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he was at least as early as Sandys (1636) to whom Beplies.
PROF. SKEAT refers, and it is more than probable
that he was be ore him. THOMAS BAYNE. METRE OF IN MEMORIAM.'
Helensburgh, N.B. (8th S. ii. 288, 337.)
I gladly acknowledge my indebtedness to the Earlier in the employment of this metre than writers who have noticed my query under this either Lord Herbert of Cherbury or. George head. We have now before us three early exSandys was Francis Davison, who at his death amples of this metre, viz., Sandys's 'Paraphrase (probably in or before 1619, according to Mr. of Ps. cxxx.' (published 1636); a Luttrell broad. Bullen, "Dict. of Nat. Biog.'), left in MS. Divers side (circ. 1660); and Lord Herbert of Cherbury's Selected Psalms of David, in verse, of a different Ode' (1665). It is possible that the late Laureate composure from those used in the Church.' I became acquainted with Sandys's paraphrase in quote the first stanza of his translation of Psalm Dr. Tennyson's library at Somersby; but the procxxv. from Farr's 'Select Poetry' (p. 325) :- bability is that Lord Herbert's poems were intro
They that their faithe's foundation lay duced to Tennyson's notice by Arthur Hallam
On God the Lord, vomou'd shall stand, himself. In this latter case there would be a
Like Sion's hill, which by Time's hand
peculiar fitness in the choice of the metre in ques
tion for the poem which must prove a more enExamples in a composite stanza occur as early during memorial of Hallam than the marble on as 1561 in William Kethe's version of the same the western wall of the manor aisle in Clevedon psalm, of which I copy the first stanza from the
Church. We know, on the testimony of the 1588 edition :
elder Hallam, that Arthur in his youth became Such as in God the Lord doe trust
acquainted with, and was an ardent admirer of, the As mount Sion shal firmelie stand : And be remoued at no hand
best English writers of the period to which Lord The lord wil count them right and iust,
Herbert's poems belong ; and specimens of comso that they sbalbe sure :
position in this metre are to be found in the for euer to endure.
volume of 'Remains of Arthur Hallam's writing Alsa in William Whittingham's translation of which his father printed for a memorial among his Psalm cxxvii, :
friends. Except the Lord the house do make
It may be well to have in the pages of and thereunto dos set his hand
'N. & Q' a record of Charles Kingsley's descripwhat mon doe builde it cannot stand.
tion of this metre. In the criticism of 'In Likewise in vaine men vndertake
Memoriam' which he wrote for Fraser's Magazine cities and holds to watch and ward, except the lord be their safegard.
in 1850 Kingsley pronounced the metre of the But is not the elegy in Ben Jonson's UnderWoods' the pattern of Tennyson's poem !
" 60 exquisitely chosen, that while the major rhyme in
the second and third' lines of each stanza gives the F. ADAMS.
solidity and self-restraint required by such deep themes, In searching for the origin of what is now justly the mournful minor rbyme of each first and fourth line called the 'In Memoriam stanza, Ben Jonson always leads the ear to expect something beyond, and should not be overlooked. He died Aug. 6, 1637, stanza to stanza and poem to poem.”
enables the poet's thoughts to wander sadly on, from leaving a considerable amount of MS. verse.
F. JARRETT. Part of this collection was the 'Underwoods : consisting of Divers Poems,' which appeared in the MASSACRE OF Scio (86b S. iii. 387).-Subjoined second folio of 1641. Of these, An Elegy is is a short account of the massacre of Scio, or Chios, written in the stanza in question, and Lieut.-Col. taken from the appendix to Wanderings in Cunningham, in his edition of Gifford's 'Jonson, Greece,' a work of my father, the late Mr. George expresses the opinion that " Mr. Tennyson must Cochrane, of the Middle Temple, barrister-at-law, have been familiar with this "Elegy before be who was in the Greek naval service during the commenced his 'In Memoriam.'" The poem latter part of the War of Independence : opens thus:
“I must now refer to one of the most dreadful occur. Though beauty be the mark of praise,
rences of the whole war. The island of Scio, which is And yours, of whom I sing, be such,
not far from the mainland of Asia Minor, was at this As not the world can praise too much, Yet is 't your virtue now I raise.
