Obrazy na stronie

they would vanish when the system came into opera- should want no horses, and therefore no horse corn. Well tion. 'Tis worthy of remark and consideration, that those the country has not been ruined, if a few of the class I have trades have made the greatest progress where piece-work has named did not do so well as before. We should all be been the rule. It gives the industrious and skilful man a sorry to go back to coach days: 12s. to go to London on great advantage over the lazy and unskilful one. It also sets the outside of a coach in six hours, &c. Some of us rethe energies of mind to work to find out readier and quicker member the war waged by agricultural labourers against methods of getting over work; and I hope to see the plan thrashing machines, and how they broke them up and more generally adopted in Bedford. I quite believe it would burnt them ; but time changes men's ideas, and now these answer in the building trades. I have no time to enter on very men refuse to thrash with the fail. Had it not been overtime. It may do with your slow day-workmen; but 'tis for the steam thrashing machine after the harvest of 1836, of no advantage to men by the piece. We have bitherto we should have had bread at famine prices, for the old spoken mainly of the labour of the band : we will now turn to stock of corn was all gone, and we had to live upon the new another kind of labour, and this by no means the easiest kind. crop. The demand, therefore, for the new crop was so I mean the labour of the brain, quite as important as the great, that all the steam thrashing machines were kept in other-to none more so than to the working classes ; for it is constant work for months. verily believe, if it had not by the labour of the brain that man's bodily labour is pro- been for steam thrashers, the 4lbs. loaf would have been at fitably conducted, new branches of industry opened up, new Is. 4d. Machinery raises man's 'intelligence. I don't material discovered on which to expend labour. Many of you believe in man's doing the work of brutes; I look upon visited the Great Exhibition, 1851, and were doubtless im- man as too noble to be made a machine of. I remember he pressed, as I was, with this idea-What an amount of thought is made in God's image, and I hope to see the day when and ingenuity has been expended in bringing our manufactured every description of labour which taxes the physical powers products to their present high degree of perfection? Why of man, shakes his frame, blunts his intellect, and such as were we before every other nation in the excellence and va- is only fit for beasts of burden, will be performed by riety of our manufactures ? Simply because we bad brought machinery. Surely it will be better, as in the steam to bear on them more mind, or, in other words, a greater thrashing machine, instead of employing man's brute force amount of reasoning and intellectual power; and, mark you, in exceedingly laborious occupations, to orercome them, 'tis only as we keep in advance of other countries that we his intelligence shall be employed in directing machinery shall command the trade. If you could buy as good a saw to perform it. It is a startling fact, that until the intromade in Bedford as in Sheffield, you would not send to the duction of machinery, especially the steam engine, the latter place for it. So with the American-if he can buy as progress aná population of the country went on very good hardware in New York as iu Birmingham, he will not slowly; but who can measure all the strides it has send across the Atlantic for it; nor will the French, the Aus. since taken? In 1780, less than 80 years ago, just at the trians, the Russians, continue to send to England for agricul-dawn of the new era, when machinery came to the help of tural machinery, unless we continue to produce better than labour, our population was about 8 millions, now it is above they can get at home. So excellent as our manufactures 20 millions; while the increase from 1575 to 1750 was not doubtless are, we must not stand still, but use every effort, more than about 1 millions. The rapid increase in the both men and masters, to make something still better. Im- number of the people, as well as their improved condition, proved machinery has the effect of saviug labour, and therefore clearly indicate that the means of employment and subwas supposed to diminish employment. I am aware that it sistence had been materially enlarged; and I think you will does so in particular instances; but, as I will attempt to show, agree with me that this advance in population and wealth can the effect is but temporary. There is one very hackneyed ouly be accounted for by the fact that the machinery, which but very striking illustration. It is nearly four hundred it was feared would diminish employment, has enormously years since printing was discovered. Great numbers of men increased it. To oppose machinery, therefore, is to fis in were employed in writiog and copying books. Owing to the the face of the best friend the working men of England ever amount of labour, books were very dear. A bible cost £30, had, and is about as wise as it would be to attempt to shut 80 very few people had bibles. The immediate effect of this out the light of the sun. Haviug endeavoured to show the discovery was, that these writers were thrown out of employ- importance of labour, I shall, in bringing my subject to a ment. Now suppose, for the sake of keeping these men em- close, glance at the respectability and dignity of labour. If ployed, or for the love of clinging to old methods, the world we turn to sacred writ, we find the praises of industry, had destroyed the presses, can you estimate the loss which sounded throughout its pages. We read—“ The hand of would have been entailed on the world ? At all events, we the diligent shall bear rule.” “Seest thou a man diligent should not have wanted the army of printers we now employ. | in business: he shall stand before princes; he shall not Take, again, the cotton and woollen trades, now about the stand before mean men.” The patriarchs, the apostles, and most important branches of our national industry. On the intro- even our Saviour himself, by example, showed to their own duction of the power-loom and Arkwright's spinning machinery, and all succeeding ages that honest labour was honourable. great distress resulted to the hand spinners and weavers of There can be uo question that some occupations are more Lancashire and Yorkshire. Suppose they had successfully honourable than others; and every man wbo endeavours to opposed, as they attempted, their introduction, and stuck rise in life does well. Far be it from me to speak lightly of to the old method, what would have been the result? social rank; but I cannot shut my eyes to the fact that in Why, not a single hand would now have been employed in the present day there are amongst us some who set up false the cotton trade in those districts ; the machinery would standards of respectability-who look down with a stupid, have been transplanted to America or the Continent. We ignorant contempt upon the lower or industrial classes i need not, however, travel beyond Bedford to prove that am not sure that the ability to produce wealth is not as re although machinery may for a time be injurious to one class spectable as its mere possession. I am not sure that honest of working men, that it is beneficial to the mass. Some of labour is not as respectable, and as honourable too, as you are aware that at Well-street foundry we have a new luxurious indolence. I would not confound those who, system of making castings by machinery. The moulders, raised by the industry of their fathers or forefathers above of course, looked upon the machines at first with no the necessity of toiling for themselves, devote their lives to riendly eye, for with a machine one man can do as much honourable and useful pursuits; but I mean a class with work as two or three could by hand. It did not do the whom the moving, acting, working world has no sympathy, moulders much good, I confess; nor, I think, a great deal and which laughs at the miserable, shrivelled gentility

