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went centuries ago. It must have been a noble one similar to this, though on the occasion of one piece of carpentry. The southern side wall is Epiphany he feeds "as many poor as can be almost entirely gone; but part of the northern wall found" in the hall at Windsor, and offers the remains, and forms one side of a large modern barn, weight and measure of his children in wax " for built inside the space formerly occupied by the their welfare" (Close Roll, 28 Hen. III.). old one, and covering just one-fourth thereof.
HERMENTRUDE. There is an interesting little chapel at St. Leonard's
KILBURN WELLS (8th S. iii. 167).-If O. A. O. Grange, of which the roof is gone, but the walls are will refer to p. 38, Records of the Manor, Parish, fairly intact. Both barn and chapel are apparently and Borough of Hampstead,' by F.T. Baines, C.B., thirteenth century work. W. D. GAINSFORD.
which he will find at the British Museum or Guild I have a recent work on 'Gothic Architecture,' ball Library, I think he will find the information by E. Corroyer, edited by Walter Armstrong, he requires.
A. W.. GOULD. which devotes several pages to barns (with eleva
Staverton, West Hampstead, tions, ground plans, and sections) on the Continent, and mentions that when large and important,
ONE Pound ScoTS OF 1560 (gth S. iii. 348).tithe-barns had two stories, as at Provins, of which The pound Scots was originally of the same value a side view is given showing both the lower and as the English; but after 1355 it gradually upper range of windows. I am a little curious to sank, until in 1600 it was but one-twelfth of the know if any two-storied tithe-barns are to be found value of the English pound, and was therefore in England, or if there are any records of such struc-worth 1s. 8d. It was divided into twenty shillings, tures havingever existed in any part of Great Britain. each worth an English penoy. Same authority adds that granaries, or "greniers
OSWALD, O.S.B. d'abondance," were often built with three stories, "THE PLEASANT HISTORY OF THE KING AND and illustrates the one of Abbey of Vauclair as a LORD BIGOD OF Bongar' (866 S. iii. 207).--A very interesting example. J. BAGNALL. sentence in Speed's 'Historie of Great Britaine' A PREPOSITION FOLLOWED BY A CLAUSE (8th submission to Henry II. occurred in one of the
(ed. 1623) tends to show that the Earl of Norfolk's S. ii. 488; iii. 112, 298). – Will you kindly allow earliest years of that monarch's reign. Speed says : me to explain that I had no intention to criticize So justly dreadfull did the growing puissance of this Shakespeare ? I borrowed the line from. Love's young monarch (Henry II appears to his greatest Labour's Lost' for want of a modern instance. enemies, that Hugh By-god Earle of Norfolke, who had MR. WARD is right in thinking that I find no fault potent meanes to doe mischiefe, rendred hie Castle to be with Byron ; but he is not aware that the famous at his disposall.”—P. 502. scrap of Byron's verse has its analogue in Shake- This took place before the year 1158, Henry's reign speare's prose : Whom I serve above is my having begun in 1154.
J. F. MANSERGH. master" ( All's Well,' II. iii. 261). I rather like Liverpool. this construction ; but I should blame Byron had he imitated the following: "Him we serve 's away"
LINDSAY AND CRAWFORD (8th S. iii, 388).-Sir (Ant. and Cleop.,' III. i. 15), “ Him I accuse Walter Lindsay, Preceptor of Torphichen, was hath entered” (* Coriol.,' V. vi. 6)--and written Grand Master of the Knights of Jerusalem within “ Them the gods love die young.” ADAMANT.
Scotland, and hence the title Lord St. Jobo. He
bore Gu., a fesse chequy ar, and az., in chief & WM. WESTALL, A.R.A. (76 S. xii. 166).-His St. George's cross. All Jobn's (sixth Earl of Craumarriage is thus recorded in the London Magazine, ford) children died in infancy. He was said to have October, 1820, vol. ii. p. 467:
been son of John, first Lord Lindsay of the Byres “Sept. 2. At Kendal, Wm. Westall, Esq., of the Royal (fl. 1445).
R. E. L. Academy, to Ann, youngest daughter of the Rev. R. Sedgwick, of Dent."
A. H. will find the information that he seeks in DANIEL HIPWELL.
Lord Lindsay's 'Lives of the Lindsays.' See vol.i. 17, Hilldrop Crescent, N.
pp. 180 et sqq., edition 1849.