time very flourishing; it contained 100,000 Greeks, 6,000
Turks, 68 villages, 300 convents, 700 churches. It appears Perhaps it is impossible to say when Jonson that the inhabitants had been excited by the Ipsariotes, actually wrote the 'Elegy'; but, when we consider who were the avowed enemies of the Turks, and in the the troubles from which he suffered towards his month of March, 1822, the people of the town arose, and
drove the Turks into the citadel. This news soon flew end, it may be safely inferred that he did not to Constantinople, and Kara Ali was sent with six linewrite it in his latter days. Thus in all likelihood of-battle ship, ten frigates, and smaller vessels; and he
poem to be
arrived before this ill-fated place on April 11, 1822. He ing to doubtful authority, of a son William, of landed several thousand men, and at the same time Broclosby. Idonia Beauchamp left three sons and Vehib Pacha, who was in the citadel, made a sortie with three daughters, but her posterity survived only in horror and bloodshed to the ransacking of Tripolizza; the female lide, in the issue of her daughters, Maud 9,000 persons, of every age and of both sexes, being Mowbray, Beatrice Montchensey, and Ela 'Wake. slain. On the 16th the disorder was somewhat abated. These, therefore, are the lines along which to look and the Sciotes were taken and chained together like for the descent, besides that of the heiress of victims to the fury of the Turke, and
45,000 had been Longespée, Margaret de Lacy. HERMENTRUDB. carried away into slavery. In consequence of this disaster, the Greek islands fitted out a numerous fleet with
Your correspondent MR. WILLIAMS thinks it brulots. Canaris commanded one of them, and, while possible John of Gaunt may have been a descendthe Turks were at anchor, attached his vessel to Kara ant of Alice de Laci, and thus of Rosamund ClifAli's largo vessel of war, which ultimately
blew up at ford. This could
not have been the case. two o'clock in the morning. The Turks were furious at this, and made fresh attacks upon the poor Sciotes; they
Jobn of Gaunt was the son of Edward III. and hunted them in the villages like wild beasts, so that Philippa of Hainault. If an ancestress of John of by June 19, 1822, there were not 1,800 Greeks upon the Gaunt, Alice must bave been an ancestress of island out of a population of 100,000. Such a frightful either Edward or Philippa. Now Edward and destruction of mankind, in so small a spot, is perhaps Philippa were married in 1329, and in 1322, when unparalleled in the annals of history. The account given Alice married Eubolo le Strange, she had had no by General Gordon is that, of the 100,000 Greeks of Scio, 45,000 were made slaves and 1,800 only were left on the children. She died childless in 1348, as I men. island; consequently, 50,000 men, women, and children tioned in my former reply; but whether she had must have been massacred."
had children or not, she could not have been an “Brulots" were fire-ships. General Gordon was ancestress of John of Gaunt. one of the Philhellenic executive committee after If John of Gaunt was descended from Fair Rosathe death of Lord Byron. For a more detailed mund, so also were his brothers and sisters ; and account of the massacre I would refer MR. the descent must have been either through PICKFORD to Gordon's 'History of the Greek Philippa of Hainault (their mother), Isabella, Revolution, published in 1832.
daughter of Philip IV. of France (their grandBASIL A. COCHRANE. mother), or Eleanor, daughter of Ferdinand Ill, of POWELL OF CAER-Howell (gh S. iii. 268, 373). other person through whom they could possibly
Castile (their great-grandmother). There was no -May I ask for a correction? I wrote Eineon have been descended from Fair Rosamund. Efell, and not “Simeon Sfell.” Perhaps my handwriting was in fault. Eineon and bis brother lished fact (see the reply of Canon VENABLES)
And, after all, it does not seem to be an estabCypric both bore the appellation of Efell," the that William Longeword, through whom the twin.” A Welsbman would be horrified with the descent is supposed to have come, was the son of words as they now stand. THOMAS WILLIAMS.
C. W. Cass. FURYE FAMILY (8th S. iii, 68, 118).—Lieut.Col. Furye was killed in action at Sachsenhausen, of HERMENTRUDE, and yet it seems permissible to
It it rather a bold thing to question a statement July 10, 1760. See despatches of the Marquis of doubt the assertion that Will de Longespée's Granby, July 14, 1760, to Viscounts Ligonier and daughter Ida was mother of Hugh Bigod. The Barrington, Hist. MSS. Com., Twelfth Report,' Lacock Book' says she married Walter Fitz, Appendix, Part V., vol. ii. pp. 219, 220.