which of harm; but how did it affect the other branches ? In prides itself upon having had nothing to do with trade, and this way. Last year we made 500 more implements than can never embark in any pursuit for the benefit of their we could have done without the moulding machines; con- fellow-creatures which inight bring them in contact with sequently a great number of smiths, fettlers, fitters, painters, anything so degrading as inanual or mercantile industry, and porters were benefited, whilst the machines only These idlers of society are not, however, to be confounded affected the interest of some half-dozen moulders. Again, with those of the upper classes who devote their time to look at railways. Most of us remember their introduction, honourable and useful pursuits--happily for this country, a and what a hue-and-cry was raised about the ruin they class that is becoming more and more numerous. Yes, if would bring upon coachmen, guards, ostlers, innkeepers, you want to find the real “ friends of the people," you must proprietors, and even farmers were dragged in, for we not look for them among those who proclaim themselves such, but among the long list of honourable, distin-1 way. Here are two men, sprung from your ranks, who guished men who are always ready, with time and money, have done more for trade, and towards developing the reto help forward any project having in view “the health, sources of this country, than all the mechanical men who the wealth, the happiness of the working classes." One ever lived. And have you no men to boast of, who have word in conclusion. If the working men would rise to a conferred benefits on mankind of a higher order? Look position of greater respectability and influence in this through the pages of the British Workman; and you will country, they can do so by becoming more intelligent. We be proud of what the world owes to working men. 'I could are approaching a time when men will be respected accord. enumerate them, but will only remind you of oue-a name ing to their knowledge and conduct; and nothing can pre- which will live as long as time lasts ; a man of whom the vent you from becoming more powerful than you already working men of Bedford may feel justly proud, and whose are, but from remaining less intelligent than the classes works they will do well to study I mean the immortal above you. A long live of distinguished men has sprung John Bunyan. May you follow in the footsteps of that up from your ranks-men whom any class might be proud noble man, and at last, when the labour of life has termito rank among their number. Watt, a mechanic, gave us nated, enter into rest! the steam engine; Stephenson, a pitman, gave us the rail


Sir,-My last letter, on the growth of beet for sugar, hoed; and we certainly might with advantage copy their has rather interrupted my narrative; but I thought it 80 mode of making them. All is alive. The stakes are interesting a subject to your readers, I could not for- nine inches apart, three feet high; and the plasbes, at an bear sending it.

