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the account, which they are pleased to give us, of their perceptions.
“ With a like confusion in his ideas, Mr. Stewart talks of the belief, with which consciousness is attended. See ,“ Outlines, S. 1. Art. 9." He would not have talked in this manner, if he had attended to the difference between knowledge and belief. The information received from all experience, whether it be the experience we have of the state of our own minds, arising from internal consciousness; or the experience we have of the state of external objects, arising from their effect upon our corporeal senses, is attended with certainty: for, if we cannot rely upon this information, the attainment of certain knowledge is impossible: but belief is not attended with certainty. Belief, therefore, and knowledge cannot, as Mr. S. asserts, rest upon the same foundation. By judgment, we mean the power of estimating the probability
any matters proposed to our belief. It has nothing to do with knowledge or certainty.
“ Dr. Reid seems to apprehend, that much mischief may arise from any endeavours to ascertain the meaning of the words we use. It is not a little wonderful, that a man, who appears to have thought so much, should have considered so tittle the only useful purpose of thinking; viz. that of attaining and communicating clear notions, and precise knowledge; and that he should not have been able to see, that it must be absolutely impossible to make any the least advances in science, unless we affix clear and distinct ideas to the words we use.
Yet he tells us, in the section before us (chap. ii. sect. 5.) that it is happy no man pretends to define sensation and consciousness; for that those; who have defined and explained belief, have contributed to the production of the most incredible paradoxes.” p. 8.
The Essays, three in number, are on the communication of knowledge, on the nature and use of abstract ideas, and on the difference between mathematical and moral proof. The last is excellent. In the two former, though we approve of by far the greater part of the things contained in them, we meet with some, particularly his observations on the word person, and on the idea of Moral Obligation, to which, if our limits would permit, we could state many serious objections. With this caution, we must leave them to the judgment of the discerning reader. Entertaining so great a respect for Mr. Ludlam, as we do, we \ Vol. VI. Churchm. Mag. June, 1804.
should be extremely sorry to give him any offence; but we express our dissent from some of his opinions without the least apprehension of this. We are assured, as well from the communications, with which he has enriched our work, as from his other publications, that he would set no value on such converts to his opinions, as should adopt them on his authority, without being convinced by his reasoning
At p. 35, the printer, thinking more of his profession, than of a mathematical demonstration, has made the ludicrous mistake of converting Q. E. D. into 2nd. edition. At p. 17, the word “animal,” surely, ought to be preceded by the words “ rest of the.” We know not whether this be a mistake of the printer, or the author. . We should have been glad, in a work of this kind, to have seen more attention paid to the punctuation.
A WORD TO THE WISE, AND A HINT TO THE UN
from its size, will form a very erroneous judgment of it indeed. “ Inest sua gratia parvis" can never be more justly applied than to the very little publication before us, as it contains in a small compass, more sound sense and wholesome advice, than is to be found in nine out of ten of the generality of works with which the press teems. In a plain style, and with much earnestness of persuasion, the author inculcates the duty of Unity with the Church, and laments the too frequent examples of those, who through ignorance, want of reflection, or arrogance, have fallen off from their appointed teachers, and encouraged the spirit of schism and rebellion against constituted authority.