W. B. Taomas.
Robert, I presume one of the Clares (the second Heaton.
Walter as he stands in my notes, with a query).
Certainly she might have married Roger Bigod, JOAN OF GAUNT (8! S. iii. 109, 231, 292). — but I cannot see how she could have been mother Alice (or, more correctly, Aloyse) de Lacy, was of Hugh. Hugh did homage on his father's death thrice married ; first to Thomas, Earl of Lancaster, in 1221, and he must then have been of age, as he secondly, to Sir Ebulo L'Estrange, and thirdly, to died four years after leaving at least three children. Sir Hugh de Fresne. She left no issue, as is Hugh's mother, admitting she was Ida, could not shown by her Inquisition, 22 Edw. III., 34. Wil. in 1221 have been more than five-and-twenty. liam, Earl of Salisbury, son of Henry II., had Her father and mother, it seems clear both from issue four sons and four daughters, of whom four Matthew Paris and Hoveden, were not married only-William, Stephen, Nicholas, and Idonia before the death of William d'Evreux, her (Ida's) Beauchamp-left issue. His son' William had mother's father. The marriage might have been three sons and two daughters, of whom William after 1196. I do not think she was the oldest and Ela Audley left issue. The two daughters of child; anyhow, she could not bave been the mother Stephen, Elena La Zouche, and Emelina Fitz- of a son aged twenty-one and probably much more maurice, both left issue, Nicholas was the father in 1221. By-tho-by, who was Lucia, wife of of Agnes, Abbegs of Shaftesbury, and also, accord. Robert de Berkeley and neptis of William Earl
Sarum, avuncubi regis in 6 Hen. III.! I do If your correspondent cares to communicate with not think Maud, wife of Will de Beauchamp, was me, I could give him further information. daughter of John Fitz-Geoffrey, but of John Fitz
A. COLLINGWOOD LEE. John (Fitz-Geoffrey), his son. That John Fitz- Waltham Abbey. Geoffrey married Isabel Lacy is expressly stated
An English book which enters into the question in the Annales of Ireland' at the end of Camden. He was then, apparently, Justice of Ireland, 1248. the Middle Ages, at pp. 113–133, Lond., 1888.
very fully is Baring-Gould's Curious Myths of He died in Ireland in 1258 ; and his son John, A French book in which there is a similar examiwho married Margery, daughter of Philip Basset, nation is E. Fournier's "L'Esprit dans l'Histoire,' lived to 1276. It seems certain that Richard, who ch. ii. pp. 18, 19, Paris, 1883. There are various succeeded, was this John's son, and not his brother references to authorities. The same volume also as generally given, for in the Quo Warranto case has a full examination of the case of Joan of Arc, of 7 Ed. I. Richard Fitz-John shows that Shyre, ch. xvii. pp. 121-6. There is a great variety of Surrey, was given by Hen. III. to his father, John reference to authorities. There is no question here Fitz-Geoffrey, but that he inherited Gorneshelve from John Fitz-Geoffrey avo predicti Ric. Maud as to the existence of Joan of Arc" Je ne serai
pas de ceux qui doutent de l'existence de Jeanne Beauchamp seems to have been sister and cobeir d'Arc” (p. 121)—but only of the mythical accreof this Richard, and 80 (as I think) granddaughter, tions :and not daughter, of the John Fitz-Geoffrey who married Isabel Lacy. THOMAS WILLIAMS.
“De nos jours l'on a douté de l'aventure, et l'on a fort
bien fait, à mon sens. Il y a tant de choses qui Aston Clinton.
prouveraient au besoin qu'elle ne dut pas être, si peu qui SILVER IN BELLS (84 S. iii. 105, 175, 269). - témoignent qu'elle est authentique." --P. 123. The report that the Californian bells, imported from
ED. MARSHALL Spain by missionaries, are made in part of silver is 1. Joan of Arc.—The St. James's Magazine, xiii., quite in keeping with mediæval ideas and practice. has a chapter entitled 'Historic MisrepresentaMany years ago the tone of the chief bell in Ger- tions, which may be of service to your correman Erfurt struck the writer as charming, respondent. calling Shakepeare's "silver-sweet lovers' tongues 2. William Tell.-Dr. Ludwig Hausser, in his by night.” The sexton assured me that this bell
, 'Die Sage vom Tell,' proves that a person named Tell baptized" Maria gloriosa," and weighing 275 cwt existed, but that the incidents commonly connected was half silver. My Murray also said that this with him have been borrowed from the Icelandic bell“ had much of silver in its composition,” but Sagas.
