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vation. But the salvation which he immedi- | the Prophet begins by bringing forward as the ately brings is still only a faint twilight. On the principal person of his prophetic drama the form other hand, in himself considered, Cyrus is a of him who as beginner of the redemption has to grand and glorious appearance. He beams like stand in the foreground of the first Ennead. He the sun in the heavens, that is unobscured by does not yet name him, but he draws him with clouds, and that, indeed, not only in our pro- traits not to be mistaken, and designates him as phecy, but also in profane history. In this re the one called of God, and his calling a test of spect he prefigures the element of glory that must divinity which it is impossible for idols to give appear in the fulfiller of redemption. In chap. (xli. 1-7). Immediately after the redeemer the xlv. 1 He is called nu? (Messiah, anointed). Prophet lets the redeemed appear, viz. : the He is therefore the messiah in a lower degree. people Israel, whom he introduces as Lowliness, reproach, suffering, nothing of this of Jehovah ” in contrast with the glorious posort is found in him. On the contrary Israel is tentate from the east, for in him must appear the lowly, despised, much enduring servant of Jes that other typical element, poverty and lowlihovah, who, however, in his lowliness is still ness, which still does no detriment to his strong, and in the hand of Jehovah a mighty in- strength. The Prophet characterizes this servant strument, partly to punish the heathen nations, of Jehovah primarily as the chosen one of God, and partly to save them. This particular also whom God will not reject but will strengthen to attains its conclusion in Him who fulfils the re victory (xli. 8-13), then again as poor and demption. Therefore He is called Messiah and wretched, who, notwithstanding, will be a mighty Servant of Jehovah in one person. He unites both instrument of judgment and rich in salvation and in one: the glory and the lowliness, the kingly knowledge (xli. 14-20). After he has thus deform and the servant form. Thus it happens, that scribed the redeemer and the redeemed servant of in xl. xlviii. beside the promise of Cyrus (as far God, he employs in conclusion precisely this proas it relates to the deliverance out of the Baby- phecy of redemption a second time as the basis lonian exile), and the proof of divinity (drawn of an argument which has for its conclusion the from prophecy and fulfilment) which form the sole divinity of Jehovah, and the nothingness of peculiar subjects of these chapters, we see those idols (xli. 21-29). two other elements appear in a preparative way; In Chapter xlii. the third principal person ap; the element of glory represented by Cyrus, and pears on the scene, viz., the personal Servant of God the form of the servant of God by the people to whom both the chief personages before menIsrael. Those first named subjects are concluded tioned pointed; the first of them prefiguring His in xl. xlviii. For after xlviii. nothing more is glory, the second His lowliness. He is represaid either about Cyrus or about prophecy and sented first as meek, who at the same time will fulfilment. But that in Cyrus and in the people be a strong refuge of righteousness (xlii. 1-4); (regarded as the servant of Jehovah) which is then as the personal representative of a new typical has its unfolding in the two following covenant, who shall mediate for all nations light Enneads, of which the former is chiefly devoted and right; and at the same time this is the third to the servant of God, and the latter to the glory prophecy which the Lord presents as pledge of of the new creation. Thus, therefore, we may His divine dignity (xlii. 5-9). These two strosay: the first Ennead forms the basis of the two | phes are like a ladder that leads up to the culthat follow, in as much as it carries out to com- | mination. For chapter xlii. is a pyramidal pletion the two fundamental factors of the initia- structure. In verses 10-17 the Prophet has tion of the redemption by Cyrus, and the proof reached the point of the pyramid. In them the of the divinity of Jehovah drawn therefrom, but expression "Servant of God” is no longer used. partly, too, in that it lays the foundation for the And yet the discourse is concerning the same representation of Him who in the highest degree that ver. 1 was designated as the Servant of Jeis the Servant of God and King.

hovah. He appears here in Ilis unity with Je. Let us now observe how the Prophet carries hovah in which He Himself is El-Gibbor (God out in detail the plan which we have just a mighty one). As such, He issues out of Israel sketched in its outlines.

