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No. VII. STATUE OF THOMAS GUY, IN THE CHAPEL OF GUY'S HOSPITAL SOUTHWARK.
TEACH me to soothe the helpless orphan's grief,
And be the sure resource of drooping age.
WITH great pleasure we place on our list of National Statues that of GUY, the amiable friend of the poor and unfortunate, and founder of the noble Hospital which bears his name. The monumental group represented in our engraving, is of white marble, and stands against the wall, facing the visiter as he enters the hospital-chapel. It was executed by the late Mr. Bacon, in 1779, and is said to have cost 10007. Mr. Guy is represented in his livery gown, holding out one hand to raise a poor invalid lying on the earth, and pointing with the other to a distressed object, carried on a litter into one of the wards, the hospital being in the background. On the pedestal is this inscription; Underneath are deposited the remains of THOMAS GUY, Citizen of London, Member of Parliament, and the sole founder of this hospital in his life-time. It is peculiar to this beneficent man to have persevered, during a long course of prosperity and industry, in pouring forth to the wants of others, all that he had earned by labour, or withheld from self-indulgence. Warm with philanthropy, and exalted by charity, his mind expanded to those noble affections which grow but too rarely from the most elevated pursuits. After administering with extensive bounty to the claims of consanguinity, he established this asylum for that stage of languor and disease, to which the charity of others had not reached: he provided a retreat for hopeless insanity, and rivalled the endowments
of kings. He died the 27th of December, 1724, in the 80th year of his age. Thomas Guy, the son of a lighterman and coaldealer, was born in Horsleydown, Southwark, in 1645. He was apprenticed to a bookseller in Cheapside, and having been admitted a freeman of the Stationers' Company in 1668, was received into their livery in 1673. He began business with a stock of about 2007., in the house which, till lately, formed the angle between Cornhill and Lombard Street, but which has been pulled down for the improvements now making in that neighbourhood. His first success was owing to the great demand for English Bibles, printed in Holland, in which he dealt largely but on the importation of these being stopped by law, he contracted with the University of Oxford for the privilege of printing Bibles; and having furnished himself with types from Holland, carried on this branch of business for many years, with great profit.
But whatever, foundation he might have laid for his future wealth, in the usual course of trade, no small portion of his property arose from his purchase of seamen's tickets. These he bought at a large discount, and afterwards subscribed in the South Sea Company, which was established in 1710, for the purpose of discharging those tickets, and giving a large interest. Here Mr. Guy was so extensively, as well as cautiously concerned, that in 1720, he was possessed of 45,5001. stock, by disposing of which when it bore an extremely advanced price, he realized a considerable sum.
If it hould seem to detract from the character of this be aevolent man, that he trafficked in sailors' tickets and South Sea stock, it must be observed, that as to the former, the blame of the tickets being broug at to market, lay with the government of that time, who instead of paying the sailors in money, as they ought, gave them bills or tickets, payable at a future day and to such as wanted money, these were
useless, unless the holders could obtain ready cash for them, in which case, discount, and therefore, loss, was unavoidable. With regard to the South Sea stock, Mr. Guy had no hand in framing or conducting that scandalous fraud; he obtained the stock when low, and had the good sense to sell it at the time it was at its height. Never, indeed, can we approve of that speculative spirit, which leads men to step out of the line of a particular calling, and to "make haste to be rich;" nor, while we admire the mode in which a fortune has been spent, and contemplate some splendid endowment that has derived its origin from the "bad success" of gambling or avarice, can we be so far misled as to allow that the end justifies the means. fable, often couched just and biting satire, alluding to Gay, who, under the form of a the large fortunes suddenly made, by means of th "South Sea bubble," remarks;
How many saucy airs we meet,
From Temple-bar, to Aldgate-street!
Proud rogues who shared the South Sea prey, And sprung, like mushrooms, in a day.