EVERARD HOME COLEMAN. gave its name as Susanna. I failed to examine its 71, Brecknock Road, inscription, which was said to be :
The following cutting is from the Echo of Tues-
day, May 23, and seems an appropriate reply to The last of great magicians, Theophrastus Para
the query of your correspondent :celsus, made a bell of astrological omnipotence, for him, but only Gruttli and his three associates, Furst
" (1) No public records of the time (1307) mention it was compounded of all known metals. These Arnold de Melcthal, and Stauffmacher. (2) There is a were then held to be seven, each symbolical of one perfect chronicle of'the Bailiffs of Altorf, but the name of the seven planets. Hence this bell, when struck, 1 of Gessler is not among them, and
no Bailiff of Altorf called up the spirits of all the planets, and made was murdered after 1300. (3) A governor of the fortress them subservient to its owner. The seven-fold was shot dead with an arrow by a peasant in revenge, in mixture was called electrum, and held to be even legend of Tell is based on this event. (4) Not till the
1296, on Lake Lowertz, not on Lake Schweitz. The more potent tban electricity has yet proved itself. end of the fourteenth century did Swiss historians menWitness the bell of the sorcerer Virgil, which drove tion this legend. (5) Tell is a nickname, from Toll crazy all who heard it. J. D. BUTLER (German) applied to a prattler or visionary enthusiast. Madison, Wis., U.S.
16) The apple' story is told of Egil and King Nidung;
and in Norway of King Olaf and Eindridi; and in the JOAN OF ARC AND WILLIAM TELL (8th S. ii. Faroe Isles of Geyti and Harald; also of Joki, the Danish 388). — A bibliography of the Tellsage, or Tell hero, and Harald; and in England of William of myth, would take up a considerable space. Your Bell, Clym of the Clough, and 'William of Cloudesley. correspondent may refer, however, to Baring (7) The Canton of Schuyz, in August, 1890, ordered the Gould's 'Curious Myths of the Middle Ages'; story of Tell to be expunged (as being non-historical, and Dr. Buchheim's edition of Schiller's William Tell' legendary only) from the school-books of the Canton.(Clarendon Press Series of “German Classics "), Edw. Geo. Mills.” Vischer's Die Sage von der Befreiung der
W. R. Waldstatte,' 1867, and especially to the exhaustive CHAUCER'S “STILBON” (8th S. ii. 126, 249, statement of the subject in Rilliət's, 'Origines de la 293). - I must tender my thanks to Prof. SKEAT Confédération Suisse, Histoire et Légende,' 1869, for having shown me how far behind the age I am, and for referring me to his edition of the 'Minor nothing to do with the Megariau philosopher Stilpo, Poems,' with which I am anacquainted. My idea but
refers to Mercury, whose planet is so called by that the Anglo-Latin writers had not been suffi- Marcianus Capella in another part of the book ciently taken into account was formed during a from which John borrows one substance of this perusal of some of their works a few years ago, part of his poem (viii. $ 851). For other examples and in some measure confirmed by finding no note of this use see Liddell and Scott, s.v. otiaßwv. referring to Alanus de Insulis on l. 137 of the Can any reader of 'N. & Q.' throw light on 'Legend of Good Women,' edited by Prof. Skeat the source of the anecdote told of Chilon by John, in 1889. I shall be grateful to ProF, Skeat if he Policr.,' i. 6, from which Chaucer seems to have will explain how the passage he quotes from Hof- derived his story of “Stilbo, that was a wys mann's Lexicon Universale' fixes the identity of ambassadour”?
C. C. J. W. Bernard the Monk. The chief evidence in favour of St. Bernard appears to be that a proverbial C, 1. 603. Will the Professor kindly define the
Prof. Skeat quotes "Pardoner's Tale' group saying to this effect, which may have originated edition from which he quotes ?
