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mentions in his Retractations, a discourse which he delivered, while yet a presbyter, (A.D. 393,) at Hippo Regius, in the presence of the whole of the African Episcopate, who were holding a Council in that city. It was afterwards, at the instance of his friends, reduced to writing and published.

The second treatise is of a more familiar kind, and affords an admirable specimen of his mode of preaching ad populum. It is a sermon addressed to candidates for baptism. Its date may be placed at about the year 400.

IV. Of Rufinus mention has been made in the notice prefixed to the Creed of Aquileia, of which Church he was a presbyter. He was evidently familiar with St. Cyril's Exposition, of which he makes frequent use. He was baptized in 369, and died about 410. The date of his Commentary may be set down as about A.D. 400.

V. The tract of Venantius Fortunatus is a Commentary on the Athanasian Creed: and it supplies the earliest external testimony to the date of that formulary.

Venantius was born and educated in the north of Italy; but having travelled into France he settled at Poictiers, and somewhere about the year 560 was ordained priest, and afterwards consecrated bishop of that Church. He was still living in the year 600. His Commentary may be dated at about the year 570.

VI., VII. The two remaining treatises relate not to the Creed as a whole, but to a single portion of it, the third Article. They were called forth by the heresies of Nestorius and Eutyches. Cyril of Alexandria's letter by the former, Leo's by the latter.

Both Cyril's letter and Leo's receive in the Definitio Fidei of the Council of Chalcedon the deliberate sanction of that Council, as St. Cyril's had before received that of the Council of Ephesus as well as that of the Alexandrian Synod of which it was the utterance". They are to be regarded therefore as expositions, stamped with the authority of the Universal Church, of the Article to which they relate. In this respect they stand upon a higher footing than the expositions of individual Fathers, however venerable their names. Their dates are respectively, Cyril's Epistle to Nestorius, A.D. 430, Leo's to Flavian, A.D. 449.

See p. 22, above.

b Routh's Opuscula, vol. ii. p. 94.

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S. CYRILLI HIEROSOLYMITANTI EPISCOPI

CATECHESIS QUARTA.

ΚΑΤΗΧΗΣΙΣ

Δ ́ ΦΩΤΙΖΟΜΕΝΩΝ.

Εν Ἱεροσολύμοις σχεδιασθεῖσα, περὶ τῶν δέκα δογμάτων. Καὶ ἀνάγνωσις ἐκ τῆς πρὸς Κολοσσαεῖς· “ Βλέπετε μή τις ὑμᾶς ἔσται ὁ συλαγωγῶν διὰ τῆς φιλοσοφίας καὶ κενῆς ἀπάτης, κατὰ τὴν παράδοσιν τῶν ἀνθρώπων, κατὰ τὰ στοιχεῖα τοῦ κόσμου,” καὶ τὰ ἑξῆς.

1. ΜΙΜΕΙΤΑΙ τὴν ἀρετὴν ἡ κακία, καὶ τὸ ζιζάνιον βιάζεται σῖτος νομισθῆναι, σχήματι μὲν πρὸς τὸν σῖτον ἐξομοιούμενον, ἐκ δὲ τῆς γεύσεως ὑπὸ τῶν διακριτικῶν ἐξελεγχόμενον. Καὶ ὁ Διάβολος μετασχηματίζεται εἰς ἄγγελον φωτὸς, οὐκ ἵνα ἐπανέλθῃ ὅπου καὶ ἦν, (ὥσπερ γὰρ ἄκμων, ἀνήλατον τὴν καρδίαν κτησάμενος, ἀμετανόητον λοιπὸν ἔχει τὴν προαίρεσιν) ἀλλ ̓ ἵνα τοὺς ἰσάγγελον βίον πολιτευομένους ἀβλεψίας σκότει καὶ ἀπιστίας λοιμώδει περιβάλλῃ καταστάσει. Πολλοὶ λύκοι περιάγουσιν ἐν ἐνδύμασι προβάτων, προβάτων μὲν ἐνδύματα κεκτημένοι, οὐ μὴν καὶ ὄνυχας καὶ ὀδόντας· ἀλλὰ τὴν ἡμερον περικείμενοι δορὰν, καὶ τῷ σχήματι τοὺς ἀκάκους ἀπατῶντες, τὸν φθο ροποιὸν τῆς ἀσεβείας ἐκ τῶν ὀδόντων προσχέουσιν ἰόν. Χρεία τοίνυν θείας ἡμῖν χάριτος, καὶ νηφαλίου διανοίας, καὶ βλεπόν των ὀφθαλμῶν, ἵνα μὴ, ζιζάνιον ὡς σῖτον φαγόντες, ἐξ ἀγνοίας βλαβῶμεν, μήτε τὸν λύκον πρόβατον ὑπολαβόντες, θηρευ θῶμεν, μήτε ἄγγελον ἀγαθοποιὸν τὸν ὀλεθροποιὸν Διάβολον ὑποπτεύσαντες, καταποθῶμεν. “ Περιέρχεται γὰρ ὡς λέων ὠρυόμενος, ζητῶν τίνα καταπίῃ,” κατὰ τὴν γραφήν. Διὰ τοῦτο