While we are compelled, in this sketch of Mr. Guy's life, to associate his name with one of the most infamous transactions in the commercial history of the cause of Christian charity, to add, that no disour country, it is due to his memory, as well as to honourable imputation ever attached to him on this score*. Be it remembered, that much of his money was acquired by labour and perseverance, as well as by that practice of self-denial, which probably was necessary at the outset of life, and afterwards became a habit. To his relations he was attentive while he lived; and his actions prove that he did not hoard up his means until they could no longer be of use to himself. He kindly lent money to some of his connexions, and granted annuities to others. His liberal benefactions to St. Thomas's Hospital, made during his life, have been long known and appreciated in that excellent establishment. He had, also, founded an alms-house (afterwards endowed by his will) for fourteen poor people, at Tamworth, his mother's native town, which he represented in several parliaments. He left annuities to his older relatives, amounting to 8701. a year; and to the younger, extending to grandchildren of his uncles and aunts, he left stock in the funds, mostly in sums of 10007. each, to the extent of more than 74,0007., besides bequeathing land. To Christ's Hospital he gave a perpetual annuity of 4007., to receive on the nomination of his trustees, four children yearly, who must be his connexions: and there are always applicants. He left 10007. to discharge poor prisoners in London, Middlesex, and Surrey, at 57. each, and another 10007. to be distributed among poor housekeepers at the discretion of his executors. The erection of the hospital, the earliest part of which was built by Mr. Dance, is said to have cost nearly 19,000l., the amount of the residue of Mr. Guy's personal property being stated at upwards of 219,000oz.
The following anecdote has been supplied to us by a correspondent, to whom, for this and other agreeable contributions to our pages, we offer, once for all, our best acknowledgements.
"The munificent founder of Guy's Hospital was a man of very humble appearance, and of a melancholy cast of countenance f. One day, while pensively leaning over one of the bridges, he attracted the attention and commiseration of a by-stander, who, apprehensive that he meditated self-destruction, could not refrain from addressing him with an
Notwithstanding the flippant and unfair remarks of Pennant, in his History of London.
See also his statue in bronze, by Scheemakers, in the firs court of the hospital.
earnest entreaty, not to let his misfortunes tempt | a hundred inmates more being accommodated in him to commit any rash act;' then, placing in his hand a guinea, with the delicacy of genuine benevolence, he hastily withdrew. Guy, roused from his reverie, followed the stranger, and warmly expressed his gratitude; but assured him he was mistaken in supposing him to be either in distress of mind or of circumstances, making an earnest request to be favoured with the name of the good man, his intended benefactor. The address was given, and they parted. Some years after, Guy, observing the name of his friend in the bankrupt-list, hastened to his house; brought to his recollection their former interview; found, upon investigation, that no blame could be attached to him under his misfortunes; intimated his ability, and also his full intention to serve him; entered into immediate arrangements with his creditors, and finally, re-established him in a business, which ever after prospered in his hands, and in the hands of his children's children, for many years, in Newgate Street.".
His humane plan of founding an hospital having been matured, Guy, at the age of seventy-six, procured from the governors of St. Thomas's Hospital, Southwark, the lease of a large piece of ground for a term of 999 years, at a rent of £30 a year. Having cleared the space which was then occupied by a number of poor dwelling-houses, he laid the first stone of his new building in 1722. He lived to see it covered in : but before the excellent machine had begun to work, he was laid in the grave; for the hospital received within its walls the first sixty patients on the 6th of January, 1725. His trustees faithfully effected the completion of his great and good design, and soon procured an Act of Parliament for establishing the foundation, according to the directions of his will. Large and profitable estates were afterwards purchased in Herefordshire and Essex, for the benefit of the institution: the lease of an additional piece of ground was also obtained, for which, with the former, the governors still pay an annual sum to St. Thomas's. On this were erected two handsome wings, connected by an iron railing and gates: and Guy's Hospital now occupies a site of five acres and a half. Against the stone front of the building, on entering, are two emblematic figures, Esculapius, the heathen god of medicine, and Hygeia, the goddess of health, daughter of Esculapius. In the west wing is the chapel; and opposite, in the east wing, which is the older, is the Court-room. Here is a picture of Guy. Also a portrait by Phillips of the present Treasurer, B. Harrison Esq., who has filled that situation for nearly thirty-five years, and under whose kind and liberal management the hospital continues to prosper, and to fulfil the good its pious founder intended. The wings, likewise, contain the residences of the principal officers.