A. H. from the passage in question, existed after the time of Chaucer, and in the seventeenth century FOLK-TALE (8th S. iii. 308, 337).-Hans Sachs was applied by Hofmann to St. Bernard, as the (1494-1576) assures us that in Schlaraffenland the greatest of the Bernards. Chaucer begins his dish remain still to be caught, roast fowls, geese, and Prologue to the 'Legend of Good Women' by pigeons fly into the mouths of those who are too speaking of the "Ioye in heven and peyne in idle to catch them, and cooked pigs run about with helle," and states that those who tell of these knives in their backs, so that everybody may help things do so only on hearsay; and then remarks: himself:Bernard the Monk ne saugh nat al, parde,
Die Fisch' in Teichen und in Seen
Am Ufer stehn sie allo still, Now this is not particularly applicable to any of Man fängt, so viel man immer will. the works of St. Bernard, but is singularly appo, Auch fliegen um, ibe könnt es glaubeu site when applied to the 'De Contemptu Mundi' Gebrat'ne Hubner, Gans' und Tauben of Beroard of Morlaix, which commences with an
Wie sie zu fangen ist zu faul elaborate and minute description of the joys of
Dom fliegen schnurr ! sie in das Maul. heaven and the pains of hell, occupying some
Die Säu'Alljährlich wohl gerathen seven or eight hundred lines.
Sie gehn umber und sind gebraten, Again, Was it usual to speak of St. Bernard as Ein Messer steckt in ihrem Rücken, Bernard the Monk? He was a monk, in the strict
Der erste nimmt die besten Stücken sense of the word, for a very short time, being or
Stekt drauf das Messer wieder ein
Und lässt auch andern was von Schwein. dained abbot within two years after his admission as a novice to Citeaux. The epithet seems rather used to
Before Sachs, however, in the latter part of the mark a distinction between the monk and the saint. thirteenth century, we English had our ‘Land of
Chaucer could have no object in speaking slight- Cokaygne,' and there ingly of St. Bernard; but in the cause of “Good
The gees, irostid on the spitte, Women" he had every reason to cast discredit on
Fleegh to that abbai, god hit wot,
And gredith "Gees! al hotel al hote!” Bernard of Morlaix, whose strictures on the ladies Hi bringeth garlek gret plente of his day are exceedingly sovere. Even if it can The best idight that man mai se. be proved that a proverb of this kind existed
The leuerokes that beth cuth, before the time of Chaucer, is it not much more
Lightith adun to manis muth, likely to have had reference to the poet who drew
Idight in stu ful swithe wel,
Pudrid with gilofre and canel. so largely on his imagination than to the orthodox
St. SWITHIN. and universally credited father of the Church? Although the fame of Bernard of Morlaix has been
“LOOKING FROM UNDER BRENT HILL" (8th S. almost eclipsed by that of his greater contemporary,
iii. 209). — It strikes me that “looking from his poem was by no means unknown in the Middle under brent hill" is the very opposite of the Ages (see references in Fabricius, "Bibliotheca - sollen, frowning [look] of one in ill humour.” M. et L. Lat., 1734). It was printed in 1557, and of John Anderson, in his palmy days, Barns
“ Brent” means without a wrinkle. Thus, four times reprinted within the next century.
and his It is somewhat singular that at the present day, says, his “locks were like the raven whilst the works of St. Bernard are comparatively
“bonnie brow was brent" (without a wrinkle). upread, portions of the poem of the humble monk Gazing from under brent hil is looking fondly have found their way into the hymn-books of at another, as a loving person does when he almost every sect.
E. S. A.
turns his eyes upwards and gazes in silent admira
tion. In what Milton calls heavenly contempla“Stilbon," in the passage quoted by E. S. A. tion” child angels and saints so gaze with upfrom John of Salisbury ('Entheticus,' i. 211), has turned eyes.