E. WALFORD, M.A. EPIPHANY OFFERING (8th S. iii. 347). — On Ventnor. January 6, 1332, in the chapel of Wallingford Castle, "according to ancient custom," King MONASTIC RULES (8th S. iii. 387).--I am not Edward III. presented an oblation of “one florin aware of anything in the Cistercian statutes of Florence, with frankincense and myrrh, in allotting parochial duties to any of the monks. memory of the Three Kings, 3s." I have not The " surrounding hamlets” were looked after by found any earlier notice than this, which occurs the parochial clergy. In 1467 Joan Bradshaw was on the Wardrobe Account for 8-9 Edward III., dying in the house of her son-in-law at the west 61/8, Q.R. Henry III., who records his oblations gate of Fountains Abbey, in the parish of William in great number and variety, does not mention Saule, perpetual vicar of the prebend of Given
dale, in Ripon Minster. As he could not just then TEMPANY at the second reference above cited may, be found, her daughter asked John Exilby, perp. perhaps, be acceptable to some of the readers of vic. of preb. of Thorp, in the same church, if he N. & Q.:would go, who, being broken down by old age and " Thomas Yonge, the person herein referred to, wag & infirmity, gave fraternal commission and plenary native of Bristol and was appointed Recorder of that power to some monk of Fountains to administer Borough in 1463. In that year he was engaged by the the sacraments to the dying woman, for that time Rector and Church wardens of St. Ewens, in the Town only. Two monks accordingly did so, and the for the recovery of certain rente, in wbich he was suc
(now destroyed) to conduct a suit against one John Sharp woman died the same night. The abbot wished cessful. During the course of the proceedings in this that she should be buried at Fountains, but the case Mr. Yongo war summoned to take the degree of Chapter of Ripon claimed ber as their parishioner, Serjeant-at-Law, and the next day was appointed and her body was brought by parishioners who had King's Serjeant. The following account is given of his
official robes on his appearance in court apparently for been her neighbours and by some of the servants the first time after attaining that degree. In of Fountains Abbey to Ripon Minster, and there memorandum it is written, then come vp our seid Mr. buried (“Ripon Chapter Acts,' Surtees Society, Thomas Yonge, arrayed yn a long blue gowne, vngurd, pp. 223-5).
with a scarlet hode [? bood) vorolled, and one standyng This well illustrates the relations between a jeants to go. In 1468 Serjeant Yong was appointed one
Roon [? round] Cap of scarlet, as the custom is for Sergreat abbey and a great collegiato and parochial of the Justices of the Common Pleas, and he died in cburch.
J. T. F. 1476."-Church Warden's Accounts for St. Ewen's, Bp. Hatfield's Hall, Durham.
Bristol,' Transactions of the Bristol and Gloucestershire
Archæological Society, vol. XV. pp. 175 n., 227. “ALE-DAGGER” (8th S. iii. 387), "contayning
JOHN MACLEAN. some two or three pounds of yron in the bylte," Clifton, Bristol, was doubtless such an instrument as is described in the following lines :
OLD GLOVES : DENNY FAMILY (8th S. iii. 324). His puissant sword unto his side,
-There must be errors here which probably some Near his undaunted heart was tied,
correspondent versed in genealogy will put right. With basket-hilt, that would hold broth,
I suppose that “Edward Deody, Esq., son of Sir
Anthony” should read "Sir Edward Denny, And could have warmed ale, if he had a mind to.
grandson of Sir Anthony."
Edward was knighted in 1587, made Baron This sword a dagger had, his page,
Denny of Waltham in 1604, and Earl of Norwich That was but little for his age :
in 1626. Perhaps the Denny to whom Charles I. It was a serviceable dudgeon,
gave the scarf was Sir William, a Royalist and an Either for fighting or for drudging.
author, who was made a baronet in 1642 ; but I A man who carried such a sword at am not aware that he was a descendant of Sir his back would scarcely be satisfied with a stick in Anthony.