angle of forty-five degrees, are all tied with a small Having seen the town of Dunkirk, the country next willow twig at every place where they cross the stakes, became of course the object of attraction. As the popu- the whole being eithered at top, and that also tied to lation is a trifle under 30,000, half a mile from the every stake in same manner. It is often not more than centre brings you to any one of the nine gates, at each three inches diameter, and is the neatest hedge I ever of which is an octroi" office, and a couple of men to saw, quite impervious to pigs and sheep, and well attend to it. I thought, perhaps, they might have adapted to arable land. Some may fancy the labour of asked me for my passport ; but, no, that is one of the it expensive, but I think not more so than ours. It is duties of the gendarmes ; but I believe you may travel sometimes quick, but often elm; the seed of which is from one end of France to the other, without being re- sown to procure the plants, which are inserted in a single quested to show it, unless you stop more than one night row. at the same hotel.

Some grass orchards I have seen enclosed with a live Directly you are outside the fortifications it is the hedge, six or seven feet high, of horubeam, as large as country; and I will endeavour to describe my first coup your arm or leg, a very few inches apart, and the d'æil of a foreign landscape, to me a most interesting branches interwoven and tied, as the other; it is a fence moment.

for a lion, and, like the other, taking but a little space : A straight and well-paved road and footpath ; a row both these are worthy of imitation. of stunted elms on one side, and willows on the other; a One hundred acres are here considered a good-sized canal running parallel (the earth excavated in the farm : many are owned by the occupiers. making it having evidently been used to raise the road I gave you, in a few lines back, my first view of this some feet higher than the adjoining land); half-a-dozen immense vale; I will now, having penetrated some miles windmills and some small white houses with only a into it, endeavour to depict its general appearance. ground floor and a garret under the pantile roof; the I expected to find the country have a very dotted land dotted with fruit trees, and divided into small appearance, from its numerous subdivisions among small market gardens by narrow hedges fall of willows polled; owners; but it is not so, the marks being small square and here you have the view.

stones, half buried, and no grass baulks” being left ; At the moment, two fine barges were passing, loaded and all now being ploughed for wheat or spring crops, with coals from Belgium. They had a sail each, but the I could often fancy myself in a level parish in England, first was assisted by three men and a woman, at the end under the (recently altered) old “common-land” system, of a long tow rope, and both were guided by a woman The land has the appearance of immense ploughed fields, at each helm.

with occasionally smaller ones, of the richest grass, 'Twas market-day at Bergue, another old fortified nearly all water-meadows, the ditches on both sides frontier town, 4} miles distant; so I walked there. being thickly planted with willows. Sometimes apAs I proceeded, I was indeed surprised at the surpassing parently unmeaning rows of tall branchless wych elms richness of the soil. Round Dankirk it is a blackish are seen, and always on the sides of accommodationsandy loam, which varies throughout this splendid roads to the farms, and now and then in square clumps, district of 100 miles south (and I am told over Belgium like Indian topes, giving an appearance in the distance and Holland), in all the gradations of colour and c)- of a wooded district, which it is not. Windmills, barus hesiveness of loam, with a top-soil of a yard in depth, standing singly, small round ricks of corn, cottages and and a subsoil of brick -earth and marl, requiring no foot square-enclosed farmyards-all combine to make a on the tool which digs it. We have land as fine in Eng. pleasing landscape, for a flat one. You may consider land, but certainly not in such a continuous length. this a picture of the whole country.

The cultivation is most excellent; leveller, straighter, They were wheat-sowing, and I saw one harrow or deeper ploughing I never saw, and executed with a drawn by two men, which may give you some idea of pair of borses in a most primitive drap plough, so short the tenderness of the soil. They are excellent seedsin beam and handles that, bad I not seen it, I never men, seldom drilling the wheat, but generally sowing could bare believed it possible to have produced such five pecks an acre, and ploughing it in with one borse. superior work. They go quite close to the ditch, and It lies usually in large lands, and the smaller pieces the few inches left they dig; so not an inch is lost. The seem often to have been ploughed many times one way, land is all as clean as a garden : even the old hedges are so that no furrow is seen, and all slopes from centre to


clover they make like corn. They tie them in It is a most profitable affair. The carriages are better