into the blind heathen world in order parily to In chap. xl. after the prologue, the Prophet pre-judge, partly to bring them to the light of knowEents first the objective then the subjective basis of ledge and of salvation. From this elevation the the redemption. For this chapter, after a general following strophes recede again. And in vers. introduction (vers. 1-11) referring to the whole 18-21 the Servant of Jehovah, who appears here book, and thus also to the subsequent parts of again under this name, is portrayed as one, who chap. xl., contains first a presentation of the abso- can indeed make others see and hear, but Himlute power and wisdom of God, from which fol- self, as one blind and deaf, goes to meet His delows also the impossibility of representing Him struction, yet precisely thereby secures the favor by any natural image (vers. 12-20). If then re- of God, and becomes the founder of a new Tora dempiion is objectively conditioned by the omni- (lau). "Unhappily this new institution of salvapoience and wisdom of God, so it is subjectively by tion is not accepted by unbelieving Israel. For that trust that Israel must repose in its Ciod (vers. this reason the Prophet sees Israel as a people 27-31). This chap. contains, therefore, three parts, robbed, plundered, and languishing in kennels and has wholly the character of a foundation. and prisons (xlii. 22-25). From his heart he

To chapter xli. we give the superscription : wishes that Israel might take warning from this First appeurance of the redeemer from the east and threatening in time, and the sooner the better. of the servant of Jehovah, as also lhe first and second But, alas, the Prophet knows that Israel, spite realization of the prophecy relating to this as proof of the Exile, in which it has already so emof the divinity of Jehovah. For in chapter xli. phatically experienced the chastening hand of


its God, will not yet lay to heart this warning say, in xliv. 6–20, for the fifth time, in a drawnWith this the second discourse concludes. out recapitulation extending through three stro

Having in xli. xlii. introduced especially the phes, it is set forth that Jehovah, as the only chief persons of the redemption, viz.: the re true God, can alone prophesy, and that He is deemer from the east, then the redeemed or ser-| God He will now prove by a grand prophetic vant ( people) of God, finally the personal Servant transaction for the salvation of Israel. . Accordof God, in whom the two former combine, the ingly, in the first strophe (xliv. 6-11) the Prophet Prophet now portrays in xliii. chiefly the redemp- shows that Israel possesses the stronghold of its tin itself. He gives first a survey of the chief par- salvation in its living, everlasting God, who can ticulars of the redemption (vers. 1-8). Having prophesy, and has prophesied, which Israel also ver. 1 assigned the reason for the redemption, he as a witness inust testify to, whereas the senseless depicts it, ver. 2, as one that shall come to pass | makers of idols must go to destruction. In the spite of all difficulties; in vers. 3, 4, as such that second strophe (xliv. 12–17), in order to set forth it must come to pass though even heathen nations the senselesspess of idol worship most convinmust be sacrificed for the sake of it; in vers. 5–7 cingly, the manufacture of idols is described in a as all-comprehending, i. e., as such that it will drastic way. In the third strophe (xliv. 18-20) lead back into their home out of all lands of the in order on the one hand to explain the possiearth the members of the people of Israel; bility of such senseless acts as making idols, the finally, in ver. 8, is indicated the condition that deep reason of it is pointed to, viz. : the blindIsrael must fulfill in order to partake of this ness of men's hearts and minds ; on the other salvation, viz. : that it must have open eyes and hand however the Prophet points to the destrucears in a spiritual sense. To this representation tive effects of this insane behaviour. In the fourth of the redemption in general, the Prophet adds strophe (xliv. 21-28) the Prophet attains finally (vers. 9-13) the statement, that recurs thus for the culmination. He first deduces briefy the the fourth time, that prophecy and fulfilment are consequences from the foregoing. Before all he a test of divinity, and that Israel in its capacity reminds that Israel is Jehovah's servant, i. en as servant of God is called to be witness by fur- property, which the LORD has bought for Himnishing this test. After carrying out this thought, self by graciously blotting out his guilt. This that recurs so like a refrain, the Prophet turns ransomed servant may return home (note the again to the chief thought of chapter xliii. He highly significant 17240 xliv. 22). Then there is describes the return home of Israel especially out of the Babylonian captivity. Yet not without a second brief reminder of Jehovah's omnipotent finding in the Lord's manner of bringing this divinity, and, in contrast with it, of the necessary about a reference to the distant Messianic salva- disgrace of idols and their soothsayers. In contrast tion, in respect to its exercising also a transform- with the latter it is finally declared with all emphaing influence upon nature (vers. 14-21). In the sis: Jehovah makes true the word of His prophets. fourth strophe of the chapter (vers. 22-28) the Therefore Israel will and must have a happy reProphet treats the thought of the inward, moral turn home, and Cyrus shall the prince be called redemption, viz,: the redemption also from sin. who shall accomplish this decree of Jehovah. He lets it be known here that, this inward re With this we have the culmination of the demption will by no means follow close on the cycle of prophecy in chapters xl. xlviii. and in feet of the outward redemption from exile. For respect of space have reached the middle of it Israel has never kept the law. The LORD has For, if, we leave aside xl., as a general laying already hitherto borne Israel's sin, and will in of a foundation, and remember that the prophecy future blot out the guilt of it. But the Israel that relating to Cyrus begins with xli., we have contemns the grace of God in proud self-right- here at the close of xliv., our discourses beeousness will have to be destroyed. The LORD, hind us, and still four discourses before us. however, will break the power of sin by the rich In chapter xlv., the prophecy remains at the effusion of the holy and holy-making Spirit upon elevation which it attained at the close of chapter that seed of Israel that shall be chosen to serve xliv. We may therefore designate this discourse the LORD as His servant; and this is the thought as the culmination of the cycle of prophecy in of the fifth strophe that includes xliv. 1-5. xl.-xlviii. and its contents as Cyrus and the