I. C. GOULD. his hand. In robberies a dagger would be more
Loughton. likely to be used than a sword, hence it might stupidly be called a "filchman,” as many of the It is indeed sad to find that the "outrageous
MISUSE OF SCIENTIFIC TERMS (8th S. iii. 286). epithets used by Nash and such writers were un misuse" of sphere which disturbs MR. E. LEATONdoubtedly stupid and coined for the occasion. The satirist seems to say, “Here is one of your fine BLENKINSOPP has been sapping the sense of the preachers going about armed more like a thief or
language for centuries. Those newspapers are desperado than anything else.
actually backed in their ignorance by such writers
R. R. Boston, Lincolnshire.
as Shakespeare, Milton, Keble, and Tennyson, to
say nothing of any others, and they get encourage We may, if we like, take ale here in the sense ment from dictionary-makers, who are, Prof. Skent of “ale-house.” Hence the explanation of the included, so disregardful of etymology as to define compound in the 'N. E. D.' as å dagger “worn sphere after this fashion : "A globe, orb, circuit of for use in ale-house brawls." The quotation given motion, province or duty.” All this must be very by Dr. Murray is decisive of the meaning :- trying to a scholar unless he happen to agree
“1589, Pappe w. Hatchet (1844) 8. He that drinkes with Archbishop Trench that, with cutters, must not be without his ale dagger." “It is not of necessity that a word should always be
considered to root itself in its etymology and to draw ite
life-blood from thence. It may so detach itself from this JUDGES' ROBES : COUNSELS' Gowns (8th S. iii. as to have a right to be regarded independently of it: and 127, 193, 312).—The following brief description thus our weekly newspapers commit no absurdity in callof the forensic costume of a serjeant-at-law some ing themselves journals'; we involve ourselves in no two hundred years earlier than the interesting ten, or any number of days more or fewer than forty."
real contradiction, speaking of a quarantine' of five, communication on the subject given by MR. T. W. The Study of Words,' p. 92.
I will add a few quotations, to show what a bad common than “the larger ball,"—when a half is example some of our standard writers bave set to the result of an equal division into two parts. journalists ; indeed these latter unfortunate
EDWARD H. MARSHALL, M.A. creatures must often produce their articles too rapidly to find time for improving on the English
PENAL Laws (8th S. iii. 188, 213, 276).-Can of the authors from whom I shall draw my in any one tell me, in regard to this point, whether stances :
the ringleaders of the Bonny Muir rioters (I think You would lift the moon out of her sphere.
their names were Hardy and Wilson) were or • Tempest,' II. i. 183.
were not beheaded alive at Stirling in 1819 or Certain stars shot madly from their spheres.
1820 ? My authority was an old guide-book to • Midsummer Night's Dream,' 11. i. 153.
C. R. L. FLETCHER.
Magdalen College, Oxford.
Hamlei,' 1V. vij. 15. “DIMANCHE DE QUASIMODO” (8th S. iii. 409). Mystical dance, which yonder starry sphere -The phrase quasi modo geniti occurs in Piers of planets and of fix'd, in all her wheels
the Plowman,' B. xi. 196, C. xiii. 110. My note Resembles nearest. * Paradise Lost,' v. 620. on the passage explains that the reference is to the Each in bis hidden sphere of joy or woe
First Sunday after Easter, “ because, in the Saram Our hermit spirits dwell and range apart.
Missal, the Office for that day begins with the . Christian Year,' Twenty-fourth Sunday text 1 Pet. ii. 2: “Quasi modo geniti infantes, after Trinity.
rationabile sine dolo lac concupiscite." I give the She was the daughter of a cottager
reference to the passage in my“ Index I." Out of her sphere. Walking to the Mail.'
WALTER W. SKEAT.
So called from the first word of the introit
in the mass for the day : “Quasi modo geniti Go down amongst the pote,
infantes, rationabile sine dolo lac concupiscite." •Will Waterproof
The Vulgate version of this exhortation of St. But enough of this. In no case in these cita Peter (1 Ep. ii. 2) has “Sicut modo” in place tions does sphere mean "a round ball,”, which adduce “Stir-up Sunday," the twenty-fifth Sunday
of "Quasimodo." For an English analogue I may MR. LEATON-BLENKINSOPP seems to think it must after Trinity, the collect for which day begins with ever signify. I should like to draw attention to the fact that
the words "Stir-ap."