Passing through the arches in the centre, we come to a long colonnade, on each side of which are two quadrangles, containing the wards for patients, there being altogether five hundred and thirty beds. Some of the wards are for surgical cases, one for accidents; the remainder are filled according to circumstances. The buildings are airy, and well suited to promote recovery: and it is estimated that of about three thousand patients who enter in the course of the year, (the present average of admissions,) nine-tenths go out cured. Besides this, the hospital relieves upwards of fifty thousand outpatients. The means of usefulness, indeed, enjoyed by this admirable establishment, have lately admitted of an abundant increase, by the munificent bequest of 196,0007., made a few years since by Mr. Hunt;
Passing directly through the colonnade, we arrive at the portion of the building which is assigned for the charge of twenty-four female lunatics; some of whom, though they entered apparently hopeless cases, (as the epitaph on the founder implies,) have, we are happy to say, quitted their safe and hospitable retreat in a sound state of mind.
Further on, amidst trees which flourish well and give a look of cheerfulness, so delightful to many a languid sufferer when permitted to walk forth into the air, we reach the Museum. This is a neat modern building, comprising a valuable surgical collection, the principal feature of which is a vast variety of wax models, illustrative of the wonders of the human frame, and of remarkable cases of disease, executed with surprising accuracy by Mr. Joseph Towne of M. Guy's Hospital.
HISTORY OF NAVIGATION, DISCOVERY, AND
II. ORIGIN OF NAVIGATION. THE ARK. ANCIENT
Ar what time the art of Navigation had its origin is
The circumstances in which the immediate descendants of Noah were placed, were by no means favourable to the retention, much less to the improvement, of whatever naval skill they had acquired from their great progenitor. They were few in number, at some distance from the coast, in a country which furnished all the necessaries and many of tivated, was all before them. The principal causes which the luxuries of life, and the world, untenanted and unculhave led to improvement in navigation, have been the desire of commerce with others, and the passion for discovery. In an unpeopled world, there were none with whom the immediate descendants of Noah could carry on commerce, and the regions around them were, as yet, too little explored, for them to think of searching for realms beyond the deep. Hence it is not till several centuries after the Deluge that we find any records of commercial operations or attempts at discovery. Indeed, we have reason to think that a period of very considerable length elapsed before the people removed far from those mild and fertile regions, in which they found themselves at the cessation of the Deluge.
Among the countries earliest settled, after the Deluge, countries to the regions from which the first migrations were probably Egypt and Greece. The contiguity of those must have been made, the fertility of their soil, the salubrity of their climate, and the acknowledged antiquity of their history, all warrant this supposition. Yet of Greece than 1600 years before Christ, and in regard to Egypt, we have no authentic accounts which carry us back further though its settlement can be traced back further than that of Greece, we have no evidence that it was settled till a considerable time after the Deluge. Tradition states, that
We may, however, safely conclude, that the inventive genius of man did not rest very long without attempting to find some way to surmount the obstacles to human intercourse and the settlement of the world, interposed by rivers and arms of the sea, and the still more formidable ones presented by the ocean itself. Doubtless, traditions, and probably some remains of knowledge relative to Noah and the ark, continued long to exist among his descendants. These would suggest the practicability of forming structures which would form a safe means of conveyance across rivers and arms of the sea, as the ark had over the waters by which the world was covered.
The first attempts at ship-building and navigation after the Deluge, were probably the construction of rafts and canoes, and the guiding of them, with more or less skill, over the rivers that impeded the huntsman in his pursuit of the chase, or the channels and arms of the sea that interrupted the communication between the occupants of opposite shores. Under these circumstances it would soon be found that the water, instead of impeding the intercourse of men with one another, furnished far better means and far greater facilities for carrying on that intercourse, than the land. Hence maritime intercourse between comparatively distant cities on the same coast would arise, and the commodities of one would be exchanged for those of the other. The convenience of water as a means of transporting these commodities would become more and more obvious, as their commercial operations became more extensive, and this would excite increased attention to the arts of ship-building and navigation. In the course of the voyages thus made, new discoveries would from time to time occur, and these would stimulate the spirit of enterprise to more active efforts, and give it a higher tone. In this way we may safely conclude, that the foundation was laid for the advancement of commerce, and for the many splendid discoveries, which have attended and rewarded the enterprise of subsequent ages.