Having portrayed in xli. the first redeemer and effects of his appearance." For we are informed then the redeemed, i. e., the servant (people) of

in xlv. 1-7 what shall be brought about by God, then in xlii, the antitype of both, the second Cyrus, whom the LORD has chosen and designates Redeemer and Servant of God in a personal sense,

aš His anointed (pvp), and what three-fold. then in xliii. the redemption itself, and all this in object will be secured thereby. But we learn such a way that, interspersed, He has appealed xlv. 8-13 that Cyrus is the beginner and founder four times, in a refrain like repetition, to the of the era of salvation promised to Israel, alability of Jehovah to prophesy in contrast with though according to appearance this seems pot the inability of idols, as proof of His divinity, the to be, and the faint-heartedness of Israel requires Prophet now xliv. 6 sqq., makes a decided use the assurance that Cyrus is certainly called to of this last element for which He has made such accomplish the outward restoration of the holy preparation. This entire chapter is an edifice people and of the holy city. The Prophet even whose substructure consists of the members of gives the further assurance, that, beside that just that argumentation, that whoever can pro- northern world-power directly ruled by Cyrus phesy is God, and the crowning point of which even the southern, i. e., Egypt with the lands of appears to us in naming the name “Kores” its dominion, convinced by the salvation accru(Cyrus), the way for naming it being now well ing to Israel from Cyrus, shall be converted to prepared, and the motive sufficient. That is to Jehovah and will join itself to His people (Ilv.