S. CYRILLI HIEROS. CATECHESIS QUARTA.

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ἡ Ἐκκλησία νουθετεῖ, διὰ τοῦτο τὰ παρόντα διδασκαλεῖα, διὰ τοῦτο τὰ ἀναγνώσματα γίνονται.

2. Ο γὰρ τῆς θεοσεβείας τρόπος ἐκ δύο τούτων συνέστηκε, δογμάτων εὐσεβῶν καὶ πράξεων ἀγαθῶν· Καὶ οὔτε τὰ δόγματα χωρὶς ἔργων ἀγαθῶν εὐπρόσδεκτα τῷ Θεῷ, οὔτε τὰ μὴ μετ' εὐσεβῶν δογμάτων ἔργα τελούμενα προσδέχεται ὁ Θεός. Τί γὰρ ὄφελος, εἰδέναι μὲν τὰ περὶ Θεοῦ δόγματα καλῶς, καὶ πορνεύειν αἰσχρῶς; τί δ ̓ αὖ πάλιν ὄφελος, σωφρονεῖν μὲν καλῶς, καὶ βλασφημεῖν ἀσεβῶς; Μέγιστον τοίνυν κτῆμά ἐστι τὸ τῶν δογμάτων μάθημα. Καὶ χρεία νηφαλίου ψυχῆς, ἐπειδὴ πολλοί εἰσιν οἱ συλαγωγούντες διὰ τῆς φιλοσοφίας καὶ κενῆς ἀπάτης. Καὶ οἱ μὲν Ἕλληνες διὰ τῆς εὐγλωττίας κατασύρουσι· “ μέλι γὰρ ἀποστάζει ἀπὸ χειλέων γυναικὸς πόρνης.” Οἱ δὲ ἐκ περιτομῆς, διὰ τῶν θείων γραφῶν ἂς παρεξηγοῦνται κακῶς, τοὺς προσερχομένους ἀπατῶσιν· ἐκ παιδίου μελετῶντες ἕως γήρως, καὶ ἐν ἀμαθίᾳ καταγηρῶντες. Αἱρετικῶν δὲ παῖδες, διὰ τῆς χρηστολογίας καὶ εὐγλωττίας, ἀπατῶσι τὰς καρδίας τῶν ἀκάκων, ὥσπερ μέλιτι, τῇ τοῦ Χριστοῦ προσηγορίᾳ, τὰ τῶν δυσσεβῶν δογμάτων ἰοβόλα συγκαλύπτοντες. Περὶ ὧν ἁπάν των ἅμα λέγει Κύριος, “ Βλέπετε μὴ τις ὑμᾶς πλανήσῃ.” Διὰ τοῦτο καὶ ἡ τῆς Πίστεως διδασκαλία καὶ εἰς αὐτὴν ἐξηγήσεις γίνονται.

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3. Πρὸ δὲ τῆς εἰς τὴν Πίστιν παραδόσεως, καλῶς ἔχειν μοι δοκεῖ νῦν ἀνακεφαλαιώσει συντόμῳ χρήσασθαι τῶν ἀναγκαίων δογμάτων, ἵνα μὴ τὸ πλῆθος τῶν λεχθησομένων καὶ τὸ μεταξὺ διάστημα τῶν ἡμερῶν τῆς ἁγίας τεσσαρακοστῆς ἁπάσης λήθην ἐμποιήσῃ τῶν ἐν ὑμῖν ἀφελεστέρων τῇ διανοίᾳ· ἀλλ ̓ ἵνα νῦν κεφαλαιωδῶς ὑποσπείραντες, μὴ ἐπιλαθώμεθα τῶν αὐτῶν πλατυτέρως γεωργουμένων ὕστερον. ̓Ανασχέσθωσαν δὲ τῶν συμπαρόντων οἱ τελειότεροι τὴν ἕξιν, καὶ “τὰ αἰσθητήρια ἤδη γεγυμνασμένα ἔχοντες πρὸς διάκρισιν ἀγαθοῦ τε καὶ κακοῦ,” νηπιωδεστέρων ἀκούοντες καὶ τῆς γαλακτώδους εἰσαγωγῆς, ἵνα ἅμα καὶ οἱ τῆς κατηχήσεως χρείαν ἔχοντες ὠφεληθῶσι, καὶ οἱ

τὴν γνῶσιν ἔχοντες περὶ ὧν προγινώσκουσιν ἤδη τὴν μνήμην ἀναζωπυρηθῶσι.