F. ADAMS. Trench uses " from thence" and Tennyson " from The “introitus” on the Sunday begins : “Quasi henco." Unless I mistake, such behaviour as that modo geniti infantes,” from 1 Pet. ii. Brady's has, ore now, been unfavourably commented on in Clavis Calendaria, vol. i., Lond., 1815, p. 316, "N. & Qi
ST. SWITHIN. has : “Quasi modo' is another name for this MR. LEATON-BLENKINSOPP most expect those Festi (i) Quasi modo geniti,' being the first words
Sunday, which frequently occurs in old records. who are content to take words in common use, of the ancient introit, or hymn for mass on this when they are not valgar, after the suggestion of
si volet usus,
day; and it is to be remembered that in former Quem pepes arbitrium est et jus et norma loquendi,
ages, all Sundays throughout the year, not high of the 'Ars Poetica,' to challenge bis statement, like cause."
festivals, had names assigned to them from the
ED. MARSHALL. as well as to offer some remarks upon his own expression,
[Very many replies are acknowledged.] There is such a word as bombino in Low Latin. “ENGENDRURE” (8th S. iii. 384).--I have disI am aware also of the more classical bombilo, or covered this word in an English dictionary after more properly bombito, which means to bum like all. It is given, as old French, in Cassell's 'Enbees. "But how can bees hum in vacuo, where cyclopædic Dictionary,' 1884, and is there said to there are no vibrations of air, which are essential mean" the act of begetting or generation.” This to sound ?
ED. MARSHALL. is not quite the sense in which the word is used MR. LEATON-BLENKINSOPP hits a blot. Eaclia by Mr. Sala and Chaucer ; but Chancer's use of has suffered much from writers and talkers. Thus, the word appears not to have been known to the What is more common than “a great point” aná compiler of the 'Enc. Dict.' W. F. WALLER. "stretching a point,”-expressions ridiculous when Novel Notions OF HERALDRY (8th S. iii. 366). applied to that which has neither parts nor magni- --There is plenty of material for a supplement to tude. Again, how often “broad lines” are men- Lower's Curiosities of Heraldry.' I was recently tioned, to say nothing of “the thin red line"; in an old manor house in the Midlands, and noted but what nonsense is this to people who know that that the crest of a former owner (a blue eagle) disa line is length without breadth ; or what more played over some of the doors had been covered
with gold leaf, to enhance the effect, doubtless of the vessel, over which was a crown wheel gearing After this it was not surprising to find the oak into a spare pinion or "trundle-head," as Savery panels had been painted. Some of our seal en called it, on the paddle-shaft, and the design was gravers could tell a few anecdotes of requests for simple and practicable. coats of arms to be altered to please the fancy or The original tract is very rare, and I quote gratify the ambition of their customers. Cassans from an admirable facsimile reprint, produced by speaks of an ambassador to Washington (Mr. my friend Mr. R. B. Prosser. The idea of using Crampton) having his arms copied by the Ameri. paddle-wheels is older than Savery's time. I havo cans upon their carriages, because they admired before me two curious engraved Dutch broadsides, the pattern.
J. BAGNALL. of the years 1653 and 1654, illustrating the “subWater Orton,
marine boat" of M. Duson, likewise impelled by Postil (gh S. iii. 408). — Reference to the index to destroy a hostile fleet, and the projector had
a paddle-wheel. This contrivance was intended to Dyce's Skelton' gives the passage at once. hopes of going in his craft in ten weeks to the "To postell upon a kyry” is the 755th line of Colyn East Indies and back. Cloute'; and the phrase is duly explained in the
It is a common delusion that a description of a notes. WALTER W. SKEAT.
boat impelled by paddles is to be found in VitruWESTMORLAND AND CUMBERLAND WILLS (766 vius, and at first sight an engraving in the early S. v. 348, 434).- The Westmorland wills referred editions (I quote from the 'Giunta' of 1522) gives to at the second reference, from the Carlisle countenance to the idea at once dispelled by the Diocesan Register, only relate to that part of heading of the chapter,. “Quâ ratione rhedă rel Westmorland which was in the ancient diocese of navi peractum iter dimetimur.” The paddle-wheel Carlisle. The whole of the 130 wills, ranging in placed in the centre of the boat merely serves to date from 1350 to 1390, are now in the press, and give motion to a series of toothed wheels by which will be shortly published by Mr. Titus Wilson, the speed of the vessel is measured. Kendal, as one of the extra volumes of the Cum- Papin, in his Traité de plasieurs Nouvelles berland and Westmorland Antiquarian and Machines? (Paris, 1698), speaks of a machine Archæological Society, under the title Testamenta made in London by the Prince Palatine Robert, Karleolensia.'