it-17). Finally, however, in consequence of the other nations seem to offer (xlvii. 8-15). The saving effect proceeding from Cyrus, this greatest ninth discourse, finally, (xlviii.) is recapitulation advantage shall eventnate, viz. :' that Israel, when and conclusion. After an address to Israel that it sees the heathen north and south converted to displays the motives that prompt Jehovah's inJehovah, shall at last and delinitively abjure terest in the nation (xlviii. 1, 2) the Prophet idols, and give itself up wholly and entirely to makes prominent for the seventh time the import. its God, so that from that time on humanity ance of prophecy for the knowledge of God. He entire shall have become a spiritual Israel (xlv. points Israel to the fulfilment of the old prophe18-25). In the seventh discourse (chapter xlvi.), cies, that they had experienced and verified in as also in the eighth (chapter xlvii.) the obverse order to move them to faith in the new that conside of this picture of the future brought about cern the redemption from exile (xlviii. 3-11). by Cyrus is shown. In xlvi. namely, we have Then the chief contents of this new prophecy is presented first the downfall of the Babylonian repeated : what idols cannot, Jehovah can do, idols ; but connected with this, also the gain that for He promises and brings on a redeemer that Israel shall derive from this, for its knowledge shall accomplish the will of God on Babylon of God. That is to say, Israel will come to see (xlviii. 12-15;. But Israel is summoned to go that there is a great difference between Jehovah out of Babylon as out of an opened prison house, who carries 1113 people, and those idols that are and to proclaim to all the world that the LORD carried by beasts of burden into captivity (xlvi. by Cyrus has led His people out of Babylon and 1-4). In fact Israel will know, too, which just home, as He did by Moses out of Egypt (xlviii. such a difference exists between Jehovah and 20-21). We join these verses close on ver. 15 the images that are meant to represent Him (of because the contents of both passages demand it. which xl. 18, 25 has discoursed), for the latter | The verses 16 and 17-19 are two insertions. The also are idols that need to be carried (xlvi. 5-7). first, which is very obscure, appears to be a side Israel will actually draw the conclusion that the remark of the Prophet’s,.to the effect that the LORD here presses home for the sixth time, viz.: wonderful things discoursed in xl. xlvii. were to that the God who can prophesy and fulfill, who, himself not known from the beginning, but in particular, has correcily announced before- learned only in the moment of their creation (in hand the ravenous bird from the east, must be a prophetic sense, comp. on xlviii. 6), but now the right God (xlvi. 8–11). But the Prophet by the impulse of the Spirit he has made them foresees that not all Israelites will draw from the known. Verses 17-19 are of a retrospective facts so far mentioned that advantage for their nature. They contain the lament of the LORD religious life that, according to Jehovah's inten- that Israel did not sooner give heed to His comtion, iney ought. Will not this make pro- mands; for thereby it would have partaken of blematical the realization of the promised salva- the blessing given to the patriarchs without the tion? He replies to this question, "No." For chastening agency of the Exile. Ver. 22 finally the righteousness and salvation of God must (which occurs again as to the words at the close come in spite of the hard-heartedness of Israel of chap. Iviii., and in respect to sense at the close (xlvi. 12, 13). The eighth discourse is occu- of chap. Ixvi.) is a refrain-like conclusion inpied wholly with Babylon. It paints in drastic tended (in contrast with the consolatory words images the deep downfull of it, exposes the rea- that begin the entire book of consolation chapters sons (the harshness against Israel transcend- xl.-Ixvi. and its principal parts) to call to mind ing the measure that God would have, and the the important truth, that this consolation is not secure arrogance xlvii. 1-7), and shows the use- unconditionally offered to all. For the wicked leszness of all the means employed to rescue can have no share in it. Babylon, both those derived from the worship This, in its essentials, is my opinion of the of demons and those which the connections with plan and order of chapters xl. xlviii.

The Prologue: the Objective and Subjective basis of Redemption.


CHAPTER XL. 1-11. 1 COMFORT ye, comfort ye my people,

Saith your God.
2 Speak ye 'comfortably to Jerusalem, and cry unto her,

That her 'warfare is accomplished,
That "her iniquity is pardoned:

For she hath received of the LORD's hand

Double for all her sins. 3 The voice of him that crieth in the wilderness,

Prepare ye the way of the LORD,

Make straight in the desert a highway for our God. 4 Every valley shall be exalted,

And every mountain and hill shall be made low :

And the crooked shall be made #straight,

And the rough places "plain : 5 And the glory of the LORD shall be revealed,

And all flesh shall see it together:

For the mouth of the LORD hath spoken it. 6 The voice said, Cry. And he said, What shall I cry?