the boundary. What surrows they have they seem than an isolated little farm of the nineteenth century. carefully to “spit" out. I suppose they are anxious to They certainly are a contented happy people, and most get rid of snow and rain-water quickly; but too much industrious. On market-days the son or father, gener; of that I have never seen, for I am sure many five ally both, with mother or sisters, take their covered months of summer are much wetter than the last waggon of corn themselves ; pitch it in the market. five we have had here. Their course of husbandry is place, and, when sold, return in the same manner, the betteraves; wheat; oats; clover, mowed often three exact quantity and price being taken by a policeman and times; bitteraves; wheat; oats ; then perhaps potatoes signed by the seller. I never saw such exact statistics or colza for seed, or beans; and then wheat for last. The as are taken bere by Government in everything. I fancy wheat is harrowed and well-rolled in spring; cut with it will be interesting just now, as the question of agri. a bagging hook, shocked with a hood sheaf, and har- cultural returns is so much agitated in England, if I vested as it ought to be, from what I saw of the dry some time send you an account of the progress bere samples of white wheat in the markets (brown is not made therein, and their manner of doing it ; but I am much grown). It is thrashed with a fiail, and sold by trespassing on your space. My walk to Bergue I will the hectolitre, i. e., 200 pints, worth now about 16s.8d., finish in my next, with their cattle management, and the i. e., 58. 6d. per bushel; bread and gin being the only extraordinary but very general treatment of the pleurocheap things here. The former is three pounds for 31d. pneumonia. Straw delivered is worth 5d. per truss.

After a few days' stay at the priocipal hotel at DanThe oats are generally white, and are harvested in the kirk at the moderate expense of seven shillings per day, same manner; and of them the only thing worthy of I took the rail for Lille. remark is, the very small quantity of seed they give to them : they are worth about 3s. 6d. a bushel ; they and Calais to Paris, the Belgian lines running into it


This is the northern railway running from Dunkirk grow great crops.

It is little bundles, and set them up like corn sheares; con.

than ours: first class more silkily lined, and more softly sequently it is all woefully made too much, put in little stuffed, and with hot water tanks for the feet ; the second

also have cushions and stuffed backs; and the third are stacks, and when sold at £3 10s. a load is delivered in exactly like our second. The pace is very slow-fifteen these same bundles, weighing 9 lbs. each, without a tilt; consequently, if delivered in damp weather, not

to twenty miles an hour; but the price is cheap-first worth much after a fortnight's housing in a hay-loft. class for fifty miles 6s. 10d. ; 66|bs. of luggage is allowed Their hay is made much as ours; and did they not

each passenger; all above is charged, but very modestack and deliver it in the same ridiculous way as the rately. The grass grows belween ile rails, the stationclover, it would be of excellent quality: they are both profit. The crossings were all on the flat (no bridges),

houses are inexpensive, and all seems done cheaply for the same price. Extraordinary that these capital with a cottage at each for the woman who has care of it. farmers should not have copied our admirable manner of stacking and trussing bay! I should fancy they grow hand, as you pass, with a uniform—black glazed bat,

She stands with her folded flag extended in her right large crops of clover, as I saw many pieces being cut, for soiling the cows and horses, the third time, at the

white cap, blue cape, and wide red collar. Nothing rate of a load an acre. This, of course, is nerer made

more is worthy of remark but the fences : they are the into hay.

same all the way, made of oak laths, about a yard bigh, The colza is sown in beds in the latter end of July, together along the top; and at every five feet an oak

upright, four inches apart, with two longer ones tied and transplanted (in land manured) in October, in rows across four-step lands, one foot from row to row and post, of which a pole of six or eight inches diameter four inches in the row. It is cut in July: a good crop

would make four, the whole being tied together by three is thirty bushels an acre of seed, worth 6s. per bushel.

double rails (if I may so call them) of iron wire, which

are twisted round each lath the whole way, and the two The land is generally immediately ploughed, and sown

tie laths on the top are served the same. It is stronger with white turnips (like our six-weeks' turnips), which come off in time for wheat. The disease of the potatoes with new posts will stand many longer.

than you would fancy, has stood seventeen years, and

It is good has troubled them like us, but I think not to the same extent. It has for some five years past been gradually applied at home-a good protection to a young quick

against sheep and hogs, and might often be economically becoming less; they grow about ten tons an acre; the best worth £3 5s. per ton. Peas they seldom grow. the whole way (as I have described it), with the exception

near a farmyard. The same sort of landscape prevails Beans they do oceasionally, which they principally, give of some rising ground about Cassell (half way). I sam the fatting hogs. Barley is little sown in this district.