in which oars fixed on the two ends of an axis were
driven round by horses 80 successfully that the “ENGINES WITH PADDLES," A.D. 1699 (8b S. boat thus impelled rapidly passed the king's barge üi. 388).-1682 is the earliest date recorded for with its sixteen oars. And, moreover, Papin prothe application in Great Britain of paddle-wheels posed to drive a boat so fitted by steam. A little to the propulsion of vessels, in which year Prince research would, I feel sure, elicit other early notices Rupert's state barge was propelled by paddle- of paddle-wheels.
J. Eliot HODGKIN. wheels. As regards the pamphlet by Jonathan Hulls,
DIBDIN's Songs (8th S. iii
. 307, 375).—Mr. published in London in 1737, it would appear that MARSHALL'S reply does not quite answer my during the previous year Hulls obtained a patent query. I wish to know in what year the song for an atmospheric engine for moving a boat by a True Courage' first appeared in print. J. D. steam engine, or rather "for the application of the atmospheric engine to actuate or propel a boat I have a copy of the Jubilee Edition of the whole
WORKS OF KING ALFRED (8th S. iii. 347). — by paddles for towing vessels in and out of works of King Alfred the Great. It was printed rivers and barbours." Hulls's proposal was also to and published for the Alfred Committee by Messrs. drive a fan or wheel at the stern of a boat by a J. F. Smith & Co., Oxford and Cambridge, 1852. steam engine working a series of pulleys with
C. LEESON PRINCE. straps or ropes passing over them; and there were arrangements for preventing a back motion of the I may mention incidentally that the Illustrated stern wheel.
London News of Oct. 27, 1849, records the jubilee I am indebted for these particulars to Mr. Henry observances, and gives an illustration of the Sandham's paper read before the Institution of
“ Alfred medal" then struck. I believe that the Mechanical Engineers in 1885.
Grammar School at Wantage was founded as a suitEVERARD HOME COLEMAN.
able memorial of the event. 71, Brecknock Road.
EDWARD H. MARSHALL, M.A.
Hastings. The apparatus referred to by Mr. HYDES is doubtless that of Thomas Savery, the inventor of SILVER SWAN (8th S. iii. 387, 417).-Knight of one of the earliest forms of steam pumping engines, the Swan is a family order of the house of Toni, who made known his · Art of Rowing Ships in and is also an order of the King of Prussia, Calms' in a 4to. tract printed in London in 1698. Emperor of Germany, as Duke of Oleres and of The paddles were actuated by a capstan in the hold Brandenburg. The real history is entangled with a favourite romance of the Middle Ages, 'The neither filesh por fowl por good red herring. It is not Knight of the Swap.' The real Knight of the verse, it is not (except involuntarily) probe." This quotaSwan was Roger de Toni, or d'Espagpa, a great context, which, however, does not affect its meaning, Crusader, standard - bearer of Normandy, who since we state that the earlier portion is addressed to or delivered Catalonia from the Moors. He married directed at cavillers. The last sentence expresses Mr. the Princess Godbilda. A descendant, Godhilda Symonde's own avowed sentiments. As to the points de Toni, was wife of Baldwin de Bouillon, King of with which Mr. Symonds deals at most length, we leave Jerusalem. Although the ladies of the house of the readers to hunt them out. To the esoteric they are
Toni appear to have conveyed into female branches now said may as well rest content. The volume is the knighthood of the Swan, the English Queen delightful in all bibliographical respects, and has a Godhilda could not bave so conveyed the order portrait and four excellent plates. to the houses of Bouillon, Cleves, and Branden- Joan of Arc. By Lord Ronald Gower, F.S.A. (Nimmo.) burg. She was not an heiress, nor had she ady From well-known and avowed sources, including the five issue. This, however, is the only alliance between volumes of documents concerning the trial and the the houses of Toni and Bouillon. Stimulated by rehabilitation of the Maid of Orleans of Jules-Etiennea favourite romance of the Koight of the Swan Joseph Quicherat, and her biography by M. Henri
Alexandre Wallon-the first edition of which obtained (of which copious particulars will be found in the from the Academy the grand