Like all other arts the arts of ship-building and navigation were at first very imperfect. Naval operations which, in subsequent ages, would have been considered as unworthy of mention, were, in the earlier ages of antiquity, regarded with such wonder that the conducters of them were deified, and the names of the ships themselves transferred to the constellations of heaven. With many of the great principles and operations in navigation, which are now considered as the very elements on which that science is founded, the ancients were wholly unacquainted. The property of the magnet, by which it attracts iron, was known to them, but that more important property, by which it points to the poles, had entirely escaped their observation. They had no other means of regulating their course than the sun and stars. Their navigation of course was uncertain and timid. They seldom ventured far from land, but crept along the coast exposed to all the dangers and retarded by all the obstructions incident to a course so circuitous and so liable to interruption. A voyage which would now scarcely require weeks, then required months for its completion. Even on the calm waters of the Mediterranean they ventured to sail only in summer, and few indeed were the hardy spirits that did not shrink back as they thought of encountering the wild waves of the Atlantic. Winter laid an embargo on all their maritime operations. To put to sea at that season would have been deemed the height of rashness.
nience of their ships. The Romans transported from Egypt to Rome obelisks formed out of a single stone, of a length and size so enormous, that it is questionable whether they could have been put on board any modern ship whatever. This fact shows that the Roman ships must have been large and strong, and that a considerable degree of skill must have been exhibited in their construction. The following account of one of the ancient ships is given by Athenæus.
"It had forty ranks of oars, was four hundred and twenty-seven English feet in length and fifty-seven in breadth, and nearly eighty feet in perpendicular height from the taffrel to the keel. It was furnished with four rudders, or steering-oars, forty-five feet in length, and the longest of the oars by which it was impelled, were in length equal to the extreme breadth of the vessel. The crew consisted of upwards of 4000 rowers, and at least 3000 other persons employed in the different occupations connected with navigating so immense a fabric."
The art of ship-building appears to have made much more rapid progress than that of navigation. The account of the commerce of Tyre, given in the twenty-seventh chapter of Ezekiel, affords strong evidence that the Tyrians had made no small advances in this art, and it is reasonable to conclude that the naval and commercial operations in which the Tyrians and other ancient nations were engaged, would stimulate them to devise various means of increasing, the strength, and speed, and conve
The earliest mode of conducting commerce was doubtless by caravans, which as appears from Scripture were known as early as the days of Joseph, and the merchants to whom he was sold probably belonged to a caravan. The earliest commerce with India, of which we have any authentic account, was carried on in this way by the merchants of Arabia and Egypt.
The Mediterranean and Red Seas were the scene of the first commerce carried on by water. This would naturally be the case, as those seas border on the countries where the human race was first planted, countries in former days distinguished for the richness and variety of their productions.
The first people of whose maritime commerce we have any authentie and distinct account, are the Egyptians. They are said, soon after the estabishment of their monarchy, to have opened a commerce with the western coast of India, though of the extent of this commerce we know but little. It appears, however, that its flourishing period was short, for pursuits of this kind were by no means con genial to the spirit of that proud and self-sufficient people, who regarded themselves as superior to all other nations, and their country as superior to all other countries Thus considering themselves the first of men, they looked down with contempt on other nations, and were disposed to stand at a haughty and repulsive distance from them. Sea-faring men were regarded by them with a feeling bordering on contempt. Their manners and institutions differed widely from those of other nations. Possessing a character, and cherishing a spirit, so entirely the reverse of that which commerce is calculated to form and to foster, it is not strange that they soon retired from the theatre of commercial enterprise, and left it to be occupied by a people possessing more of that free and social spirit which commerce requires.