" Let me beg you to remember the reverence that is due to the Church of Christ, and to the appointed ministers of the Gospel; and let me earnestly entreat you not to follow strange teachers. Many of them may be good men, and I hope they are so,--but they are certainly mistaken men; therefore let them not lead you from the appointed place of worship, and the appointed minister, to whom Christ has given authority to watch over your souls. We are told, that even our Saviour took not this honour on himself, but was called of God. We are
tpfd, that before his death, he laid his hands on his Apostles, and appointed them to preach and baptize in his name. We know that these Apostles appointed others; and even to this day, every man who is to speak in the name of Christ, and to administer his sacraments, ought to be lawfully 'ordained by the Bishops of Christ's Church. These are the shepherds whom Christ has commanded to feed his flock; and no man ought to take this honour on himself. All clergymen, before they are allowed to exercise this holy office, are instructed in the religion which God has revealed; and care is taken that they should be properly qualified to teach others. They are the lawful ministers of Christ; the sacraments, which they administer, are given by his authority; the prayers, which they read, are the appointed service of the Church; and the humble Christian, who joins with them in worship, does his duty, and has every reason to hope for all the benefits promised by our Saviour to his Church. Even if the clergyman should not read or preach as well as we could wish, we ought charitably to excuse his defects, and never to forget the respect that is due to his office. The most important part of the service is joining in public prayer, and thanksgiving to God, and hearing his word, in the place and the manner which our Church directs, and under the authority of a minister, (who is lawfully qualified to administer the sacraments, which Christ has ordained. If we leave the Church, and are led by idle curiosity, or tempted by the advice and example of others, to listen to those who intrude into another man's fold, we know not into what errors we may be led. We cannot be certain that we shall hear the true doctrines of the Church; we cannot be certain that we shall hear prayers in which we ought to join; and even if the preacher should appear to us to be a good man, and to deliver to us religious instruction---still, if he leads us from the Established Church, and 'her lawful ministers, he is at best a mistaken man, for we are commanded to listen to those who are appointed to rule over us, and to shun those who make divisions in the Church. All such divisions should be avoided. “There is one body,' the Church, and one Spirit, even as ye are called in one hope of your calling; one Lord, one faith, one baptism, one God and Father of all, who is above all, and through all, and in you all.”—Eph. iv. 4.
Desirous, as we are, that our Magazine should be a family book, that it should contain instruction for the ignorant, as well as amusement for the learned, we make no apology for inserting the following exract, as the advice it gives is most excellent, and peculiarly appropriate to the present times:-When a set of men, arrogating to themselves the title of “True Churchmen," buoy up their hearers, into presumptuous confidence,' by their docK k k 2
trines of arbitrary election, or terrify them into despair; by those of unconditional and irrespective reprobation.
« Jesus Christ established on himself, and on his Apostles, as on a solid foundation, a Church, and a lawful society of ministers, who were to succeed them from age to age for the instruction of all people; to whom he committed that authority which he had received from God his Father, and on whom he pro- . mised to bestow the assistance of his grace, his wisdom and his power, to the final end of all things. And shall we despise this authority---neglect the Church, and the ministers that were appointed by God himself, and run after every preacher that we hear of,---be tossed about by every wind of doctrine ? No, my friends ---let us do better things, and act more worthy of the sacred name of Christ. Let us not follow after those vain teachers, whom the Scripture forewarns' us, shall come on the earth and deceive many; but let us constantly attend His lawful Church, where we shall never be told any thing that we may not be the better and the wiser for hearing, if we attend to it as we ought. Let us go with humble and penitent hearts to the Holy Sacrament, whenever we have opportunity, in grateful remembrance of that Saviour who died for our sins, and not for: our sins only, but for the sins of the whole world, and who expressly commanded us to eat that bread, and drink that cup, in remembrance of Him, thus openly professing ourselves to be Christians, and never doubting but that He will accept our obedience however imperfect, provided it be sincere --nor fearing that we are unworthy, while we do the best we can, and trust in His merits, and not in our own. Let us add to our faith, good works, without which, we are assured in the Scripture, that faith cannot save us. Trust me, my brethren, we shall never go to Heaven, unless we strive to fulfil the will of God, by leading an honest, virtuous, charitable, and pious life upon earth. All our sighings and groanings will not avail us, if we do not do good as well as talk about it. But every Christian has the · comfortable hope, that he shalļ be saved, if he follows God's commands to the utmost of his power. He has predestined no one to be lost, unless it be his own fault---for He desireth not the death of the wicked; neither has He ordained any man to be : saved, that has not worked out his own salvation by a virtuous life. Let us then strive, as much as possible, to lead this virtuous life--- let us live peaceably with all men--let us respect our superiors, reverence the laws---love our brethren, fear our God, and honour our King, and we need not doubt being in the safest road to ensure our happiness in this world, and, what is of much more consequence, that salvatiòn in the next, which is purchased for us by the merits of our merciful Redeemer.”
OF ORIEL COLLEGE, OXFORD.
(Concluded from page 364.) ONS of Ambition, how your crest is fallen!
Was this your pomp? was this, that to the sun
Genius of chivalry! from thee arose