annually increased in
cering suspen:ied Animation. (Con. the number of its members, who were
active in their endeavours to diffuse
that the prejudices against the institu-
vanished; for, within the short period IN the year 1772, a humane insti. of a few years, they had demonstrated
tution for the same benevolent by several hundred successful inftances, purpose was formed at Paris, under that their benevolent plan was by no the direction of M. Pia.
means chimerical. Contributions, fome “ But the most celebrated association of which amounted to a hundred in the world, for this purpose, is the pounds, were sent from every part of Royal Humane Society of London. Dr. Great Britain, and even from. America; Cogan's tranllations of the tranfactions collections were made in the churches of the society at Amsterdam, first ex- of London, by which the society was cited the attention of the English to enabled to extend the sphere of its this important subject; he soon sketch- operations, and to appropriate confed a plan for a similar inftitution, which derable lums for the purchase of the met with universal approbation, and requisite implements, and for besowa speedily obtained the sanction of the ing medals and rewards. In order to legislature.
carry their intentions into effect, as “In the year 1974, several medical extensively as possible, several houses gentlemen, as well as others of the first were erected for the reception of bodies refpectability, associated for the pure apparently lifeless; where all the ne pose of resuscitating perfons drowned, cellary apparatus, such as blankets, 3
portable bed, copper kettles for heat- are necessary for reviving the spirits, ing water, and an electrical machine, and restoring the strength of the were always kept in readiness. These subject. fmall buildings were erected in different Generally speaking, the want of parts of London, and chiefly in the success in many attempts to effect re. vicinity of rivers and other waters, animation, must be attributed to a where such accidents were most likely hasty and officious assistance. No time to happen.” P.7.
is left to Nature for her own exeitions. All, it is imagined, must be effected
by a violent compulsory treatment. GENERAL PRINCIPLES RELATIVE TO
The operators often forget, that they THE RESUSCITATION OF PERSONS
are treating an organized body; and APPARENTLY DROWNED.
that all the success they can expect “ RESUSCITATION is accomplish- from their applications, principally ed, by exciting suppressed vitality; or depends upon vital action, which, by by removing the obstacles which pre- violent treatment, is too often deprived vented the latent vital power from, of all its energy. During the whole of exerting its influence on the system. 'the process, persons apparently dead, Our fuccess frequently depends upon should be regarded as if dangerously a proper notion of vitality and its mo- wounded. difications; namely, irritability and “ It frequently happens that the first susceptibility of irritation. During this treatment of the apparently dead, renprocess we ought anxiously to atrend ders the fucceeding applications totally to the symptoms of returning anima- ineffectual. A person drowned, is either tion, and proceed as circumstances may dragged out of the water by the legs, require. We accordingly promote- or dangerously lacerated by hooks em
“1. The fufceptibility of irritation, ployed on such occasions. Another, which is reproduced by removing the who has suffered by cold, is generally different obstacles. Thus we take the ribbed in a violent manner; and there drowned out of the water, undress and have been instances of the jaw-bones of dry them, cleanse their mouths from the unhappy sufferer being fractured by froth and filth, and place them in a pro- this treatment. per position ;-we cut the cord of those “ The first treatment, in cases of fufpended, &c.
suspended animation, should be direct“ 2. The application of a proper method. ed to excite a susceptibility of stimuli; The inanimate body ihould be placed and next, for restoring fusceptibility in a temperature, where the latent itself. The first part of the treatment vital power may again become active, is negative; the record pofitive, inafor susceptible of irritation. Hence, life much as real means of refufcitation are will often return without the applica- employed, numely, those of air and tion of any other stimulus. A gradual warmth: their temperature ought to transition from apparent death to per. correspond exactly withi that of the fect life, is not to be effected by pre- body. The person who has suffered cipitately resorting to extrerues, but by intense cold, is treated in the open by gently cherishing the vital power. air, or in a cold room; the drowned Effectual affiftance can be afforded only fould be removed to a room which is by flow degrees and an incefiant atten. moderately warm, placed in a tepid tion to the signs of returning anima- bath, &c. For those who have suffertion. Nothing is, therefore, more per- ed by cold, the snow bath, or ice-cold, nicious than a sudden transition to air water, constitutes the first degree of of a different temperature. A person warmth. benumbed by cold, would inevitably “ Before any susceptibility of irritaexpire, if immediately brought near a tion be manifest, no stimulants ought fire.