All flesh is grass,

And all the goodliness thereof is as the flower of the field : 7 The grass withereth, the flower fadeth :

Because 'the spirit of the Lord bloweth upon it:

Surely the people is grass. 8 The grass withereth, the flower fadeth :

But the word of our God shall stand forever.
9 50 Zion, that bringest good tidings, get thee up into the high mountain;

60 Jerusalem, that bringest good tidings,
Lift up thy voice with strength;
Lift it up, be not afraid;
Say unto the cities of Judah, Behold


10 Behold, the Lord God will come abwith strong hand,

And his arm shall rule for him :
Behold his reward is with him,

And his work before him.
11 He shall feed his flock like a shepherd :

He shall gather the lambs with his arm,
And carry them in his bosom,
And shall gently lead those Othat are with young.
1 Heb. to the heart.
? Or, appointed time.

3 Or, a straight place. 4 Or, a plain place.

6 Or. O thou that tellest good tidings to Zion. 6 Or, Othou that tellest good tidings to Jerusalem.

i Or, against the strong. 8 Or, recompense for his work.

9 Or, that give suck. her guilt has been enjoyed.

prepare in the wilderness. d the connecting ridges become valley bottoms. Hark! there speake, 'cry! And there replies: "what" etc. ! the breath of Jehovah blew on it.

& as a strong one.

b that.

TEXTUAL AND GRAMMATICAL. Ver. 1. The rhetorical form of anadiplosis (epana- | that, according to its original sense, designates the lepsis, epizeuxis) occurs, indeed, principally in the thought neither as present nor future, nor in any way second part (x!. 1; xli. 27; xliii. 11, 25; xlviii. 11, 15; li. as one to be estimated by time measure, but one to be 9, 12, 17; lii. 1, 11; lvii. 6, 14, 19; 1xii. 10; lxv. 1). But it estimated by the measure of its mode of existence. occurs also not unfrequently in passages of the first That is, the Imperfect designates, not that which has part that are the acknowledged productions of Isa. objectively come into actual existence, but what is only (viii. 9 ; xviii. 2,7; xxi. 11; xxviii. 10, 13; xxix. 1. Comp., present some way subjectively. In other words, 70X, beside xv. 1; xxi. 9; xxiv. 16; xxvi. 3, 15; xxvii. 5; standing at the beginning of the second part, chaxxxviii. 11, 17, 19. Agreeably to the character of this racterizes it as addressed to an ideal church. In itself, section, the Piel on) occurs oftener in the second indeed, 70x' can mean, "he will speak.” Thus it is part: xl. 1; xlix. 13; li. 3, 12, 19; lii. 9; Ixi. 2; lxvi. 13

taken by STIER, V. HOFMANN (Schriftbew. II. 1. p. 91, Ausg. (Pual liv. 11; Ixvi. 13). Piel occurs twice in the first V. J. 1853), and KLOSTERMANN (Zeitschrift f. Luth. Th. u. part: xii. 1; xxii. 4. The passages xlix. 13 ; li. 3, 12;

K. 1876, I. p. 24 sqq.); the last named of whom, howerer, lii. 9; lxvi. 13, are manifest echoes of the present

errs in thinking that the following discourse vers. 3-11 passage-DY with the suffix referring to Jehovah, as I gives the Imperfect the direction toward the future. it suits the contents of the second part, is found there

For what follows, and is separated by intermediate oftener than in the first: comp. iii. 12; x. 2, 24; xxxii. members can never determine the specific sense of a 13, 18, with xl. 1; xliii. 20; xlvii. 6; li. 4, 16; lii. 5 sq. ;

Hebrew verbal form. x' can, also in itself mean frexxviii. 5; xxx. 26; lviii. 1; Ixv. 10, 19, etc.