two or three small hop grounds, on ridges much narYou see their prices are about the same as ours, so rower and higher than ours ; but I will describe their that with the advantage also of the betteraves, I do not

manner of management at the same time as I speak of think an English farmer could extract more gross re- their malt and beer. turn per acre than they do; and this, added to the

A long delay took place at Calais junction, waiting heavy stock of cattle they keep, which being fed on for the London train, during which time I was much bought food has almost no limit but the pocket, make a amused at the sang froid of a Zouave in a first class small farm here a good living. They are a most frugal carriage ; a little sallow man in yellow leather leggings; race, and their great ambition is to save and invest their blue breeches large enough for three, embroidered accumulations in the purchase of land, which fetches an jacket, and red cloth cap-in Algeria they put on it the enormous price. A highly respectable notary informed white cloth, which makes it a turban : you might readily me 24 per cent. was considered a fair return. A very fancy him a Turk. The reason he was in a first class great proportion farm their own property.

is, all soldiers and officers here have the entrée of railLeases generally extend to nine years. They have ways and theatres for one-fourth the price of other not restrictions in cultivation like us, and the repairs people--a great advantage to the rank and file of the are generally done by the landlord, the farmer providing infantry, who have only a halfpenny per day. This is food the while for the men ; but all here is so solidly the fact; and very happy and content they are. Of built of brick and stone, tbat the repairs are trifling. course all necessaries are found them; and I am not at The barn and stable-doors being all arched, look like all astonished at their predilection for military life : the buildings attached to an old monastery or castle, more they have little to do.

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In time I arrived at Lille, the principal manufac- The 41 cows were better than the bullocks : I may turing town in all France : its Manchester, with a po- say they were excellent. The first prize, of £12, was pulation, including a radius of two miles, of 300,000. thorough-bred English (of course bred in France, the It is surrounded with windmills. There is a spot from property of the Marquis of Verdun, of D'Ancy Manche, which you may count 200. I have counted fifty in sight in Normandy); not large, but very neat; her live at once frequently. Some are for oil. Few English. weight was 230 stone ; that would be about 150 stone men stop bere, as all baste on to Paris ; but it is worth | dead. He sold her for £55 to a butcher, who expected a couple of days to the tourist. About 400 English are to get a prize with her at a Show at Bergues this week. here resident, mostly operatives. Very few speak Second prize, of £10, was an English roan; very good English, none much ; but in a few years that will be als). Third, of £9, was a Dutch cow; fourth, of LS, altered, as now it is taught at all the public schools, to was half-English and Flemish—very neat, but small; which all go. A better education may be had here for fifth, of £7; sixth, of £6 ; seventh, of £5 108.; one shilling a week than in many parts of England for eighth, of £5; ninth, of £4 10s. ; tenih, of £4; and £1. Every boy has to undergo examination, and all are some honourably mentioned. I would not wish for 41 taught mathematics.

more useful cows. All seem thriring bere under the strictest system of - The fourth lot were 27 cattle, in droves of four and protection. No one has any fondness for free trade. five each. Many of these were a distant breed (I Government manages everything. You cannot set up believe, Courtois), rery thick and heavy, 13} hands a business without leave from the mayor. They are high (I like to speak within bounds). There was only very jealous of us, as we either undersell or outdo them one prize of £20 in this lot, and that was given to five in everythi g. Anything English is valued. How yellow dun bullocks between five and six years old, many times I have been asked if English razors are which had evidently been worked ; and handsome they very dear, as they are so superior to French ! Many looked, no doubt, is their harness. There was not a wealthy men are here. Money is worshipped as much single polled cow or beast, and they were all trimmed; as in England ; more so, for those who have it keep it. the latter was a pity. You do not find the noble examples of self earned fortunes Ten fat calves come next in the list, generally Dutch spent like princes, and in doing good as we do at home. bred, from 11 weeks to 34 months old ; nothing particu