to be administered; for they would be • To restore the susceptibility of ineficacious, because the body is not imitation, nothing more is required fusceptible of them; nay, they would than to 'afft its gradual evolution, injure it, by forcibly propelling the Hence, the good effects resulting from blood to the heart, and thus destroying reft, and a cautious moderáte proceed- its irritability. Hence the detrimental ing, are obvious ; nay, luch ineasures consequences of violent friction, in the
beginning of the process, must be are too powerful, which would indeed evident.
excite irritability in a violent degree, “ 2. Restoration of irritabiliis: this but at the same time fuppress the sus. is effected by a proper application of ceptibility of irritation. Thus powerftimulants.
sul clectrical shocks through the heart, “ Stimuli can only be applied when excite violent motions of that organ; there remains a fufceptibility of inità- but as this timulant is deftructive of tion. Symptoms of this, as well as the fattle irritability remaining in the the first indications of irritabili'y, re- fyftem, the sallations will soon cease, quire the utmott attention; and as the ner can they again be excited. Hence, former may cien exist without manin during the application of stimulants, festing itself by perceptible figne, our great attention ought to be paid to tle utmost endeavours to excite it, will in different degrees of irritability; and it all cafe: Le alsolutely neceflary. Many is also deferving attention, that in the a person apparuitly deadly divining, beginning of the process, when the cold, or fuifocation, has been rcsured sulceptibility of irritation is but fight, to life witheitt medical affarce, only violent stimulants are pernicious, as by being eroid to a incdirate they tend to fuppress the latent sparks warmth, and left to Nature alore. I of life. am convinced, that in a high degree of “ The different degrees of fusceptiasphyxia, tuch a proceeding would not bility of irritation, are equal to the be sufficient, but in that catia reiufcia ability of bearing the application of tation may, perhaps, be elected by stimulants. Hence, when the susceptithe art of the phyfician, and a cautious bility of irritation is fecble, gentle ftiapplication of stimuli.
mulants only must be administered. ** The manifest criteria of fufcepti- Such stimuli
, therefore, ought to be bility determine the degree and nature gradually applied; and when the first of these simuli, by which returning degree of lulceptibility is excited by vital action nuft be supported. There the operation of those of a milder fia. are, however, cals, in which, theuglture, the more powerful may then be fulceptibility may really exist, no iraces adminifiered. of it are perceptible; it, therefore, " The constitution of the indivi. exciting mean le tried for fome time, dual apparently dead is, however, a. if the drowned be moderatcly warmed, point which deserves great confideraand still no ligns of this fufceptilility, tion; as irritable, weak, and frorg such as warmth, contraction of the habits, and such as are vigorous, but heart, &c. appear, yet the judicious intentible of stimuli, require very difapplication of limulating micans should ferent modes of treatment. The latter not be neglected.
can be affected only by the stronger “ But, from the preceding observa- ftiinulants. Attention is also to be tions, it cught not to be inferred, that paid to the age of the fubject, whether the method pf exciting susceptibility it be a child, a vigorous youth, a mall, should always first be applied for a or a perfon advanced in years. certain length of time, and stimulants “ As this idca of the susceptibility of afterwards aulministered, without con- irritation can only be relative, it would tinuing the former process. Such a be fruitless to establish rules, suitable proceeding would be erroneous, inas. to every case. These must therefore much as the method of exciting and be determined by the judgment of the supporting the fufceptibility, for in- physician; a talent which neither Hipftance, the warming of the body, should pocrates nor Galen could ever impart be continued without intermiffion ; by their writings." P. 54. while at the same time ftimulants must be adminiftered as circumstances may require. By this judicious application
A CURIOUS FACT RESPECTING THE of stimuli, they will be of double ad
RECOVERY OF A DROWNED PERSON. vantage; by both exciting and pro- “ IN Dr. Baldinger's Medical Mazamoting the susceptibility of irritation.
zine, vol. jii. No. 3, is contained the “ Advantages to effential, fhould following curious anecdote: A student induce us to be particularly careful in of a certain university being drowr.cd, the choice and application of stimu- an unsuccessful search was nade for the lants, and not to administer such as body. A man who was pafing her