quent repetition (Delirzscu). But all these significaThe expression ( X08, as an iniroductory form

tions are too special. The subjective force of the Imula, is peculiar to Isaiah ; for it is found only in Isaiah, the context. Here at the beginning we are much too

perfect is capable of various signification according to and that in both parts: 1, 11, 18; xxxiii

. 10; xl. 1, 25; little au fait, to assign to the word a construction as dexli. 21 ; lxvi. 9 (comp. KLEINERT, Echtheit der jesajan, finite as those expositors would do. Here we krow from Weissag, I. p. 239 sqq.). The Imperfect 8' corres

the 8' only this much, that what follows is to be reponds to tho aim of chapters xl.-Ixvi. Comp., the formula with which the Prophet introduces the prophe- garded, not as something that has just gone forth, some cies he addresses to the present church (* 137Uypu toinen tonbe executed at once for the present church, i. 10; ~ DNI i. 24; 920 77in on 2717 ii. 1, ete., parture and aim.-We have said above that by with a comp. vii. 3, 7, 10; viii, 1,5,11; xiv. 28; xx. 2, etc.). 108, suffix referring to Jehovah occurs much oftener in the laken exactly, is for us an untranslatable verbal form, second part than in the first. The same is to be said

-od אלהי .with the suffix referring to Israel אלהים of

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with “ TIJ TX? in the Pentateuch; Exod. xvi. 10; curs twice in the first part (vii. 13 ; xxv. 1), five times in Lev. ix. 6; Num. xiv. 10, etc.

the second (xl. 27; xlix. 4, 6; lvii, 21; Ixi. 10); 13:05x only xlix. 26; lxvi. 16, 23, 24; with following 777' again six times in the first part (i. 10; xxv. 9; xxvi. 13; xxxv. only in Job xxxiv. 15.—The clause 1877 to 197' is to 2; xxxvi. 7; xxxvii. 20), eight times in the second (xl. be referred to what precedes, and not to what follows. 3, 8; xlii. 17; lii. 10; lv. 7; lix, 13; Ixi. 2, 6); 7oks in

For if 187 were to be taken in the sense of spiritual the firsi part properly only once in the sense herë under seeing, of knowing, still it would be a secondary thought

that all flesh shall know that revelation as one that was review (vii. 11 ; beside this xxxvii. 4, 10), six times in the

announced beforehand. The chief thing will be that second (xli. 10, 13; xliii. 3; xlviii. 17; li. 15; Iv. 5); they will verify with their own eyes that revelation.

occurs not at all in the first part, on the other And this seeing shall win them to the LORD. Moreover hand nine times in the second (11. 20, 22; lii. 7; liv. 6; 187 evidently corresponds to the preceding 7772. II. 9, 19; Ixii. 3, 5; lxvi. 9); dbx in the first part Therefore the pronominal object must be supplied to only xxxv. 4, in the second xl. 1, 9; lix. 2; 177be in the

187 as is often the case. The causal clause '7 " 'D') sense meant here only 1. 10; lviii. 2; obs and relates to all that precedes. enn be occur in this sense in neither part. It is quite Ver. 6. Notice the verbal form 10x with a simple natural that the affectionate words of endearment Vav copulativum. It does not say 728"). That would should occur oftener in the book of comfort than in the

be to present this saying as a new chief member of the book of threatening.

consecutio rerum, of the succession of facts that natVer. 2. The question might be raised whether I is urally unfold themselves. That might and perhaps to be construed as a causal particle. But in that case would have happened were it a merely earthly transacxp must be referred to what precedes, and that, say,

tion that is treated. To represent such in the complete

ness of its successive points, it must have read : in the sense of 785px?? (Jer. iv. 5) in order that it may not stand as flat and superfluous. This construc ! . tion is not allowable here because ix op must be closely the Prophet translates us into the spirit world where


time and space cease. There what with us develops one

after another is side by side. For this reason the ProWe must theresore refer ismp to wha: follows, and phet here makes use of a form of speech which other. 3, in the sense of “that,” introduces the objective wise serves only to fill out some trait or to mention acclause. — only here and Dan. viii. 12 is used as companying circumstances: comp. vi. 3; xxi. 7; xxix. feminine. The reason seems to me to lie in this, that sq.; . 8.— In both passages the word is conceived as collective, i. or as designation of the genus : whereas in na-ha C., as designation, not of a single conflict, but of a mul ver. 5 (each flesh) it has individual signification. titude of conflicts, of a long continued period of conflict.th of time (comp. Gen. xxv. 24 ; xxix. 21; Jer. pared with the aoristus gnomicus of the Greeks (nor