Last Tuesday was held here the yearly cattle show of larly good. There were two prizes of £6 and £4. eight surrounding departments, viz., Novd, Calais, The sheep were divided into two classes : Ist, young Somme, Aisne, Oise, Seine-et-Oise, Marne, Seine ; and sheep, without reference to breed. The first prize of it is considered a very important meeting. The abattoir £16 was for a lot of half-bred Flemish and half-bred in which the catile were shown was ornamented with a Down yearlings ; second of £12, for a lot of 14 months profusion of tri-coloured flags, and a pavilion was erected old same breed; third of L8, for some 1 month old do. for the notabilities who distributed the 38 prizes, which All had their tails bobbed short, and were shorn : the amounted to £342. Agriculture is particularly pa- last lot cut 10lbs. wool each (10d, per lb.), and would Ironized by the Government; all is done to assist it; weigh 11 stone each. The 2nd class was divided into and at the introduction of a new plant, or manufacturé two lots ; one without restrictions, and the other me. connected with it, it is not unusual for the public money rino or half-merinos. The first prize of £12 was for to be lent to the farmers to try it, as was done many some three-year-old half-bred Flemish and Leicester years ago at the introduction of the betterave for sugar very big heuvy sheep; the second, of £8, for some (by-the-bye, there is a new plant, called sorgho, same breed two-years old ; and the third of £4 for halflikely in some parts to supersede the raves : I will send Flemish balf-Down. They told me the wool of the you a succinct account of it shortly).

Down cross was worth more than the Leicester cross. The number of bullocks exhibited were 80, cows 41, The merinos and half-breds were enormously fat; I calves 10, sheep 15 lots, pigs 27. The first class never saw fatter. There was only one prize of £12, were sixteen Flemish beasts, from two to three years old. and that was given to half-merino balf-Leicester. This They are very useful animals; dark red ; much like a wool does not fetch the highest price. I shall know the coarse Devon or Sussex. They had evidently been well live and dead weight, all in one of these lots. managed, from their size-generally 14 hands, and one Pigs were good. Short-legged, bardy, white hogs, 15 nearly—and not so very long in the leg. Not very two prizes of £4 and £3 were given in class 1 (all fat-fat animals are not relished here, as, from their

French breed), and three of £4, £3, and £2 in class mode of cooking, the fat does not come to table : all is 2 for cross-breeds. This concludes the list of cattle. boiled or baked to rags; nothing like cur English

At 3 o'clock the Prefect of the Department, the Inspeccooking. As to a good floury potato, no one knows

tor-General of Agriculture from Paris, the Mayor of Lille, what it is. The first class had three prizes of £28, £24, and £20, forms, cocked hats, and swords, took their seats under

their secretaries, and others, all in diplomatic blue uniand two were “honourably mentioned." The next lot in same class were 12 more, same breed, amused the crowd. The Prefect began by congratulating

the Pavilion, while the brass band of 1st Dragoons from 3 to 4 years old ; they also had three prizes of the people on the progress they had made in agri£28, £24, and £20.

culture in the north, combining it with manufactures, The second class consisted of three lots. The first by feeding the cattle on their refuse, making Lille were Flemish bullocks, without reference to age; these au especial place of attraction to all who had an had three prizes of £16, £12, and £8. The second lot interest in land. He thanked all who had were sis Courtois bullocks (a place near the Swiss sisted, and the

who bad

from frontier), a very cloddy animal; but they seem to have distant parts to do honour to the meeting. The Gomany breeds there. Prize 1, of £16, was something vernment was anxious to give every encouragement poslike a very coarse Ayrshire; the second prize, of £12, sible to agriculture. "The Emperor applies himself more like a Hereford; and the honourably mentioned energetically and at all times to the agriculture of was a little thick dun bullock, like a bad Highlander. France : to raise it to the utmost of his power was bis

The third lot were 27 of all breeds : many were crossed most earnest desire. He depends on you to assist him with Durham. Prize 1, of £16, was like a leggy York, in this good work, and in that hope I am happy to with roach back; prize 2, was £12; and prize 3, £8— join you in exclaiming 'Vive L'Empereur.'