prix Gobert, while the second series of Baring-Gould's 'Carious Myths of second won special pontifical recognition-Lord Ronald the Middle Ages'), in 1440 Frederick II. of Bran- Gower has extracted materials for a picturesque and denburg founded an Order of the Swan, and the enthusiastic biography of Joan of Arc. In his avowed same idea was taken up by the Duke of Cleves, object of following the opinion of Sainte-Beuve that the from whom the King of Prussia claimed succession, truth about her as simply as possible, he has been but and it is enrolled among the Prussian orders. The moderately successful. His statements are succinct, and Toni Chivaler au Cygne will be found in the he can supply authority for all that he advances. The Caerlaverock Roll. Lord Lindsay (Lives of the work is done the less an apotheosis as much as a bioLindsays') says that his house bore the swan, and graphy: When be disputes the share of Shakspeare in Wynkyn de Worde and Caxton published the is with him, and we share his views or go far beyond them. legend of the knight, dedicated to Edward, Duke We express, moreover, no dissent from the opinions be of Buckingham, as representing the Knight of the expresses. When, however, be heads “Martyrdom" the Swan (Gould, p. 326). The origin of the title is chapter which treats of her death in Rouen, he passes obscure, but myths as to swans and swan-maidens from the position of historian to that of enthusiast.
Very few lives of Joan of Arc bave been attempted in (for which also see Gould, p. 313) were prevalent which the rhapsodist does not conquer the historian; among the Norse, the ancestors of the Norman and Voltaire even, the greatest of Frenchmen who have Tonis. The attribution of the swan myth to the doubted her mission and vilified her character, had the house of Bouillon was posterior to the Tonis ; but grace to be ashamed of bimself, or to pretend, at least, still it is referred to as early as 1180, for William that he was. For the rest, the account of Lord Ronalá of Tyre says that many believed the fable that brought within the reach of the English reader. A Godfrey of Bouillon had his origin from a swan. French and an English bibliography precede the index,
HYDE CLARKE, In the account of Joan of Arc in poetry Lord Ronald
gives a list of poems and plays on the subject. He omits, Miscellaneous.
however, mention of Jeanne d'Arc à Orléans,' a three
act piece of Desforgee, given at the Italiens in 1790, NOTES ON BOOKS, &c.
with music by Cbreich. Special attractions
assigned the volume by the etchings of Mr. Bateman of Walt Whitman : a Study. By John Addington spots in France.
The views in Chinon, Rheims, Com. Symonds. (Nimmo.) AUTOBIOGRAPHICAL rather than biographical are the The work is in all respects bandsome and attractive.
piègne, and St. Ouen, taken on the spot, are admirable. contents of Mr. Symonds's book. Unconsciously, per. haps, Mr. Symonds fills the greater part of his volume Handbook of Greek and Latin
Pulæography. By E. with analyses and disquisitions upon subjects that occu- Maunde Thompson, D.C.L. (Kegan Paul & Co.) pied a far larger share of his own thoughts than of Of all the volumes of the International Scientific those of the man with whom he deals. A certain
portion Series,” to which it belongs, this invaluable volume of of Leaves of Grass' is taken up with speculation or the Principal Librarian to the British Museum most. assertion which it is charitable to call unblest. For this directly appeals. Not at all a subject to be lightly taken portion Whitman had his knuckles well rapped. It might up is that with which it deals. If ever there was a be that a more severe punishment was merited. Reti- subject in regard to which a smattering is of no value cence is, however,
as much a duty of the critic as of the it is this. Arduous labour is necessary to a conquest writer; and when the latter wraps in many veils and which, unless it is practically complete, is useless. To clouds behind misty allegory what he is ashamed or those who are in earnest this bandbook is priceless. In afraid to speak, the worst exposure and the greatest bis first chapter, concerning the alphabet, Dr. Maunde scandal may be due to his commentator. Upon the vexed Thompson bas been anticipated by Canon Taylor, whose question of Whitman's claims upon attention there is Alphabet' was reviewed in our columns. In subsequent small temptation to enter. To the cavillers Mr. Symonds chapters, moreover, dealing with the various implements. Alings with equanimity the suggestion that what Whit- and materials necessary to the preparation of M88., he: man did “write in his masterpiece of literature was bas, of course, knowo predecessore. Nowbere, however,