Ver. 7. The perfects way and 1.21 must not be comxxv. 12) occurs again in Isaiah only lxv. 20 in the Piel.

even xxvi. 9; comp. my remarks in loc.). For only that -The expression 0:49 occurs elsewhere only Job Hebrew verbal form that has, too, the notion of succesxi. 6; the singular, also, 499, duplicatio, only Job sion, therefore includes that of time, viz. : the imperf.,

with Vav cons., can be compared with the Greek aorist. Ver. 3. Piel 78, “ make straight," occurs again only Here, as in xxvi. 9, the perf., designates timeless ob

jectivity and reality. ') is not "for,” but “when." xlv. 2, 13.-11, regio arida, apart from xxxv. 1, 6,

Were it taken in the sense of " for," then the nature of occurs in part first only xxxiii. 9; whereas in part the wind would be designated as the constant cause of gecond, beside the present it occurs xli. 19; li. 3.

the withering of vegetation. But it withers also when boo occurs in the same sense as here xi. 16; xix. 23 ; its time comes, without wind. But when a hot desert Ixii. 10; comp. xxxiii. 8; xlix. 11; lix. 7. It occurs be. wind (xviii. 4; Jer. iv. 11) blows, then it withers espeside vii. 3; xxxvi. 2. It is "the highway, embankment cially quick. 03 flavit, inflavit, occurs in Kal only here. road, chaussee.”

Hiph. Gen. xv. 11; Ps. cxlvii. 18.—'There is much unVer. 4. how a word of frequent recurrence, espe- certainty about the origin of the particle 12N. GESEN. cially in the second introduction : ii. 9, 11, 12, 17; V. 16; (Thes

. P. 668 under 12), Fuerst. (Lex. under and then . 33; xxix. 4; xxxii. 18; also the antithesis of 17 and 7y? in parallelism occurs very often in part

) and Ewald $ 205 d seem to me to be right in mainfirst: ii. 14; X. 32 ; xxx. 17, 25; xxxi. 4, and somewhat

taining that 738, on account of its derivation from oftener still in part second: xl. 4, 12; xli. 15; xlii. 15; has resident in it an argumentative meaning. Thus

Fuerst. regards it primarily as “a strengthened 12 liv. 10; lv. 12 ; Ixv. 7. - -py in the present sense only therefore in a resumptive apodosis.” He refers in proof here; comp. Jer. xvii. 9.-' xi. 4 in the ethical

to Exod. ii. 14 and to our passage. And in fact Exod. ii. sense ; xlii. 16.

on är.dey., from an alligavit Exod. 14 seems to involve the drawing of a conclusion. For xxviii. 28; xxxix. 21, like juguin from jungere, “ the join after Moses perceived the defiant answer of the Heing,” particularly the union between two mountains, brew man, he cries out: 977 vai 18. Would not u the yoke."

this be most correctly rendered : “is the matter thereVer. 5. 1279 again in Isaiah only xli. 18; lxiii, 14. fore really known ?"—It is clear that the omission of -The expression “ 7i3p is found in Isaiah again owing to arbitrariness, if not to oversight.

ver. 7 in the Alexand. and Vatic, text of the LXX. is

КОРРЕ, , only xxxv. 2; lviii. 8; Ix. 1.

GESENIUS, HITZIG, who regard the whole verse, or at least cur again in Isaiah. The expression seems' to connect 7 b As a gloss, as & very diluted, sense-disturbing

xli. 4.


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