ΠΕΡΙ ΘΕΟΥ.

4. Πρῶτον τοίνυν ὑμῶν τῇ ψυχῇ τεθεμελιούσθω δόγμα τὸ περὶ Θεοῦ· ὅτι ὁ Θεὸς εἷς ἐστι μόνος, ἀγέννητος, ἄναρχος, ἄτρεπτος, ἀναλλοίωτος, οὐχ ὑφ ̓ ἑτέρου γεγεννημένος, οὐχ ἕτερον ἔχων τῆς ζωῆς διάδοχον· καὶ οὔτε ἐν χρόνῳ τοῦ ζῆν ἀρξάμενος, οὔτε ποτὲ τελευτῶν· καὶ ὅτι Αὐτός ἐστιν ἀγαθὸς καὶ δίκαιος· ἵνα ἐάν ποτε ἀκούσῃς λέγοντος αἱρετικοῦ, “ ἄλλον εἶναι τὸν δίκαιον καὶ ἄλλον εἶναι τὸν ἀγαθὸν,” εὐθὺς ὑπομνησθεὶς γνῶς τὸ τῆς αἱρέσεως ἰοβόλον. Ετόλμησαν γάρ τινες ἀσεβῶς τὸν ἕνα Θεὸν διαχωρίσαι τῷ λόγῳ. Καὶ τινες εἶπον, “ ἄλλον μὲν τὸν δημιουργὸν τῆς ψυχῆς καὶ δεσπότην, ἄλλον δὲ τὸν τῶν σωμάτων,” ἀνοήτως ἅμα καὶ δυσσεβῶς διδάσκοντες. Πῶς γὰρ δύο κυρίων εἷς δοῦλος γίνεται ἄνθρωπος, τοῦ Κυρίου λέγοντος ἐν εὐαγγελίοις, “ Οὐδεὶς δύναται δυσὶ κυρίοις δουλεύειν ;” Εἷς οὖν ἐστι Θεὸς μόνος, ὁ καὶ ψυχῶν καὶ σωμάτων ποιητής· εἷς ἐστιν ὁ δημιουργὸς οὐρανοῦ καὶ γῆς, ἀγγέλων τε καὶ ἀρχαγγέλων ποιητής· ὁ πολλῶν μὲν δημιουργὸς, ἑνὸς δὲ μόνου Πατὴρ πρὸ αἰώνων, ἑνὸς μόνου τοῦ μονογενοῦς Υἱοῦ αὐτοῦ τοῦ Κυρίου ἡμῶν Ἰησοῦ Χριστοῦ, δι' οὗ ἐποίησε πάντα, τὰ ὁρατὰ καὶ τὰ ἀόρατα.

5. Οὗτος, ὁ πατὴρ τοῦ Κυρίου ἡμῶν Ἰησοῦ Χριστοῦ, οὐ περιγέγραπται ἐν τινὶ τόπῳ, οὐδέ ἐστι μικρότερος οὐρανοῦ· ἀλλ' “ ἔργα τῶν δακτύλων αὐτοῦ εἰσιν οἱ οὐρανοὶ,” καὶ ἡ γῆ πᾶσα ἐν τῇ δρακὶ αὐτοῦ κατέχεται. Οὗτος ἐν πᾶσιν ἐστι, καὶ πάντων ἐκτός. Μὴ νομίσῃς αὐτοῦ τὸν ἥλιον φωτεινότερον, ἢ ἶσον εἶναι. Ο γὰρ τὸν ἥλιον κατασκευάσας πρότερον ὀφείλει πολλῷ μᾶλλον ἀσυγκρίτως εἶναι μείζων καὶ φωτεινότερος. Προγνώστης ἐστὶ τῶν μελλόντων, καὶ πάντων δυνατώτερος εἰδὼς ἅπαντα καὶ ποιῶν ὡς βούλεται· οὐχ ὑποκείμενος πραγμάτων ἀκολουθίαις, οὐδὲ γενέσει, οὐδὲ τύχῃ, οὔθ ̓ εἱμαρμένῃ.

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