THE miseries of indolence are known only to those who have no regular pursuit; nothing in view, however eager, or arduous; nothing by which time may be shortened by occupation, and occupation rendered easy by habit.BISHOP MANT.
To endeavour to gain the perfect happiness promised in the next world, is the surest way to gain the greatest hap piness this present world can bestow, LA HARPe.
SEEK not proud riches, but such as thou mayest get justly, use soberly, distribute cheerfully, and leave contentedly. -BACON.
THE lands and houses, the goods and chattels, which the parent bequeaths to his child in the hour of death, are scattered, and consumed, and swallowed up, by the rude assault of time; but the imperishable inheritance of a sound, religious education, is a treasure, which, throughout the fiercest changes and storms of life, bears the richest and surest of fruits.
THE world is much mistaken in the value of a sceptre or a crown; we gaze upon its brightness, and forget its brittleness; we look upon its glory, and forget its frailty; we respect its colour, and take no notice of its weight. But if all those gay things which we fondly fancy to ourselves, are really to be found in greatness, yet still he pays too dear, that pawns his heaven for it; he that buys a short bliss, gives not twenty, or an hundred years' purchase, but (if mercv prevent not), eternity.SANCROFT
The origin of this Castle is unknown. Tradition assigns it a very remote antiquity, whilst several modern antiquaries seem disposed to attribute the foundation of the present structure to William, the first Earl of Warren, to whom the surrounding estate was granted by William the Conqueror. It is, however, indisputable, that a strong-hold of some sort existed here during the times of the Saxons. Geoffrey of Monmouth, and some of our old historians, indeed, have carried back its origin to a period preceding the Saxon invasion of Britain, but the
AMONGST the many noble examples of the archi- | narrative which they give must be looked upon as tectural skill of our forefathers, which yet remain in this country, there are few which possess a higher claim upon our interest than the majestic Castle of Conisborough, which, after a lapse of nearly one thousand years, still uprears its head; a visible relic of another time; a connecting link between the past and the present. If even the most insignificant memorial of former ages affords materials for thought to a reflecting mind, how much more should a ruin like that of Conisborough, which has by many been considered the most important of the few remaining strong-holds of our Saxon ancestors yet to be found in this country, gage the attention of the lover of history and antiquities. Of late years, however, Conisborough has acquired an interest of a new, and it may be safely affirmed a lasting character, from its being chosen by Sir Walter Scott for one of the principal scenes of his romance of Ivanhoe.
The Conisborough estate subsequently passed from the family of Warren to Richard, Earl of Cambridge, who assumed the name of Richard of Conisborough, in consequence, it is said, of the castle having been his birth-place. After his death it passed into the hands of his grandson, King Edward the Fourth, and remained in the possession of the crown for more than two centuries, when it was given by James the Second to Lord Dover. It afterwards became the property of the family of its present possessor, the Duke of Leeds.
The historical records of Conisborough Castle are unusually scanty and imperfect, and the period when it fell to decay, like that of its origin, can only be guessed at. The plan of the structure, which must once have been of considerable extent and importance, is irregular, though rather inclining in form to an oval. The entire strong-hold, which crowns the summit of an elevation, was surrounded by an extensive fosse or ditch, still in many places forty feet deep, but now destitute of water, and full of
being defeated in this neighbourhood by the British Commander
lofty oaks and elms: n the nortnern side, however, where the entrance was placed, the fosse is completely filled with rubbish.
Before the invention of artillery, the castle must have been almost impregnable, but in later times, in consequence of the superior height of the neighbouring eminence on which the village of Conisborough is situated, it must have been greatly reduced in consequence, to which we may attribute its ultimate desertion. The remains, as far as they can be traced, extend about 700 feet in circumference; but the chief object of interest is the magnificent tower; the subject of our engraving; in describing which we shall avail ourselves of the substance of a very curious paper which appeared in the Gentleman's Magazine for the year 1801.