The in my opinion, the best half-bred English of the lot. Inspector-General then rose, and in the name of



the Government and the judges of the show begged to to the same men in England! I have been to two of bear witness to the improvement every year made in the their houses, and shall go to a third dext week (one of agriculture of the north of France.

the strongest tobacco-growers about here), to which The recipients of the prizes were nearly all farmers, I shall devote my next letter, and will now conclude. and in appearance respectable men, about the same as

AN ENGLISH FARMER IN FRANCE. our 200-acred tenants at home; but in their homes Lille, March 29, 1858. what a difference ! what a life of discomfort, compared

THE VALUE OF FURZE AS FOOD FOR CATTLE. The following are extracts from the testimonies which was not half its value. My plan of cultureof respectable agriculturists; addressed to the editor sow 28lb. of seed to each acre, as you would clover of the Cork Daily Reporter” :

seed in oaten tillage the day after sowing the corn; From Rev. Benjamin Williamson, Old Dromore, the oats will not injure the furze, nor the furze the Mallow—"I have been using furze for horses these oats in mowing, unless the oats be a very heavy last three or four years, cut with a chaff-cutter. I crop, and should lodge, in which case it is sure to commenced this winter on the fourth of October, kill the furze. You will have a great crop every and am feeding all my horses, for pleasure and succeeding year-say from four to eight tons. On otherwise, to the number of twelve, and a yearling no account let it stand more than a year uncut ; it from that time to the present, and hope to continue gets woody and bad for food. No beast should be doing so for another month. They get nothing allowed in the field at any time, except that which else, and are in capital condition. One of the draws in to the farm yard. It requires no manure, riding horses is rather too fat. I have two furze no weeding, and mine is yielding abundantly, after meadows, each about two acres, and have cut every more than twenty years' constant mowing. After second year hitherto; but in future I mean to cut many years' experience, cutting every year, it has every year, as the second year it becomes woody. been rising every year in my estimation. Good as The land on which the furze is grown is very poor, it is for food, it is equally good for litter. I have not worth more than 78. Of course the richer the found that furze passed through the cattle-house is land the heavier the crop. I am cutting some two just as good manure as if wheaten straw had been years old for litter, and think of sowing another used. For food it must be used fresh: it will not field this year for that purpose. Sow with barley keep cut and bruised a second day; any left ought or oats under the harrow, about 15 lb. to the statute to be swept into the manure pit. Water-power acre. A donkey can work the chaff cutter without works a powerful cutting machine, bought from bruising, which with young furze is not necessary. M'Kenzie, Cork; works also a Gardner's turnipBy hand-labour (though mine is inferior to Rich cutter, and it is astonishing in how short a time mond and Chandler's £10 cutter which I intend turnips and furze are prepared for twenty head of purchasing) two men and a boy feeding will cut cattle.” in an hour sufficient for twelve horses. Four hands Mr. Hawkes, Passage West, adopted Mr. working got four firkins (equal to bushels), a little Crooke's plan of cultivating and preparing furze, packed at night, and no hay. There is a good deal and found it to be of the greatest advantage in supof grass growing with the furze, which is much porting cows and horses. This year the herdsman relished. The other horses don't get so much, but varied the food with great advantage, giving half always get a couple of gallons mixed with their furze with some turnips and hay, and never had oats, which makes them masticate the latter better. them in such a condition before. The furze is mown daily with an ordinary scythe. Mr. Samuel Lane, steward to the Hon. Mrs. The first crop I sowed without corn, but gained Austen, Hadwell, Aghada, writes that he has had nothing by the sacrifice, as it is very slow of growth many years' practical experience of its great utility the season it is sown, not more than a couple of as food for horses and horned cattle, and its value inches in length."

as a substitute for hay. He had for many years Richard Barter, Esq., M.D., St. Anne's, Blarney the superintendence of two large farms; and on one

I have been using furze for nearly twenty years, he worked on his own account, furze propagated I prepare with a chaff-cutter, I have five farms, and by plants from seed in previous spring, in November, in all bave water-power. The furze is cut very and mown every year, turned to best account. green, with a scythe, every year. It is far superior Poor light or mountain land, which would be useto hay for cows and horses, and the yield of less for other crops, will bring good furze, by inferior land is superior to the best meadow." ploughing and digging, sowing 201bs. seed to the

William Crooke, Esq., J.P., Derrun, Coach- acre. Any farmer so devoting five acres of poor ford—“My mind is made up, after more than land would find that they were the most valuable twenty years' experience, that furze is the most and useful part of his land. His way of prepariug valuable forage plant we possess in scarce seasons. was, first the cutting spade and pounder ; but in Farmers from great distances come here to buy 1854 he bought a furze cutter from, as he truly furze by the half-acre, at high prices, which they says, that first-rate seedsman and machine-maker could so easily grow on their own farms. The Mr. Thomas M'Kenzie, Camden-quay, Cork, for lowest price l'ever got was £4 per acre (statute), 1 eight guineas,

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