E. COBHAM BREWER.
JAMES HENTHORN TODD, D.D. (8th S. ii. 208, separating the adverb by from the verb; it ought 314).-In his brief but interesting rejoinder to my to qualify passes. Such inaccuracies as the above note, MR. PICKFORD unintentionally deprives Dr. are inevitable. You must be a very dull writer Todd of a day in his earthly pilgrimage. June 28, indeed if you can escape falling into such innot June 27, 1869, was the precise date of Dr. advertencies as this of Johnson. The mind is, Todd's death. I copy the following from Dr. or ought to be, full of its theme, and in the freedom Leeper's invaluable little Historical Handbook of of expressing it will occasionally leave behind a someSt. Patrick's Cathedral, Dublin,' 1891, p. 102 :— thing that may be misread alike by the incompetent
“A monument has been erected in the churchyard to or over critical. To express yourself well you have the memory and over the remains of James Hentborn to be fully kindled by your thought; to attain Todd, S.F.T.C.D., Precentor of the Cathedral. A large, minuteness of accuracy you must be thinking well-executed Irish Cross, erected by his brothers and only of the worde. To achieve the latter is the sisters, marks the grave, with the following inscription : best possible recipe for dulness of thought,-it
Jesus Soter Salvator,
C. A. WARD.
Chingford Hatcb, Eesex.
AMBROSE GWINETT (8th S. ii. 447, 535; iii.
56, 116, 192).—I have another reference for this Fratres et sorores mærentes posuere,
or a similar story to a work entitled 'Remarkable Nat. Ap. 23, MDCCCV. ob. June 28,
Events in the History of Man,' by Dr. Josbua
Watts. A youth, condemned for murder of a In the list of clerical interments in or near the boatswaid, was hung, but taken away by his Cathedral (p. 113), July 2nd, 1869, is given as the friends and recovered, put on board ship, and afterdate of Dr. Todd's burial.
wards met the boatswain, who had been taken By the way, the use of the double same meaning away by the press-gang. HARDRIC MORPHYN. substantive in the inscription occurs to me as rather unusual. Were they linked together as TYING STRAW TO A STREET-DOOR (8th S. iii. word-symbols of Greek and Latin (or Eastern and 327).—This custom also prevails in Staffordsbire, Western) Christianity? But ournp is given in and means, “Thrashing done here." Roman letters and is orthodox Ciceronian.
J. BAGNALL J. B. S. Water Orton. Manchester,
TITHE-BARNS (8th S. ii. 246, 330, 397, 475 ; iii. A MOTTO FOR THEATRICAL MANAGERS (86b S. 16, 314).-As a former lay brother of the Abbey of iii. 106, 315).-I cannot but smile, in the midst of St. Mary of Beaulieu, Hante, I must ask your so many remarks upon, and feverish anxieties to leave to correct the statements of Y. T. at the last establish, the accuracy of language, to see con- reference. The barn alluded to dever was a tithestantly their atter inefficacy. I imagine that barn; it has no connexion with St. Lawrence; and nobody will say that Dr. Johnson, although he it is in anything but a good state of preservation. was taught at school very thoroughly the Latin That it is, or was, large, and is still picturesque, is, language, did not attain to the writing of English however, correct. The barn was not a tithe-barn, generally with very great grammatical accuracy. seeing that the abbey owned not the tithes merely Yet here we have been blundering in such manner of Beaulieu, of which there never were any, but as to render one or two readers of 'N. & Q.' quite the whole fee simple of the manor. The barn puzzled, or fancying they are puzzled, about what was used for storing the whole of the produce of he means to say. “The stream of Time...... passes their corn-lands on their farms of St. Leopard's, without injury by the adamant of Sbakspere.” Clobb, Bergerie, Gius, Warren, Thorns, Beck, and Johnson never meant to convey that "the stream Sowley. I give the names on account of their of time” suffered any injury from Shakspere's quaintness and the strange mixture of Anglo-Noradamant, but that the adamant could not be hurt man and technical English. All the Dames coneither by “the stream of time" or the imber edax note some recognizable characteristic save "Clobb," of friend Horace. It is only the ordo is wrong. a word to which I never was able to attach ady, If Johnson bad written, “The stream of Time thing more than an appellative signification. The ...... passes by, without injury [to] the adamant of barn in question is at St. Leopard's (not St. LawShakspere," there would be nothing to remark upon. rence's) Grange, some four miles from the abbey. I insert to; but if omitted the same sense is conveyed. It was originally a splendid building, about 210 What chance is there that the general public will feet long and 70 feet wide, and would hold, prospeak English with scientific accuracy when a sig- bably, 4,000 quarters of grain stacked in the straw. pally practised and competent pen such as Johnson's So far from its being now in a good state of preconveys an erroneous impression by so small a slip as servation, scarce anything remains but the two the above. All error, if any exist, resides here in gable-end walls, which are fairly intact. The roof