This noble round tower is strengthened by six massive square buttresses, running from the base to the summit at equal distances. Eighteen feet from the ground, both the tower and buttresses expand, sloping gradually to the width of four feet, in order to give greater strength to the The tower is situated at the south-eastern extremity of the castle, two-thirds of it being within the walls, which rest against it. The other face forms of itself the outward wall, and here the entrance, which is twenty-four feet from the ground, and ascended to by a flight of thirty-two steps, is situated. On a level with this door is a floor, on which we enter through the wall, which is here fifteen feet thick, and at each buttress twenty-three feet. It is an undivided apartment, twenty-two feet in diameter, of circular form, as is the whole interior of the structure. The wall is quite plain, and wholly destitute of any aperture for light except the entrance.
In the centre of the floor is a round hole, resembling the mouth of a well, which, however, forms the only entrance into a lower apartment, or dungeon, from whence, according to tradition, there was a subterraneous passage from the castle. Ascending by a flight of twenty-five stone stairs from the entrance-passage, lighted by two loop-holes, we reach the level of another apartment, but the floor has entirely fallen away. The fire-place, which is deserving of minute attention, is surrounded by a triple pillar on each side, with carved capitals supporting a chimney-piece twelve feet long, now partly ornamented with ivy. Opposite, is a large arched window, ascended to by three bold steps. The only other objects in this room are a closet, and a niche and trough in the wall, which is here 134 feet thick. An ascent of thirty-four steps leads to the next room, which has also a fire-place. Few persons ascend further than this, as the upper room is exceedingly difficult and dangerous of access, being only to be reached by venturing along a narrow ledge scarcely nine inches broad.
On at last gaining an entrance, (says the writer,) the certain antiquity of the chamber, and the idea that here, perhaps, our warlike ancestors had offered up their prayers, or buckled on their armour, or taken their repose, filled us with a pleasing awe' and veneration, that was heightened to superstition by a charming sound like that of an Eolian harp, which we both distinctly heard at several intervals, unable to conjecture how it was occasioned.
This beautiful room is of hexagonal proportion, and the ceiling is composed of a series of arches "decorated in the Gothic manner." It is very imperfectly lighted, there being only one large loop-hole or aperture in the wall, six feet in height, which diminishes in width from six feet on the outer wall of the tower, to thirty inches in the inner. The ceiling and other parts of this interesting chamber have been richly ornamented with carved-work, which is now much defaced; but the room is sufficiently perfect to afford a vivid idea of the state of the castle in the olden time.
five or six feet in diameter and height;" its mouth is two feet square, and is on a level with a passage, which seems to have run round the tower. The wall is here ten and a half feet thick, so that it diminishes eighteen inches at every floor. The height of the three rooms we have described is 52 feet, and the total height of the buttresses 86 feet, but they have formerly been of loftier elevation.
The village of Conisborough is of very high antiquity; by the Britons it was called Caer Conan, and by the Saxons Cyning, or Conan Burgh, both signifying a royal town; it must once have been a place of some importance, as it is handed down that it was the seat of a civil jurisdiction, which comprised twenty-eight towns..
Our antiquaries next ascended by a flight of twenty-five stone-stairs to the summit of the tower, which commands a prospect of exceeding richness and beauty, over field and flood. The buttresses, as depicted in our Illustration, rise several feet higher than the walls; in one of them appear steps; three others each contain a large arched alcove, whilst in a fifth is " a broad place exactly resembling an oven,
This picturesque village stands, as we have already stated, on a lofty elevation, about six miles to the south-west of Doncaster, overlooking a rich and wooded country, through which the river Don meanders with a life-like effect. The church, which is dedicated to St. Peter, is an ancient and remarkable structure, exhibiting the several characteristics of the Norman, the early English, and the later or decorated styles of architecture; so that it has eviments are not destitute of interest, and a singular dently been built at different periods. The monustone, carved with hieroglyphics, has frequently excited the attention of the antiquary. The following account of a feast in the olden time, is framed and hung up in a room at an inn in this village; it exhibits a curious example of the change which has taken place in the value of money.
TIME speeds away-away-away:
He undermines the stately tower,